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Strengthening Inter-Cultural and International Relations in Africa through Cultural
                                     Diplomacy
                 (African Summit, Berlin, October 23rd - 26th, 2012)



Towards a Capacity-Building and Apprenticeship
        Education within African Nations
                                                              Abdeslam Badre – Morocco




                     MA Student at ICD – Berlin – abdeslambadre@yahoo.com

                                       icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                               10/25/2012
                                                                               Berlin, 2012-
Outline




I. Africa as We Know It!

II. Education, Apprenticeship and Capacity Building in Africa

III. Will Cultural Diplomacy Heal the Ills in Africa?

IV. The Future Africa




                                     icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                             10/25/2012
                                                                             Berlin, 2012-
I. Africa as We Know It!

             •National, Regional, and Civil Wars
             •Tribal Conflicts
             •Political malaise
             •Diseases
             •Women and Minorities’ Abuses
             •Poverty
             •Child Labor
             •Corruption
             •Lack of Infrastructures
             •Social Inequalities

              icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy   A.Badre -
10/25/2012                                                        3
              Berlin, 2012-
Is it a Heavenly Curse or a Man-Made Misery ??!

                           icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                   10/25/2012
                                                                   Berlin, 2012-
Bishop
                                                          Desmond Tutu

“When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible

and we had the land. They said, 'Let us pray.' We closed

 our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and

                   they had the land.”


                  icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                          10/25/2012
                                                          Berlin, 2012-
Map of Colonial
 Empire Africa




                  icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                          10/25/2012
                                                          Berlin, 2012-
Post-Colonial Africa




                       icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy   A.Badre -
   10/25/2012                                                              7
                       Berlin, 2012-
What happened during the 50 Years
   of African Independence??


    Artificial Borders Created                The Legacy Of European
       By Imperial Europe                           Colonialism




                        The Rise of Neo-colonial
                          Power + Cold War By
                         Proxy - Supporting and
                          Arming Dictatorships




               The Natural Struggle To Rebuild
                 Is Proving Difficult in Africa



                                 icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                         10/25/2012
                                                                         Berlin, 2012-
The post-cold War
Africa and Rise of
    Capitalism                     Unequal
                                 International
                                     Trade




                            Corporate interests
                              and activities in                              Internal
          Corruption
                                                                             conflicts
                              Africa have also
                               contributed to
                            exploitation, conflic
                             t and poverty for
                              ordinary people
                              while enriching
                            African and foreign
                                   elites.


                                                           Corporate
                  Exploitation
                                                           Interests



                                     icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy        A.Badre -
                                                                                               10/25/2012
                                                                               Berlin, 2012-
icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                        10/25/2012
                                        Berlin, 2012-
III. Education, Apprenticeship and
       Capacity Building in Africa


According to the International Development Research Centre
(IDRC), UNESCO and World Bank:
Although literacy rates have greatly improved in Africa over the last few
decades, approximately 40% of Africans over the age of 15, and 50% of women
above the age of 25 remain illiterate.

Illiteracy among individuals over the age of 15 stands at 41 per cent; gender
disparity in education prevails in 75 per cent of countries: For the period 2000–
06, Seychelles had the highest adult literacy rate (92%); Mali and Burkina Faso
had the lowest (24%).

Early childhood development is, in most countries, left to private sector actors
primarily working in urban areas in aid of more advantaged social groups.

Almost 50% of countries may not attain the goal of universal primary
education by 2015; nearly 38 million children are not going to school.
                                   icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                           10/25/2012
                                                                           Berlin, 2012-
III. Education and Capacity Building in
                Africa …

Liberia has the lowest primary student-teacher ratio
of 19; in Mozambique the ratio is 67. Cape Verde has
the highest gross enrollment rate in secondary
education (80%); Niger has the lowest (11%).
The gross secondary school enrollment rate exceeds
20% in half of the countries, yet it remains below 8
per cent in 10 countries.
Higher education and other levels and forms of
education are experiencing problems with respect to
access, quality and even relevance.
In Uganda, a child who quits attending school is three
times more likely to be HIV positive later on in life
than a child who completes basic education.
                       icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                               10/25/2012
                                                               Berlin, 2012-
Brain-Drained Africa
Statistics on brain drain from Africa are scarce but
troubling. According to the International Organization for
Migration (IOM),
Africa has already lost one third of its human capital and is
continuing to lose its skilled personnel at an increasing
rate, with an estimated 20,000 doctors, university lecturers,
engineers and other professionals leaving the continent
annually since 1990.
There are currently over 300,000 highly qualified Africans
in the Diaspora, 30,000 of which have PhDs.
 At the same time, Africa spends US$4 billion per year
(representing 35% of total official development aid to the
continent) to employ some 100,000 Western experts
performing functions generically described as technical
assistance
For example: 90% of private firms in Gabon are managed
by expatriates.
                          icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                  10/25/2012
                                                                  Berlin, 2012-
Brain-Drained Africa
Africa as a whole counts only 20,000 scientists (3.6 % percent of the world total) and its share
in the world’s scientific output has fallen from 0.5% to 0.3% as it continues to suffer the brain
drain of scientists, engineers and technologists.

 The problem has reached quite disturbing proportions in certain African countries, with
Ethiopia ranked first in the continent in terms of rate of loss of human capital, followed by
Nigeria and Ghana. Over the past 10-15 years, about 50% of Ethiopians who went abroad for
training did not return after completing their studies.

According to the estimates of the Presidential Committee on Brain Drain set up in 1988 by the
Babangida administration, Nigeria, between 1986 and 1990, lost over 10,000 academics from
tertiary education institutions alone.

Total estimates, including those who left public, industrial and private organizations, are over
30,000. 64% of Nigerians in the United States aged 25 and older have at least a bachelor’s
degree.

In 1997 only, more than 1,000 professionals left Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe National
Association of Social Workers estimates that 1,500 of the country's 3,000 trained social
workers left for the United Kingdom over the past 10 years.

Basically, African countries are funding the education of their nationals only to see them end
up contributing to the growth of developed countries with little or no return on their investment.
In Kenya, for example, it costs about US$40,000 to train a doctor and US$10,000-15,000 to
educate a university student for 4 years. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre -
                                                                                               10/25/2012
                                                                            Berlin, 2012-
Causes of Brain Drain
             Push Factors                                                    Pull Factors

      Low and eroding wages and                                  Higher wages and income
salaries
      Unsatisfactory living conditions, lack of               Higher standard of living
transport, housing, etc.                                      Better working conditions; job and
                                                        career opportunities and professional
      Under-utilization of qualified personnel;         development
lack of satisfactory working conditions; low
prospect of professional development                         Substantial funds for research, advanced
                                                        technology, modern facilities; availability of
       Lack of research and other                       experienced support staff
facilities, including support staff; inadequacy
of research funds, lack of professional                       Political stability
equipment and tools                                           Modern educational system; prestige of
                                                        ‘foreign training’
       Social unrest, political conflicts and
wars                                                             Meritocracy, transparency
    Declining quality of educational system
    Discrimination in appointments and
promotions
                                                  icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                                          10/25/2012
                                                                                          Berlin, 2012-
Will Cultural
             Diplomacy Heal the
                Ills in Africa?
                 If So, How?



                    icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy   A.Badre -
10/25/2012                                                              16
                    Berlin, 2012-
Future Role of CD in Africa

To Invest in the FUTURE Generation’s
  Education, Apprenticeship Trainings,
     and Capacity Building Programs




                 icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                         10/25/2012
                                                         Berlin, 2012-
The African Leadership Academy
Agent: ALA is a registered non-profit educational charity
developing the next generation of African leaders
ALA was founded in 2004 by Fred Swaniker, Chris Bradford,
Peter Mombaur and AchaLeke.
ALA’s Trustees and Advisors include internationally recognized
luminaries in business, leadership development, education
and social entrepreneurship. 

Since 2008, ALA has used a multifaceted admissions process
to evaluate over 9,000 youth in 42 African nations to select the
380 young leaders in the first four classes – making ALA one
of the most selective educational institutions in the world



                             icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                     10/25/2012
                                                                     Berlin, 2012-
Agenda: The African Leadership
             Academy
African Leadership Academy seeks to enable lasting peace and
prosperity in Africa by developing and connecting the continent’s future
leaders.

African Leadership Academy will develop and connect thousands of
transformative young leaders in the next 50 years. 
African Leadership
Academy achieves this mission through:

(1) A robust admissions process that identifies 100 of Africa’s most
promising young leaders each year, regardless of background

(2) A rigorous two-year pre-university program that enables intellectual
growth and leadership development, including sustained, authentic
practice of entrepreneurial leadership, and

(3) A lifelong ecosystem that connects these leaders with each other and
with transformative opportunities that will expand the scope and scale of
their dreams and impact.


                                   icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                           10/25/2012
                                                                           Berlin, 2012-
ALA: Agenda …
“Our leadership development formula is relatively simple: we
believe that by identifying young leaders with immense
potential, enabling them to practice leadership, and connecting
them with transformative opportunities, we can develop and
empower the next Nelson Mandela, the next
WangariMaathai, and Africa’s Jonas Salk and Steve Jobs.”
                                              ElmahdiOummih - Director - North Africa




                            icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                        10/25/2012
                                                                    Berlin, 2012-
Vehicle & Target Audience

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUj5qSvqNVo




                     icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                             10/25/2012
                                                             Berlin, 2012-
Conclusion
With a well-educated leadership generation and a
well-trained human capital that master the language
of the the 21st, namely information technology, Africa
can engage in:
1) protecting its natural, economic, and cultural
resources from the savage capitalistic greed, and the
international chauvinistic sovereignty
 2) Wisely managing its economic growth toward a
sustainable and stable progress
3) Thus, becoming an active player in the World
economy and decision making

                        icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                10/25/2012
                                                                Berlin, 2012-
Reference:
                       Thank you!
http://www.africagrantmakers.org/PDF/BasicFactsAboutEducation.pdf

1 http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-71762-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html

http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-

URL_ID=31059&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

http://facts.history.com/2009/07/23_africa.html

http://www.jica.go.jp/cdstudy/library/pdf/20071101_33_01.pdf

http://www.geocities.ws/aaumf/BrainDrain_in_Africa.pdf

http://www.africanleadershipacademy.org/nurturing-network/events-conferences/facilities

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nnZLm21wA0



                                        icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy      A.Badre -
                                                                                                10/25/2012
                                                                                Berlin, 2012-

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Towards a Capacity-Building and Apprenticeship Education within African Nations

  • 1. Strengthening Inter-Cultural and International Relations in Africa through Cultural Diplomacy (African Summit, Berlin, October 23rd - 26th, 2012) Towards a Capacity-Building and Apprenticeship Education within African Nations Abdeslam Badre – Morocco MA Student at ICD – Berlin – abdeslambadre@yahoo.com icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 2. Outline I. Africa as We Know It! II. Education, Apprenticeship and Capacity Building in Africa III. Will Cultural Diplomacy Heal the Ills in Africa? IV. The Future Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 3. I. Africa as We Know It! •National, Regional, and Civil Wars •Tribal Conflicts •Political malaise •Diseases •Women and Minorities’ Abuses •Poverty •Child Labor •Corruption •Lack of Infrastructures •Social Inequalities icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 3 Berlin, 2012-
  • 4. Is it a Heavenly Curse or a Man-Made Misery ??! icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 5. Bishop Desmond Tutu “When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. They said, 'Let us pray.' We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land.” icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 6. Map of Colonial Empire Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 7. Post-Colonial Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 7 Berlin, 2012-
  • 8. What happened during the 50 Years of African Independence?? Artificial Borders Created The Legacy Of European By Imperial Europe Colonialism The Rise of Neo-colonial Power + Cold War By Proxy - Supporting and Arming Dictatorships The Natural Struggle To Rebuild Is Proving Difficult in Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 9. The post-cold War Africa and Rise of Capitalism Unequal International Trade Corporate interests and activities in Internal Corruption conflicts Africa have also contributed to exploitation, conflic t and poverty for ordinary people while enriching African and foreign elites. Corporate Exploitation Interests icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 10. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 11. III. Education, Apprenticeship and Capacity Building in Africa According to the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), UNESCO and World Bank: Although literacy rates have greatly improved in Africa over the last few decades, approximately 40% of Africans over the age of 15, and 50% of women above the age of 25 remain illiterate. Illiteracy among individuals over the age of 15 stands at 41 per cent; gender disparity in education prevails in 75 per cent of countries: For the period 2000– 06, Seychelles had the highest adult literacy rate (92%); Mali and Burkina Faso had the lowest (24%). Early childhood development is, in most countries, left to private sector actors primarily working in urban areas in aid of more advantaged social groups. Almost 50% of countries may not attain the goal of universal primary education by 2015; nearly 38 million children are not going to school. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 12. III. Education and Capacity Building in Africa … Liberia has the lowest primary student-teacher ratio of 19; in Mozambique the ratio is 67. Cape Verde has the highest gross enrollment rate in secondary education (80%); Niger has the lowest (11%). The gross secondary school enrollment rate exceeds 20% in half of the countries, yet it remains below 8 per cent in 10 countries. Higher education and other levels and forms of education are experiencing problems with respect to access, quality and even relevance. In Uganda, a child who quits attending school is three times more likely to be HIV positive later on in life than a child who completes basic education. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 13. Brain-Drained Africa Statistics on brain drain from Africa are scarce but troubling. According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Africa has already lost one third of its human capital and is continuing to lose its skilled personnel at an increasing rate, with an estimated 20,000 doctors, university lecturers, engineers and other professionals leaving the continent annually since 1990. There are currently over 300,000 highly qualified Africans in the Diaspora, 30,000 of which have PhDs. At the same time, Africa spends US$4 billion per year (representing 35% of total official development aid to the continent) to employ some 100,000 Western experts performing functions generically described as technical assistance For example: 90% of private firms in Gabon are managed by expatriates. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 14. Brain-Drained Africa Africa as a whole counts only 20,000 scientists (3.6 % percent of the world total) and its share in the world’s scientific output has fallen from 0.5% to 0.3% as it continues to suffer the brain drain of scientists, engineers and technologists. The problem has reached quite disturbing proportions in certain African countries, with Ethiopia ranked first in the continent in terms of rate of loss of human capital, followed by Nigeria and Ghana. Over the past 10-15 years, about 50% of Ethiopians who went abroad for training did not return after completing their studies. According to the estimates of the Presidential Committee on Brain Drain set up in 1988 by the Babangida administration, Nigeria, between 1986 and 1990, lost over 10,000 academics from tertiary education institutions alone. Total estimates, including those who left public, industrial and private organizations, are over 30,000. 64% of Nigerians in the United States aged 25 and older have at least a bachelor’s degree. In 1997 only, more than 1,000 professionals left Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe National Association of Social Workers estimates that 1,500 of the country's 3,000 trained social workers left for the United Kingdom over the past 10 years. Basically, African countries are funding the education of their nationals only to see them end up contributing to the growth of developed countries with little or no return on their investment. In Kenya, for example, it costs about US$40,000 to train a doctor and US$10,000-15,000 to educate a university student for 4 years. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 15. Causes of Brain Drain Push Factors Pull Factors Low and eroding wages and Higher wages and income salaries Unsatisfactory living conditions, lack of Higher standard of living transport, housing, etc. Better working conditions; job and career opportunities and professional Under-utilization of qualified personnel; development lack of satisfactory working conditions; low prospect of professional development Substantial funds for research, advanced technology, modern facilities; availability of Lack of research and other experienced support staff facilities, including support staff; inadequacy of research funds, lack of professional Political stability equipment and tools Modern educational system; prestige of ‘foreign training’ Social unrest, political conflicts and wars Meritocracy, transparency Declining quality of educational system Discrimination in appointments and promotions icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 16. Will Cultural Diplomacy Heal the Ills in Africa? If So, How? icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 16 Berlin, 2012-
  • 17. Future Role of CD in Africa To Invest in the FUTURE Generation’s Education, Apprenticeship Trainings, and Capacity Building Programs icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 18. The African Leadership Academy Agent: ALA is a registered non-profit educational charity developing the next generation of African leaders ALA was founded in 2004 by Fred Swaniker, Chris Bradford, Peter Mombaur and AchaLeke. ALA’s Trustees and Advisors include internationally recognized luminaries in business, leadership development, education and social entrepreneurship. 
 Since 2008, ALA has used a multifaceted admissions process to evaluate over 9,000 youth in 42 African nations to select the 380 young leaders in the first four classes – making ALA one of the most selective educational institutions in the world icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 19. Agenda: The African Leadership Academy African Leadership Academy seeks to enable lasting peace and prosperity in Africa by developing and connecting the continent’s future leaders. African Leadership Academy will develop and connect thousands of transformative young leaders in the next 50 years. 
African Leadership Academy achieves this mission through: (1) A robust admissions process that identifies 100 of Africa’s most promising young leaders each year, regardless of background (2) A rigorous two-year pre-university program that enables intellectual growth and leadership development, including sustained, authentic practice of entrepreneurial leadership, and (3) A lifelong ecosystem that connects these leaders with each other and with transformative opportunities that will expand the scope and scale of their dreams and impact. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 20. ALA: Agenda … “Our leadership development formula is relatively simple: we believe that by identifying young leaders with immense potential, enabling them to practice leadership, and connecting them with transformative opportunities, we can develop and empower the next Nelson Mandela, the next WangariMaathai, and Africa’s Jonas Salk and Steve Jobs.” ElmahdiOummih - Director - North Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 21. Vehicle & Target Audience http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUj5qSvqNVo icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 22. Conclusion With a well-educated leadership generation and a well-trained human capital that master the language of the the 21st, namely information technology, Africa can engage in: 1) protecting its natural, economic, and cultural resources from the savage capitalistic greed, and the international chauvinistic sovereignty 2) Wisely managing its economic growth toward a sustainable and stable progress 3) Thus, becoming an active player in the World economy and decision making icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  • 23. Reference: Thank you! http://www.africagrantmakers.org/PDF/BasicFactsAboutEducation.pdf 1 http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-71762-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php- URL_ID=31059&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html http://facts.history.com/2009/07/23_africa.html http://www.jica.go.jp/cdstudy/library/pdf/20071101_33_01.pdf http://www.geocities.ws/aaumf/BrainDrain_in_Africa.pdf http://www.africanleadershipacademy.org/nurturing-network/events-conferences/facilities http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nnZLm21wA0 icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-