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Printed electronics now_whitepaper

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Printed electronics now_whitepaper

  1. 1. Fall 09The Growing Market for Printed Electronics Printed Electronics Now is an online publica on devoted to the fast growing field of electronic products created through the prin ng process, an emerging industry that promises to revolu onize the methods in which electronic components and systems are manufactured. David Savastano Editor Printed Electronics Now Printed Electronics Now Rodman Publishing 70 Hilltop Road, Suite 3000 Ramsey, NJ 07446 USA Tel: +1 201 825-2552 Fax: +1 201 825-0553
  2. 2. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 1 Growing Opportuni es for Printed ElectronicsContents PageIntroduc on to Printed Electronics 2Photovoltaics 4Printed Ba eries 14Displays and Ligh ng 17RFID 25Conduc ve Materials 37Prin ng Process, Equipment and Printers 422009 Ar cles from Printed Electronics Now 46
  3. 3. 2 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]Printed Electronics Now is an online publica on devoted to the fast growing field of electronicproducts created through the prin ng process, an emerging industry that promises to revolu onizethe methods in which electronic components and systems are manufactured. Printed ElectronicsNow offers a wealth of informa on on the industry, including breaking news, weekly featurear cles and e-newsle er, and a directory of more than 400 PE companies and organiza ons. The Growing Opportuni es for Printed ElectronicsThere is tremendous interest in the field of printed electronics (PE). Essen ally, printed electronicsis just what it sounds like: The intersec on of prin ng and electronics, two extremely largeindustries. The idea is simply that if one can print electronic circuits and devices, it would bemuch less costly and far more efficient in terms of produc on. Right now, IDTechEx, a leading industry consultant, figures sales of printed electronics is a $1.6 billion business. However, they predict the business will grow to US $330 billion in sales by 2027. In the various segments that make up PE, es mates are equally op mis c. Even if those es mates are off by half, $165 billion is s ll a huge business, and we arePhoto courtesy of PolyIC GmbH & Co. KG star ng to see printed electronics blossom in areas as diverse as photovoltaics, RFID,printed ba eries and sensors, displays and ligh ng, and novelty items. RFID and eReaders arecommonplace today; flexible displays, OLEDs and organic photovoltaics are the future.The field is being driven by advances in material and equipment. Tremendous research is beingconducted at companies large and small alike, as well as countless universi es, where some ofthe breakthrough technologies that are now becoming a reality were created.Who is developing and manufacturing printed electronics? IDTechEx says more than 2,200companies and universi es worldwide are involved in printed electronics and RFID. There arehuge interna onal companies like BASF, 3M, Motorola and DuPont in the market, as well astechnologically-rich start-ups like Konarka, Blue Spark Technologies, Novaled, NTERA, Kovio,Plas c Logic and Plextronics, to name but a few. They all have good technologies and a greatstory to tell. Time will tell what their future holds…
  4. 4. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 3One sign of the PE market’s poten al is that venture capital funding remains strong, despite thefact that funding has go en ght since the global recession started. Es mates place venturefunding in PE and RFID at more than $2 billion in the past year, a clear signal that investorsan cipate a major payoff in the future.There has also been somemerger and acquisi onac vity in the field, as majorcompanies such as Motorolaand Prime View Interna onalacquired industry leaders suchas Symbol Technology and EInk, respec vely.Not everyone is going tosucceed, however. Despitehaving excellent technologiesand ini al funding, somepromising companies couldnot get to the commercialstage. NanoIdent/BioIdent,Polymer Vision and Elumin8are a few of the companiesthat did not succeed,but there is s ll hope for Photo courtesy of NTERAthose technologies.“The Growing Market for Printed Electronics” offers a snapshot of the past, present and futureof the rapidly expanding field of printed electronics. It is impossible to know all that is occurringin the market, and it is certain that there is ground-breaking work being conducted at thismoment. What is sure is that printed electronics will become a major part of our daily lives inthe near future. Advantages of printed electronics Solu on-based materials Less expensive than silicon Prin ng High-speed produc on at lower cost Flexible substrates Roll-to-roll produc on, ease of use
  5. 5. 4 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] PhotovoltaicsSimply put, photovoltaics is the transforma on of radia on or solar energy into electrical energythat takes place in solar cells. The photovoltaic effect dates back to 1839, when EdmundBecquerel discovered that he could produce electricity directly from sunlight. As soon as solarradia on strikes cells, a current is generated. Typically, silicon has been used as the key element for the wafers, which are interconnected. When sunlight strikes a PV material, photons will either pass through, be reflected or be absorbed. If the photon is absorbed, its energy will be transferred to an electron inPhoto courtesy of Xunlight Corpora on an atom of the PV material.The primary building block of a PV system is the PV cell, typically a thin, 3-inch square cell.Energy is produced by connec ng single PV cells into modules, which can then be connected toform arrays.Photovoltaic technology has been in development for more than 50 years. Bell Labs is creditedwith crea ng crystalline silicon photovoltaic technology, known as first genera on solartechnology. Silicon-based technology has succeeded in achieving market penetra on, primarilyin grid-connected applica ons where sufficient subsidies are available to offset its high cost. S ll,the process is labor intensive. Since materials represent more than 60 percent of manufacturingcosts and the supply of silicon is finite, the long-term poten al for lowered cost is unlikely todeliver broadly affordable energy.Second genera on photovoltaic technologies, known as thin film technologies, were next to be
  6. 6. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 5developed. These technologies are typically made by deposi ng a thin layer of photo-ac vematerial onto glass or a flexible substrate, such as metal foils or polymers. Compared to siliconwafers, thin film PV is less subject to breakage when manufactured on a flexible foil.Thin film technologies use a wide variety ofdifferent materials. Cadmium telluride (CdTe),amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indiumgallium diselenide (CIGS) are the mostcommon. These are deposited on thesubstrate. While most deposi on is donethrough spu ering, prin ng is being seen asan op on that would allow for highthroughput at cost-efficient means. Industryanalyst firm NanoMarkets projects the CIGSPV market will grow from $403.1 million in Photo courtesy of Konarka Technologies2011 to $2.6 billion in 2016. (MaterialsMarkets for CIGS Photovoltaics, Jan. 2009).IDTechEx es mates that the market for thin film inorganic photovoltaic technologies, not includingcrystalline silicon, will reach at least $20 billion in 2014. (Thin Film Photovoltaics and Ba eries2009-2029, July 2009). According to IDTechEx, thin film held roughly 10% of the overall PV marketin 2008, and is expected to gain an even larger share in the next few years.Thin film PV is less expensive to manufacture due to reduced material, labor, handling, energyconsump on and capital costs. Roll-to-roll manufacturing is the most efficient means of produc on.There remain important challenges to be met with second genera on solar technologies.Efficiencies have yet to reach the necessary levels, and there is concern over the toxicity ofcertain materials.Third genera on photovoltaic technologies are currently under development. These includeorganic photovoltaics (OPV) and dye-sensi zed solar cells (DSSC). OPVs are also striving forgreater efficiencies and life mes.Because of the nature of the PV industry, there are plenty of companies large and small alikethat are working in this space. Venture fund money has been plen ful, and major companies areamong the key investors; General Electric and Honda are among the major interna onalcorpora ons in the field. It is also interes ng to see where these companies have sprouted outfrom; many of these companies have been formed out of research conducted by universi es.According to NanoMarkets, the market for thin film and organic photovoltaics (PV) will be worthmore than $2.4 billion in the year 2011 and $7.5 billion in 2015. (Revised NanoMarkets NumbersShow Thin Film and Organic Photovoltaic Materials Markets at $2.4 billion by 2011, Dec. 2008).The report examines key product sectors that will create revenue opportuni es over the nextseveral years. Integrated building and construc on products (BIPV) such as PV-enabled roofing,sides and window materials are projected to be a major market opportunity.
  7. 7. 6 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]On the materials front, amorphous silicon, the best established of the various thin film PVmaterials, will represent an $800 million opportunity, followed by organic and hybridorganic/inorganic materials and CIS/CIGS. Amorphous Silicon (a-Si)Silicon is the most common material used in the manufacture of solar cells. Typically, single-junc on crystalline silicon is the material of choice for rigid cells. For thin film produc on, thesecond genera on of solar cells, amorphous silicon, a non-crystalline form, is deposited on thesubstrate. While it is not as efficient as crystalline silicon, it offers several dis nct advantages: Itcan be printed on flexible substrates, including plas c and stainless steel, due to its rela vely lowprocessing temperature, and since far less silicon is required, raw material costs are much lower.Key companies in the a-Si thin film PV market include United Solar Ovonic LLC, a division ofEnergy Conversion Devices, Renewable Energy Corpora on ASA and Xunlight. Innovalight hasdeveloped a silicon-based ink it uses for its solar technology. Evergreen Solar is focused on siliconwafers, formed into what it calls a String Ribbon. Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium. It is adirect bandgap semiconductor, which enables it to convert solar energy into electricity moreefficiently. High performance modules are achieved with single junc on, polycrystalline devices.It is usually sandwiched with cadmium sulfide to form a p-n junc on photovoltaic solar cell. CdTeis more cost effec ve than polysilicon-based cells, although it is less efficient. First Solars use ofcadmium telluride over silicon technologies has allowed it to achieve a significantly lower pricepoint, and it has become the largest producer of thin film solar cells.There are concerns over CdTe: It is a toxic chemical, and must be handled and recycled properly.Tellurium is also a rare element, and there could become a problem of supply. CdTe is notprinted at this me. Copper Indium Selenide (CIS)An offshoot of CIGS, CIS (copper indium selenide) has been popularized by AVANCIS, CIS Solarand Würth Solar. It has a high manufacturing cost. AVANCIS claims reaching 9 to 11 percentefficiency with its PowerMax thin film module. Würth Solar opened the first CIS produc onfacili es in 2006. Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide (CIGS)Copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) is a semiconductor material composed of copper,indium, gallium and selenium. The material is a solid solu on of copper indium selenide (CIS)and copper gallium selenide. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Na onal Renewable EnergyLaboratory (NREL) has reached a high of 19.9 percent efficiency using CIGS-based technology,the highest reached by thin film materials. It is a direct band-gap semiconductor.
  8. 8. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 7There are a large number of companies in theCIGS market. Ascent Solar Technologies, Inc.announced in August 2009 that it hasachieved its ini al target module efficiencygoal of 10.0 percent. Bosch Solar Energy,GroupSat, HelioVolt, Honda Soltec Co., Ltd.,ICP Solar, Maisole, Nanosolar, Solibro GmbHand SoloPower are among the other keyplayers in the CIGS field.HelioVolt and Nanosolar are among thecompanies that are presently prin ng their Photo courtesy of Nanosolarphotovoltaic cells. Dye-Based Solar Cells (DSSC)Another technology of interest is the dye-based solar cell, which has its founda ons in theresearch conducted at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland in 1988by Dr. Michael Graetzel. The idea was to recreate photosynthesis u lizing nanotechnology toabsorb and conduct solar energy. G24 Innova ons and PECCELL Technologies are successfullydeveloping flexible versions of DSSC, while Dyesol’s systems are glass-based. G24i recently madeits first deliveries of DSSC. Organic Photovoltaics (OPV)Organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) use organic electronic materials for light absorp on and chargetransport. Low cost, large-scale produc on and flexibility of organic molecules make themappealing for the PV market. The op cal absorp on coefficient of organic molecules is high, so alarge amount of light can be absorbed with a small amount of materials. Flexibility is also a keyadvantage. The main disadvantages of OPV cells are rela vely low efficiency and low life mescompared to other thin film technologies.There are a number of intriguing innovators in this field, including Konarka, Heliatek GmbH,PowerFilm and Solarmer.Key Manufacturers:Ascent Solar Technologies: ITN Energy Systems established Ascent Solar Technologies in 2005 tomanufacture thin film monolithically integrated CIGS flexible photovoltaic modules. Ascent Solarannounced in August 2009 that it has achieved its ini al target module efficiency goal of 10.0%for its modules. Ascent Solar plans to use a plas c film coated with thin film PV to turn naturalsunlight into power for electricity. Its flexible, lightweight solar panels plan to be more flexibleand affordable than tradi onal rigid solar panels.
  9. 9. 8 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]AVANCIS GmbH & Co. KG: Located in Torgau, Germany, AVANCIS is a joint venture betweenSaint-Gobain and Shell. AVANCIS opened up its produc on facili es in Germany in 2008.AxunTek Solar Energy: AxunTek Solar Energy was the first company in Taiwan to have developedcu ng-edge CIGS thin film technology for green energy.Bosch Solar Energy AG: Bosch Solar Energy is the solar energy division of the Bosch Group,headquartered in Gerlingen, Germany and comprising more than 275 subsidiary companies.Bosch Solar Energy is a leading provider of crystalline and thin film amorphous silicon-based PVproducts. Bosch Solar Energy was formed by the June 2008 acquisi on of ersol Solar Energy.Prior to that, Bosch acquired majority stakes in aleo solar AG and in Johanna Solar TechnologyGmbH. aleo manufactured modules on the basis of in-sourced mono- and polycrystalline solarcells. Johanna Solar Technology GmbH, Brandenburg at the Havel, started developing solarmodules based on thin film CIGS cells in 2006, going into produc on at the end of 2008.CIS Solar: A specialist in CIS thin film PV, CIS Solar, located in Brossard, Quebec, has more than40 years of experience in adap ng crystal growth in electrodeposi on manufacturing technique.The company can deposit solar cells on different substrate material, allowing it to make bothflexible and rigid solar cells.DayStar Technologies: This Santa Clara, CA-based company is focused on thin film CIGS, glass-on-glass laminate modules with an eye toward the grid- ed u li es marketplace. The companyrecently underwent management changes and has moved away from developing foil-basedproducts, concentra ng instead on glass substrates, and is trying to raise significant capital tobegin produc on.Dyesol: Headquartered in Queanbeyan NSW, Australia, Dyesol is a leader in the DSSC field, mostrecently opening Dyesol-Timo, a joint venture in Korea. The company reports that it establishedthe world’s first DSSC prototype manufacturing. Dyesol’s products are glass-based.EMCORE Corpora on: Based in Albuquerque, NM, EMCORE offers a broad por olio ofcompound semiconductor-based products for the broadband, fiber op c, satellite and solarpower markets. EMCOREs photovoltaic segment provides products for both satellite andterrestrial applica ons. For satellite applica ons, EMCORE offers high efficiency gallium arsenide(GaAs) solar cells, covered interconnect cells (CICs) and panels. For terrestrial applica ons,EMCORE is adap ng its high-efficiency GaAs solar cells for use in solar concentrator systems.Energy Conversion Devices (ECD): United Solar Ovonic LLC, a division of ECD, is headquarteredin Auburn Hills, MI. The company uses amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy thin film technology.Because a-Si alloy absorbs light more efficiently than its crystalline counterpart, the a-Si solarcell thickness can be 100 mes less than that of conven onal cells, thereby significantlyreducing materials cost. By u lizing a flexible, stainless steel substrate and UV polymer-basedencapsulates, PV products u lizing UNI-SOLAR’s technology can be very lightweight, flexibleand durable. The cell is deposited using a vapor-deposi on process at low temperatures.Applica ons include roofing, roof shade and parking structures. UNI-SOLAR has 250 MWinstalled worldwide.
  10. 10. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 9Evergreen Solar: Located in Marlboro, MA, Evergreen Solar is noted for its String Ribbon solarpanels, which u lize its proprietary, low-cost silicon wafer technology. Founded in 1994,Evergreen Solar manufactures its wafers, cells and panels under one roof for ul mate qualitycontrol. With its proprietary technique, two high-temperature filaments are pulled ver callythrough a silicon melt, and the molten silicon spans and solidifies between the filaments.First Solar: Based in Tempe, AZ, First Solar, Inc. is the world’s largest producer of thin film solarmodules. Founded in 1999 as Solar Cells Inc., First Solar was the first company to integratenon-silicon, thin film solar. A public company, First Solar had revenues of $1.2 billion in 2008,nearly $500 million over 2007’s sales total. The company broke the $1 per wa manufacturingcost barrier in the fourth quarter of 2008, and is now claiming a $0.87 per wa manufacturingcost. First Solar now has a total capacity of more than 1 GW, and average module conversionefficiency was 10.9 percent.G24 Innova ons Limited: Located in Cardiff, Wales, G24i became opera onal in 2007. Using itsroll-to-roll manufacturing process, which G24i compares to inkjet prin ng, it transforms alightweight roll of metal foil into a 100-pound half-mile of G24i’s dye sensi zed thin film in lessthan three hours. This material is rugged, flexible, lightweight and generates electricity evenindoors and in low light condi ons. G24i’s advanced cell is silicon- and cadmium-free. It is said tobe ideal for mobile devices and to generate electricity in remote loca ons.Global Solar Energy, Inc.: Since 1996, Global Solar Energy has been a leader in CIGS thin filmsolar technology, specializing in flexible substrates. Located in Tucson, AZ, GSE manufacturesfoldable Flex Portable Solar Chargers on stainless steel substrates for outdoors, commuter andmilitary applica ons as well as the BIPV market. The company has large-scale manufacturingfacili es in Tucson (40 MW) as well as Berlin, Germany (35 MW), both of which opened in 2008.The company achieves greater than 10 percent efficiencies in its produc on runs.GroupSat: Headquartered in China, GroupSat has evolved into a major producer of thin filmflexible CIGS solar cells, which are u lized in a variety of applica ons in the corporate,construc on, military, consumer and OEM markets. Some of GroupSat’s customers include theU.S. military, the United Na ons, the city of Dubai and the Beijing Train Sta on.Heliatek GmbH: Located in Dresden, Germany, Heliatek GmbH was founded in 2006 by Dr.Mar n Pfeiffer, Prof. Dr. Karl Leo and Dr. Bert Männig from the Ins tut für AngewandtePhotophysik (IAPP), University Dresden, and the Abteilung Organische Chemie II, University ofUlm, Jens Drechsel, CreaPhys GmbH and Dr. h.c Harald Eggers. Heliatek develops organic solarcells consis ng of organic dyes, which are synthesized from hydrocarbons. Those solar cells arecharacterized by low cost, short energy payback me and inexhaus ble availability of rawmaterials. These are highly flexible and lightweight modules, as the future product is going to bemanufactured on foil substrates in a con nuous vacuum coa ng process. Recently, FraunhoferISE cer fied a power conversion efficiency of 6.07% for a tandem solar cell using Heliatek’stechnology. Heliatek plans to increase the conversa on efficiency to 10%. Among its partners areBASF, Bosch and Novaled.
  11. 11. 10 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]HelioVolt: Based in Aus n, TX, HelioVolt has a racted more than $100 million in investment.Using prin ng, HelioVolt manufactures in volumes at speeds 10 to 100 mes faster than currenttechnology and with 100 mes thinner photovoltaic than conven onal silicon. Its marketsinclude roofing, architectural glass, curtain wall systems, louvers, windows, skylights and atria.HelioVolt u lizes its FASST manufacturing process, based on semiconductor prin ng, which wasinvented by HelioVolt founder Dr. Billy J. Stanbery, an expert within the interna onal PVcommunity in the materials science of CIGS and related compound semiconductors. Thecompany is preparing to ramp up produc on in late 2009.Honda Soltec Co., Ltd.: A wholly-owned solar cell subsidiary of Honda, Honda Soltec Co., Ltd.began sales throughout Japan of thin film CIGS solar cells for public and industrial use inOctober 2008.ICP Solar Technologies Inc.: Founded in 1988, Montreal-based ICP Solar is a leader in a-Si andCIGS technologies, notably in its Sunsei brand of products. In the past two years, ICP Solar hasbeen ac vely engaged in expanding its opportuni es. In 2008, ICP Solar signed a developmentagreement with Ascent Solar, focusing on the development of mobile solar power productsu lizing Ascent’s high efficiency CIGS solar technology for distribu on throughout ICP Solar’sinterna onal distribu on network. In 2009, ICP Solar signed a global licensing agreement withEnergizer that will grant ICP Solar the global rights to its trade name for solar-powered chargersand related products for the next three years.Innovalight: Innovalight, Sunnyvale, CA is developing products for the residen al and commercialroo op market. Innovalight’s first product is the marriage of the crystalline wafer pla orm with anew silicon processing technique. This “silicon on silicon” solu on yields high efficiency at a lowcost while virtually elimina ng any reliability risk that is common with products incorpora ngunproven materials. Future products will leverage the company’s demonstrated contactless inkjetmanufacturing pla orm. The company is developing a pla orm of low-cost, high-performancesilicon-based solar cells based on silicon nanotechnology and inkjet technology.Konarka Technologies: Located in Lowell, MA, Konarka Technologies is recognized throughoutthe world as a leader in flexible OPV technology. Konarka was founded in 2001 by a team ofscien sts at UMass Lowell, led by the late Dr. Sukant Tripathy, an interna onally known materialsscien st and professor at UMass Lowell, Dr. Alan Heeger, a 2000 Nobel Laureate in Chemistryand Howard Berke, Konarka’s execu ve chairman. The company u lizes a photo-reac vepolymer material developed by Dr. Heeger. This proprietary material can be printed or coatedinexpensively onto flexible substrates using roll-to-roll manufacturing. The companys technicalinnova ons have led to investments of more than $150 million in private capital and $20 millionin government research grants to date.In 2008, Konarka introduced Power Plas c to the commercial market. In 2009, it opened its large-scale manufacturing plant in New Bedford, MA, retrofi ng an old Polaroid plant. Power Plas c iscomprised of several thin layers: A photo-reac ve printed layer, a transparent electrode layer, aplas c substrate and a protec ve packaging layer. A significant advantage is that it can be producedusing exis ng coa ng and prin ng equipment, and does not require construc on of a new facility.
  12. 12. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 11Miasolé: Located in Santa Clara, CA, MiaSolés stated objec ve is to manufacture quality thinfilm CIGS solar products in high volume and at cost points that enable solar to reach grid parity.Miasolé reached 10.2 percent efficiency in 2008. Miasolé, which planned to expand its capacityfrom 40 megawa s to 100 megawa s in 2009, claims its panels have efficiencies of between 9and 10 percent.Nanosolar: Based in San Jose, CA, Nanosolar has developed and commercialized a low-cost printableCIGS solar cell manufacturing process. Nanosolar was started in 2002, and reportedly received thelargest amount in a round of venture capital technology funding among U.S. companies during Q22006, with $100 million. It also received the largest amount of financing of any private company in2008, with $500 million total. Nanosolar has built a large produc on facility in San Jose and inGermany, with an annual capacity of 650 megawa s, enough to roughly triple total American solarcell produc on. The company started selling panels in late 2007, and plans to sell them at around $1per wa . The key technology is a semiconductor ink that Nanosolar claims will enable it to producesolar cells with a basic prin ng process, rather than using slow and expensive high-vacuum based thinfilm deposi on processes. Earlier this year, Nanosolar reported that NREL independently verifiedseveral of Nanosolar’s cell foils to be as efficient as 16.4%, making it the most efficient printed solarcell of any kind as well as the most efficient cell on a truly low-cost metal foil (with a material cost ofonly a cent or two per square foot and mil thickness). In terms of its current baseline produc onprocess, Nanosolar’s best produc on rolls now achieve higher than 11% median efficiency.New Energy Technologies, Inc.: New Energy Technologies, Washington, D.C., is focused onemerging next-genera on alterna ve and renewable energy technologies. Previously Oc llionCorp., New Energy Technologies has two main technologies. SolarWindow is an organic solararray technology that could adapt exis ng home and office glass windows into ones capable ofgenera ng electricity from solar energy without losing significant transparency or requiringmajor changes in manufacturing infrastructure. Mo onPower is a system to harness the kine cenergy of vehicles in mo on.Odersun AG: Headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany, Odersun AG develops and manufacturesflexible thin film silicon-free solar cells and modules using copper-indium-disulphidesemiconductors on copper tape. Its manufacturing process enables the company to producesolar cells that can be assembled into solar modules of virtually any size or any power, in flexibleor glass packaging. This adaptability is decisive for applica ons of building integratedphotovoltaics (BiPV).PECCELL Technologies: Established in 2004 as a venture company of Toin University ofYokohama, Japan, PECCELL’s name represents the photoelectrochemical cell, which belongs to afield of photochemistry and electrochemistry. Low-cost dye-sensi zed photocells manufacturedby using a flexible plas c film base are one of the promising devices PECCELLs technology isfocusing on. For this research, PECCELL sells a unique TiO2 coa ng paste to fabricate nano-porous electrodes on plas c substrate.PowerFilm, Inc.: Formerly known as Iowa Thin Film Technologies, PowerFilm was founded in 1988by Dr. Frank Jeffrey and Dr. Derrick Grimmer, both former 3M research physicists. Since 1988, thecompany has focused on developing thin film solar panel technology and an industrial scale
  13. 13. 12 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]manufacturing process to produce low cost solar panels on a high volume basis. Elements of thecompanys low cost technology and manufacturing process include the use of a durable, flexibleplas c substrate; roll-to-roll manufacturing to minimize handling costs; amorphous silicon toavoid dependence on the silicon wafer market cycle; and printed interconnec on to automate thecell connec on process. PowerFilm is in the process of expanding produc on. PowerFilm has alsosought to leverage its core roll-to-roll manufacturing competence to develop addi onal thin filmsemiconductor devices. The company has formed a technology partnership with Hewle Packardfor the development of flexible, low cost backplane drivers for next genera on flat panel displays.The U.S. Display Consor um has funded this development program.Renewable Energy Corpora on ASA: REC asa, Sandvika, Norway, is composed of three divisions.REC Silicon and REC Wafer are among the worlds largest producers of polysilicon and wafers forsolar applica ons. REC Solar is a rapidly growing manufacturer of high performance solar cellsand modules, and engages in project development ac vi es in selected segments of the PVmarket. The company focuses its efforts on the tradi onal solar cell market. REC is currentlybuilding the world’s largest wafer, cell and module produc on facility, located in Singapore.When the facility is completed and opera onal in 2010, REC cell manufacturing will triple toa total produc on of 780 MW.Solarmer Energy Inc.: Solarmer Energy Inc. develops transparent, flexible plas c solar panels.These solar panels have the poten al to reduce the cost of renewable energy down to 12-15cents/kWh and less than $1/wa , according to the company. Solarmer was founded in 2006 tocommercialize this technology, which was developed by Professor Yang Yang at the CaliforniaNanoSystems Ins tute at UCLA. The company has licensed this technology from UCLA andaddi onal technology developed by Professor Luping Yu at the University of Chicago. Solarmer istarge ng three major applica ons areas for plas c solar panels: Consumer and portableelectronics, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), and smart fabrics. The most a rac ve areain the short-term is portable electronics, where there is a clear need for an alterna ve orsupplement to exis ng ba ery technology. With every new feature added to a cell phone, laptopcomputer, digital music player, portable video game player, more energy is required. Mostrecently, Solarmer Energy received a $450,000 contract from the FlexTech Alliance to design andsynthesize high-efficiency donor polymer materials for OPV uses, and the company is now theworld record holder for plas c solar cell and plas c solar panel efficiencies. Solarmer has beenimproving its cell efficiency, announcing that it has achieved 6.77% plas c solar cell efficiency,cer fied by the Na onal Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and 7.6%, cer fied by theNewport Corpora ons Technology and Applica ons Centers Photovoltaic (TAC-PV) Lab.Solibro GmbH: A joint venture between Germany-based Q-Cells SE and Sweden-based SolibroAB, the CIGS technology of Solibro is based on extensive research and development carried outat Uppsala University, which resulted in world class results, such as the current world recordCIGS mini-module with 16.6% efficiency, and were the basis for the spin-off company Solibro AB.Development in Uppsala is con nuing with expanded resources at Solibro Research AB, asubsidiary of Solibro GmbH. In June 2009, Q-Cells increased its stake in Solibro to 100 percent byacquiring Solibro AB. Solibro has reported 10 to 11 percent efficiency in its modules.
  14. 14. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 13SoloPower: Based in San Jose, CA, SoloPower announced in June 2009 that it had become thefirst U.S. manufacturer of flat-plate PV modules built from flexible CIGS cells to have its productcer fied under the ANSI/UL 1703 standard. The Na onal Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)has measured the efficiency of this flat-plate module product at 10.07%. The SoloPowerelectropla ng method provides near 100% materials u liza on in a low cost, roll-to-roll process.Its goal is to begin high volume produc on in 2010.Telio Solar Technologies, Inc.: Located in Los Altos Hills, CA, Telio Solar Technologies is a 2008start-up focusing on development and manufacturing of CIGS thin film solar cells. Telio Solar hasrecently completed the construc on of pilot line for manufacturing of the CIGS solar cell with asize of 300mm x 300mm. The large scale manufacturing facility for the size of 600mm x 1200mmmodule will become opera onal in the first half of 2009 with a capacity of 10MW and in 2010with a capacity of 30MW.Würth Solar: Headquartered in Germany, Würth Solar is a company in the Würth ElektronikGroup, which, in turn, is an independent subsidiary of the Würth Group. Founded in 1999,Würth Solar was the first company worldwide to begin large-scale produc on of GeneCIS solarmodules in its specially built CISfab solar factory in Schwäbisch Hall in 2006. It u lizes basic CISresearch by the Ins tute of Physical Electronics (ipe), Stu gart and development of theproduc on technology on a laboratory scale by Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-undWasserstoffforschung Baden-Wür emberg, Germany (ZSW). It has 30 MW produc on capacity.Xunlight Corpora on: Located in Toledo, OH, Xunlight Corpora on and its academic partner, Dr.Xunming Dengs Thin Film Silicon Photovoltaic Laboratory at the University of Toledo, have beenleaders in -Si photovoltaic technologies, including amorphous silicon (a-Si). The companydevelops thin film silicon-based photovoltaic products and manufacturing equipment for high-throughput produc on of flexible and lightweight photovoltaic modules at low cost. In June2009, Xunlight completed the installa on of its first 25 MW wide-web, roll-to-roll photovoltaicmanufacturing equipment for the produc on of high-efficiency thin film silicon PV modules. Thecompany has received major grants from U.S. Department of Energy and NREL, Air ForceResearch Laboratory, Na onal Science Founda on, and Ohio Department of Development, aswell as more than $40 million of ins tu onal investments. Xunlight Corpora ons principal PVproducts are flexible and lightweight. These modules are made with flexible lamina on,deposited on thin stainless steel substrates. The modules are encapsulated in UV stabilizedpolymers, crea ng durable, weather resistant chargers that perform well in diverse condi ons.
  15. 15. 14 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] Printed Ba eriesThe field of printed ba eries is ideally suited for PE. While certainly more powerful, tradi onallithium and alkaline ba eries are limited by their size, form factor and higher cost for use insmaller applica ons. A thin film, flexible ba ery can be used in areas where the applica onneeds to be shaped to fit a non-linear contour, such as for RFID tags, smart cards and packagingand sensors, and could be produced at a cost where it can be used in disposable applica ons. Aprinted ba ery takes that thin film one step further.Ba ery-assisted passive (BAP) technology is a promising field. BAP labels don’t require energyfrom the reader to set off the signal, but have an integrated power source that provides thenecessary signal. This drama cally improves the backsca ering, enabling much greater readrates and ul mately reliability. It is a poten ally sizable market as well. NanoMarkets analysts predict that the thin film and printable ba eries market will climb from $13.9 million in 2007 to more than $5.6 billion by 2015. (Thin Film and Printed Ba eries Markets, Oct. 2007.) Much of the work that has been done in the field of thin film lithium ba eries comes from research done by Oak Ridge Na onal Laboratories (FET, Cymbet, Excellatron).Photo courtesy of Blue Spark TechnologiesAn ideal example of the possibili es for printed ba eries can be seen in the cosme cs market.Estee Lauder developed a product, Perfec onist Power Correc ng Patch for Deeper Eye
  16. 16. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 15Lines/Wrinkle, in which a printed ba ery made by Power Paper s mulates the pores of the skinthrough iontophoresis, allowing the product to be er be absorbed.There are a number of key players in the thin film and printed ba eries space. Outside of theOak Ridge Na onal Laboratories technology-based companies previously men oned, theseinclude Blue Spark Technologies, a spin-off of Eveready Ba ery Company; Enfucell Ltd., PowerPaper Ltd. (and its Power ID subsidiary), Solicore and VARTA Microba ery. Company Loca on Technology Blue Spark Technologies USA Carbon zinc Cymbet Corpora on USA Lithium ion Enfucell Ltd. Finland Zinc manganese dioxide Excellatron Solid State LLC USA Lithium ion Front Edge Technology USA Lithium ion Planar Energy Devices USA Lithium ion Power Paper Ltd. Israel Zinc manganese dioxide Solicore USA Lithium polymer VARTA Microba ery GmbH Germany LithiumLeading manufacturers of printed ba eries and their technology.Key Manufacturers:Blue Spark Technologies: An industry leader in thin, flexible printed ba ery solu ons, thisWestlake, OH-based spin-off of Eveready Ba ery Company has developed carbon-zinc ba eries.It was formed in 2003 as Thin Ba ery Technology, and became Blue Spark in 2008. Its ba eriesare used in applica ons ranging from food and beverage, pharmaceu cal, chemical, healthcareand medical diagnos cs, to smart cards, radio frequency (RF)-based sensors and RFID tags,interac ve packaging, merchandising displays, consumer products and novelty items. Blue Sparkrecently completed $1.5 million of Series B funding to ramp up produc on.Cymbet Corpora on: Founded in 2000 and located in Elk River, MN, Cymbet is a leader in thinfilm ba ery technology and energy harves ng power management solu ons. It has developedrechargeable thin film lithium ba eries, notably the Cymbet EnerChip. They are ideal for sensorsand hybrid-RFID systems.
  17. 17. 16 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]Enfucell Ltd.: Founded in 2002 from research conducted by the Automa on Laboratory of TheHelsinki University of Technology, this Finland-based company manufactures So Ba ery printedba eries, an ideal source for transdermal drug delivery, smart cards, func onal packaging andRFID systems. So Ba ery is a flexible and thin 1.5 V power source op mally u lized indisposable and short life me products. It is made of low cost industrial environmentally friendlymaterials such as zinc, manganese dioxide and zinc chloride, which are disposable with otherhousehold waste.Excellatron Solid State LLC: Based in Atlanta, GA, Excellatron specializes in thin film solid staterechargeable lithium ion ba eries for RFID, smart cards and military applica ons.Front Edge Technology: Established in 1994 and located in Baldwin Park, CA, Front EdgeTechnology (FET) is noted for its NanoEnergy ultra-thin rechargeable lithium ba eries forcard applica ons.Planar Energy Devices: Located in Gainesville, FL, Planar Energy u lizes advanced lithium iontechnology to reduce the size of tradi onal ba eries. It is a 2007 spin-off of NREL. The companyis seeking federal s mulus money to expand its opera ons into a shu ered lithium ion ba eryfactory in Gainesville, FL, and would reportedly be the only such plant outside of Asia.Power Paper Ltd.: A leading developer of printed ba ery technology, Power Paper is based inIsrael. Founded in 1997, Power Paper specializes in environmentally friendly patches poweredby an embedded ultra-thin printed ba ery that are u lized in cosme cs, such as an -wrinklingand an -aging applica ons, RFID, consumer electronics and pharma applica ons. Thecompany’s 1.5V/3V+ ba ery with ink-based energy cells are environmentally friendly as theyare zinc/manganese dioxide-based. PowerPaper’s collabora ons include Antonio Puig, BodyEste c S.L., Estee Lauder, Germain de Capuccini, H2O Plus, Parfumerie Douglas GmbH andUniversity Medical. PowerID Ltd., a subsidiary that started in 2004 and spun-off of Power PaperLtd. in 2007, is a leader in the BAP RFID field.Solicore: Based in Lakeland, FL, Solicore’s Flexion product por olio of advanced ultra-thin,flexible, lithium polymer ba eries are ideal for powered cards, RFID and micro medical devices.The company recently raised $13.3 million in financing, led by Rogers Corpora on, allowing it tokeep up with demand for its products; Solicore produced more than one million ba eries in thefirst quarter of 2009.VARTA Microba ery GmbH: One of the largest world ba ery manufacturers, Ellwangen,Germany-based VARTA produces ba eries in many chemistries. VARTA Microba ery is a leaderin thin film ba eries, developing ultra thin lithium-based ba eries for display, banking, loyalty,one- me passport and other access RFID cards, and is very strong in Europe.
  18. 18. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 17 Displays and Ligh ng One of the key growth areas and opportuni es for printed electronics is in the display market, where companies range the gamut from giants such as Eastman Kodak, Philips, DuPont, Sony, Samsung and Osram to start-ups such as E Ink, eMagin, Novaled, Plas c Logic and others. Flexible displays, such as those being designed in conjunc on with the U.S. military at universi es such as Arizona State University, offer great poten al. Meanwhile, the eReader market and cell phone segments, among others, u lize display technology. Point-of purchase (POP)Photo courtesy of Arizona State University displays are another area of interest.The area of greatest opportunity remains the flat screen home entertainment sector. All of themajor players in the market – Sony, Samsung, Toshiba, Eastman Kodak and others – see theadvantages of prin ng light emi ng diodes (LED) and organic light emi ng diodes (OLED). Inaddi on to the cost differen al of prin ng, LEDs and OLEDs are thought be offer be erperformance characteris cs. Es mates place the investment in this sector in the billions of dollars.By prin ng and coa ng OLEDs and LEDs, produc on will drama cally increase while materialcosts will be lowered.LEDs and OLEDs share the same general approach, in that they both generate light throughsemiconductors, essen ally s mula ng electrons with electricity, in a wide range of colors.OLEDs use organic semiconductors, while LEDs u lize inorganic materials. LEDs are formed as aseries of individual pixels, while OLEDs are more of a flat, even effect.However, the market has yet to see much in the way of big-screen products, as the cost has yetto come down.
  19. 19. 18 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] Ligh ng is another area where OLED and LED should flourish. The importance of cu ng down energy costs has led the major ligh ng companies, notably OSRAM, GE and Philips, to develop technologies in this field. The ques on is how prin ng will fit in; industry experts say that printed strips of ligh ng will eventually become the norm. Electroluminescent ligh ng (EL) is another area of opportunity. There are plenty of success stories, including E InkPhoto courtesy of Novaled AG in the flexible display market, Pelikon (now owned by MFLEX) in the area of touch screens, Novaled and others. LEDThin film LEDs also offer opportunity for PE manufacturers, although they are yet to be printed.As research con nues to make gains, the overall costs of LEDs con nues to come down while thetechnology advances. While LED ligh ng is considered the precursor to OLED, it is movingforward. Mitsubishi Electric Corpora on is just one of the many companies in LED, as theyspecialize in arena ligh ng and other large-scale uses of LED. OLEDOne of the main areas of research for PE is in the field of OLED ligh ng and displays, although ithas yet to get off the ground in terms of commercializa on. Compared to liquid crystal displays,(LCD), OLEDs are thought to have the advantages of providing sharper colors, brighter contrastand a wider viewing angle at a lower cost, and have the ability of flexibility.Generally speaking, OLEDs use substances that emit red, green, blue or white light, offering thepossibili es of millions of colors. OLEDs are made up of several thin layers of materials, whichoperate on the a rac on between posi vely (anode) and nega vely charged (cathode) layers. Asenergy passes between layers, the organic material between the layers is excited and emits lightvisible through an outermost layer of glass. The pixels essen ally are turned on and off. Dopantsare used to boost the efficiency and control of color output.OLED research dates back to the late 1970s, when Eastman Kodak Company scien st Dr. ChingTang discovered that sending an electrical current through a carbon compound caused thesematerials to glow. Dr. Tang and Steven Van Slyke con nued their research, and in 1987, theyreported OLED materials that became the founda on for OLED displays. Philips traces its researchof OLEDs for displays back to 1991, and started focusing on OLED ligh ng applica ons in 2004.Philips claims to have launched the first OLED ligh ng produc on line, in Aachen, Germany.Analysts see strong growth ahead for OLEDs. NanoMarkets claims that the market for OLED ligh ngwill reach $9.7 billion in 2016. (An Opportunity Analysis for OLED Ligh ng: 2009 to 2016, Sept.
  20. 20. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 19 Source: DisplaySearch Q3’09 Quarterly OLED Shipment and Forecast Report2009). DisplaySearch reported that OLED display sales reached a record high of $192 million in thesecond quarter of 2009, and predicts $6.2 billion in OLED display sales in 2016. (OLED Displays FindSuccess in Mobile Phones with Q2’09 Revenue at $192M, Up 22% Y/Y, Sept. 2009.) P-OLED DisplaysOne of the interes ng offshoots of OLEDs is polymer light emi ng diodes (P-OLEDs). P-OLEDsdate back to 1989, when researchers at the Cavendish Laboratory of Cambridge Universitydiscovered that they could u lize conjugated polymers to produce OLEDs.For P-OLEDs, an amorphous film of P-OLED material is sandwiched between two electrodesforming the anode and cathode on a transparent substrate. Electronic charges are transportedand injected into the polymer from the electrodes.The Cambridge University researchers found that polyphenylene vinylene (PPV) emits yellow-green light when sandwiched between a pair of electrodes, which would allow the displaysthemselves to emit their own light.Because P-OLEDs are an emissive technology, it is extremely energy efficient and can beproduced in an ultra-thin fashion, using glass or plas c as the substrate, with no need forbacklights or filters. P-OLEDs also offer high brightness poten al, wide color gamut and longlife mes. This also allows for less expensive manufacturing costs. As performance of colorpolymers has improved, commercial applica ons are well within reach.In order to commercialize this technology, the university spun out Cambridge Display Technology(CDT) in 2002. CDT furthered development in this promising field. In September 2007, CDT wasacquired by Sumitomo Chemical, and as a result, Suma on was spun off. Add-Vision also is in theP-OLED space, having licensed CDT’s technology.P-OLEDs are largely targeted at the flat panel display market as replacements for LCD and plasmadisplays. Add-Vision, Inc., on the other hand, adapted P-OLED display technology to the low
  21. 21. 20 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]resolu on display market, using low-cost conven onal prin ng processes. Not all companiesusing P-OLEDs have been successful. For example, MicroEmissive Displays went out of businessin 2008. E-Paper The area of electronic paper has go en much a en on, thanks to the high-profile October 2008 cover of Esquire Magazine and the Sept. 18, 2009 Entertainment Weekly display, but electronic paper, or E-paper, covers so much more. E-paper displays are found on eReaders, cellphones, displays, ba ery indicators and so much more. The poten al market for E-paper is sizable: According to IDTechEx, in 2010, the E-paper market is expected to be $131 million; by 2014, IDTechEx an cipates the market for the display component (not the actual price of the display itself) to be more than $1.17 billion, and upwards of $7 billion by 2020. (E-Paper Displays: Markets,Photo courtesy of Plas c Logic Forecasts, Technologies 2010-2020, Sept. 2009).According to DisplaySearch, the total e-paper display market will grow to 1.8 billion units and $9.6billion in revenues in 2018, from 22 million units and $431 million in revenues in 2009. (E-PaperDisplays Report, Aug. 2009).Much of this will be driven by the growth of eReaders, which u lize E-paper displays. The Kindlealone has more than 500,000 users. Meanwhile, iSupply analysts say that worldwide eBookdisplay shipments will rise to 18.3 million units in 2012. (eBooks Turn the Page, July 2008). Therewill be intriguing opportuni es ahead for companies such as Plas c Logic, and the developmentof color displays and flexible form factors will drive growth.Considering the size of the market, it should come as no surprise that Prime View Interna onal,the world’s highest volume supplier of ePaper display modules, acquired E Ink, the leader inelectronic paper display materials and intellectual property, for approximately $215 million. E Inkand PVI reportedly support nearly 20 eBook manufacturers worldwide.There are a number of other serious players in the eReader market. Plas c Logic, a MountainView, CA-based company, is developing its Que eReader, which is designed for business people.It features an 8.5x11 inch screen. Plas c Logic has raised $200 million in financing to date,although the product launch has been put off un l January 2010. Liquavista, a spin-off of Philips,has developed electrowe ng technology, modifying we ng proper es of a hydrophobic surfacewith an applied electric field. SiPix has received major funding from AUO, the leading Taiwanesemanufacturer of TFT products.
  22. 22. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 21Key Manufacturers:Add-Vision Inc.: Headquartered in Sco s Valley, CA, Add-Vision Inc. (AVI) develops flexible, lowresolu on displays u lizing P-OLED technology. These displays are printed, allowing for high-speed produc on. In 2001, AVI began work on P-OLED display technology for low-resolu ondisplay and specialty ligh ng applica ons. In 2002, AVI’s efforts paid off when the companydemonstrated the world’s first flexible P-OLED device that could be fully printed in ambient (air),including its top electrode, using only conven onal prin ng equipment and prac ces. In March2005, AVI formed a strategic alliance and IP agreement with CDT. AVI is now in the early stages ofcommercializing its IP package, and is building partnerships with leading display manufacturersto scale up the manufacturing to high produc on volume. AVI’s display technology will play arole in smart media products, smart cards, point-of-purchase displays, backlights for mobile andconsumer appliances, touch interface panels and electronic signage, among others.AJJER, LLC: Located in Tucson, AZ, AJJER focuses on electrochromic displays for labels and tags.AUO Optronics Corpora on: AUO Optronics was formed in September 2001 by the merger of AcerDisplay Technology, Inc. (the former AUO, established in 1996) and Unipac Optoelectronics. Whenmerging with Quanta Display Inc. in 2006, it increased its size to account for 17% of the world’slarge-sized TFT-LCD market, according to the company. AUO also ranks in the top three TFT-LCDmanufacturers in the world. The company acquired 30 percent of SiPix Imaging’s shares in 2009.Aveso, Inc.: A July 2004 spin-out from The Dow Chemical Company, Aveso, Inc., Fridley, MN, is aleading producer of paper-thin flexible displays for high volume, cost-sensi ve consumerapplica ons. Its displays technology is based on electrochromics, which occurs when color change ina material is caused by the passage of an electric current. Aveso uses an electro-ac ve inktechnology that makes it possible to manufacture displays using installed manufacturing capacityand readily available materials, and can be driven by RF energy for contactless applica ons.Azores Corpora on: Headquartered in Wilmington, MA, Azores Corpora on specializes inphotolithography printers for flat panel displays and semiconductors.DuPont Displays: Part of the E.I. DuPont family in Wilmington, DE, DuPont Displays has been inthe OLED material field for nearly two decades. DuPont Displays is developing materials forprintable OLED technology that meet or exceed the performance of vapor deposited materials,thus paving the way for lower cost solu on process OLED displays. The company recentlyannounced that a DuPont Gen 3 green OLED material achieved a record life me of more thanone million hours, while two new Gen 3 solu on blue materials have been developed that setnew standards for longevity and color.Eastman Kodak Company: Headquartered in Rochester, NY, Kodak’s OLED technologies areamong the world’s leaders. Kodak first discovered organic materials that glowed in response toelectrical currents in the late 1970s.E Ink Corpora on: The leading supplier of electronic paper display (EPD) technologies, includingits Vizplex film, Cambridge, MA-based E Ink is currently mass manufacturing high-resolu on
  23. 23. 22 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]displays for several electronic books, including the Amazon Kindle and Sony Reader, as well as forsignage, watches and other portable devices. E Ink was founded in 1997 out of researchconducted at the MIT Media Lab. Among E Ink’s customers are Amazon, Casio, Ci zen, Hanwang,Hitachi, iRex, Lexar, Plas c Logic, Samsung and Sony. E Ink was acquired by Prime ViewInterna onal in 2009.eMagin Corpora on: A leading manufacturer of OLED microdisplays u lizing silicon chips forhigh resolu on imaging products, eMagin is enjoying strong growth in military, industrial,medical and consumer OEMs markets. In addi on, eMagin has introduced its first direct-to-consumer system, the Z800 3DVisor, which provides 3D stereovision and headtracking for PCgaming, training and simula on, and business applica ons. The company is co-located at theIBM facili es in Holtsville, NY.Kent Displays: Kent Displays, Kent, OH, was founded in 1993 out of research conducted by KentState University. The company’s key technology are its thin flexible Reflex LCDs, which thecompany reports offers advantages over tradi onal LCDs in that it has no power image reten onand superior op cal characteris cs. Reflex No Power LCDs are u lized in applica ons thatinclude electronic skins, wri ng tablets, smart cards and eReaders. The company installed a roll-to-roll produc on line in October 2008.Liquavista: Liquavista, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, is u lizing electrowe ng to developelectronic screen technology for eReaders, and is also poten ally ideal for mobile phones, GPSdevices, portable media players and cameras. Liquavista was founded in 2006 as a spin-out fromthe Philips Research Labs in Eindhoven.Mul -Fineline Electronix, Inc. (MFLEX): Founded in 1984, MFLEX is a leader in the design andmanufacture of flexible printed circuit and component assembly solu ons to the electronicsindustry, including cell phones and smart mobile and medical devices. MFLEX, which isheadquartered in Anaheim, CA, made a major move in 2008 when it acquired Pelikon Ltd. for$10.7 million. The acquisi on gave Pelikon access to MFLEX’s electronics OEM customer base.Pelikon Limited was founded in 2000, and in 2001, was joined by the advanced displays teamfrom Cambridge Consultants Ltd. Pelikon is noted for a host of innova ve products, includingpSEL - Printed Segmented Electroluminescence, its Morphpad flexible display technology, whichcan be refigured, and its Smar nk panels, which u lize liquid crystal and EL technologies.In 2008, MFLEX announced that its Pelikon technology has been integrated into Toshiba’s BiblioeBook reader mobile phone, which features a touch screen with a slide-out keyboard usingPelikon’s Morphpad display as a numeric keypad in the portrait orienta on that automa callymorphs into a full QWERTY keypad in landscape mode.Novaled AG: Headquartered in Dresden, Germany, Novaled is a key leader in developing OLEDtechnologies for displays and ligh ng. Founded in 2003, Novaled is noted for its advancedNovaled PIN OLED technology, and has a ained the world record in power efficiency. Thecompany has more than 440 patents granted or pending as of December 2008.
  24. 24. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 23OSD Displays: Located in Winter Park, FL, One Stop Display (OSD) manufactures small moleculeOLED displays, TFT displays and ac ve-matrix OLED displays (AMOLED). It supplies OEMmanufacturers.OSRAM GmbH: Headquartered in Munich, Germany, OSRAM is owned by Siemens AG. Osram isone of the world’s three largest ligh ng manufacturers; among its subsidiaries are OSRAMSylvania in North America and OSRAM Opto Semiconductors, which specializes in semiconductortechnology for ligh ng, sensors and display applica ons.OSRAM has developed a series of LED and OLED products. On the OLED side, OSRAM’s ultra-thinPic va displays are polymer-based and lightweight. OSRAM’s Pic va OLED displays aredeveloped for applica ons as diverse as cell phones and radios, car dashboards, PDAs, medicalequipment and white goods. OSRAM Opto Semiconductors’ latest OLED prototypes are largetransparent light sources, 17 square cen meters, and are only a few hundred micrometers thick.Importantly, they require no encapsula on, and can be made in any shape.Plas c Logic: Headquartered in Mountain View, CA, with manufacturing in Dresden, Germany,and R&D in Cambridge, UK, Plas c Logic has created the Que eReader, designed for businessprofessionals. Founded in 2000 by researchers out of the Cambridge University’s CavendishLaboratory, Plas c Logic’s eReader has an 8.5 x 11 inch screen and is 1/4 inch thick, and is ideal forbusiness documents. It u lizes a plas c screen manufactured by E Ink. Its entry into the market ispegged for 2010. The company has raised more than $200 million in venture capital funds.Polymer Vision Ltd.: Polymer Vision Ltd., headquartered in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, was aJanuary 2007 spin-out of Royal Philips Electronics. Polymer Vision was notable due to its Readiusflexible rollable displays, crea ng the first pocket eReader. It was designed for 30 hours withoutneeding a ba ery charge. The company was unable to capitalize on its unique design, and wentbankrupt in July 2009; there have been reports that the company will be acquired.Prime View Interna onal: Founded in 1992 by YFY, Taiwan’s leading paper-making and prin nggroup, PVI is the leading TFT manufacturer in Taiwan. PVI is now the world’s top E-paper modulemaker. In 2005, PVI acquired the ePaper business of Philips Electronics; in 2008, PVI acquiredHydis Technologies, a manufacturer of wide viewing angle LCDs; and in 2009, acquired electronicpaper pioneer E Ink, PVI’s partner for providing displays for electronic books such as the SonyReader and the Amazon Kindle 2 and Kindle DX.Rogers Corpora on: Headquartered in Rogers, CT, Rogers Corpora on is a world leader in highperformance, specialty-material-based products. Among its technology-driven products is itsDUREL electroluminescent lamps, which are based on patented technology using encapsulatedphosphors.Royal Philips Electronics: Headquartered in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, Royal PhilipsElectronics is a leader in healthcare, lifestyle and ligh ng, employing 116,000 people globally. Ithas made major inroads in LED and OLED ligh ng and displays, and has spun-out a number ofstart-ups in this area, including Liquavista and Polymer Vision. Philips has reportedly launchedthe world’s first-ever produc on line for OLED ligh ng in Aachen, Germany, which will
  25. 25. 24 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]manufacture Lumiblade, including OLED ligh ng plates of up to 50 square cen meters.Lumiblade comes in a wide range of shapes and colors, and can be used for ligh ng walls andceilings. One promising area of research for Philips is color-tunable OLEDs, allowing consumersto change the colors, as well as flexible OLEDs (curtains and other possibili es) and transparentOLEDs (for windows, among other applica ons).SiPix Imaging, Inc.: Located in Fremont, CA, SiPix was founded in 1999, and develops novelmaterials and scalable roll-to-roll produc on technologies, notably its Microcup technology, forlow-power flexible electrophore c display material. SiPix ePaper is used for pricing labels, clocksand smart cards. AUO Optronics Corpora on, Taiwan’s largest thin film transistor liquid displaypanels, recently acquired more than 30 percent of SiPix’ shares.Suma on: A wholly-owned subsidiary of Sumitomo Chemical Company, Tokyo-based Suma on isa joint venture between Cambridge Display Technology Inc., which was acquired by Sumitomofor $285 million in September 2007, and Sumitomo. In late 2008, CDT and Semprius announceda joint development agreement to develop new technology for the manufacture of OLEDbackplanes for flat panel displays. Suma on combines the high quality chemicals manufacturingexperience of Sumitomo with the P-OLED development know-how of CDT and Sumitomo.Suma on also includes the Luma on business of Dow Chemical, which Sumitomo previouslyacquired.Tred Displays: Located in Albuquerque, NM, Tred Displays focuses on the digital signage market.According to the company, Tred is the first company to develop a new, reflec ve, bi-stable flatpanel display technology exclusively for signage applica ons such as digital pricing, POS and POPdisplays and signs. Tred was founded in 2006.txtr: A start-up from Berlin, txtr is launching a new reading device, announced for late 2009,which reportedly is expected to include online access, publishing and storage, mobileconnec vity and E Ink based hardware.Universal Display Corp.: A leader in OLED technology for flat panel displays, ligh ng and organicelectronics, Universal Display dates back to 1994. The company is noted for its phosphorescentOLED, or PHOLED, technology. The company’s key collaborators include researchers at PrincetonUniversity, the University of the Southern California and the University of Michigan. UniversalDisplay also holds OLED patents from Motorola Inc.
  26. 26. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 25 RFIDRadio Frequency Iden fica on (RFID) systems use radio waves or an electromagne c field toiden fy objects. RFID has been successfully u lized as a track and trace system for a wide rangeof uses, from groceries, toll systems and automo ve parts to smart cards, luggage and livestockand countless more.Basically, an RFID system consists of the tag and inlay(the transponder), an antenna and the reader, whichpicks up the wireless signal. The technology wasdeveloped during World War II, when it was used totrack airplanes. Today, it is seen as poten ally areplacement for bar codes. Photo courtesy of Blue Spark TechnologiesThe cri cal advantage for RFID over bar codes is theability to more successfully read the object. Unlike bar codes, RFID tags don’t require a clear lineof sight or a person to read them. For example, electronic toll systems u lize RFID. Each label canhave a unique Electronic Product Code (EPC). The crea on of the MIT Auto-ID Center, EPC isdesigned to iden fy each item that is manufactured.Security is also a cri cal benefit: RFID also acts as a the deterrent, as it can be programmed toset off an alarm, and is also ideal for product authen ca on, as it is far more difficult tocounterfeit than a bar code.RFID got two major pushes in the middle part of the past decade, as the U.S. Department ofDefense and Wal-Mart both announced that they wanted suppliers to place RFID tags onshipments. These mandates would heavily impact thousands of suppliers, and necessitatedadvancements in RFID technology on the tag and reader sides. While the mandates have beenpushed back due to technological limita ons, they s ll remain the goal.RFID is also the key to Real Time Loca ng Systems (RLTS), simply the ability to locate items in real me. This can be used for anything from parts for airplanes and key military items to luggage.
  27. 27. 26 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] There are different types of RFID tags. One simple breakdown is high-frequency (HF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF), depending on the signal being generated. UHF systems have a far greater read range, making them more suited for pallet- level items, distribu on and shipping. HF tags can be u lized for systems that don’t require such a large read range, such as a mass transit card. Another classifica on centers around passive, semi-passivePhoto courtesy of Avery Dennison RFID and ac ve RFID systems. Passive RFID systems are read-only,thus providing the reader with the basic informa on on the tag. These are used for iden fica onpurposes only, and are the least expensive tags. The tag u lized a magne c field, and isessen ally powered by the reader; the informa on is reflected back to the reader. This can beused for pricing, inventory control and other applica ons.Ac ve RFID systems u lize a ba ery as a power supply, and acts as a transmi er. They have fargreater read ranges, and can hold informa on.Semi-passive, or ba ery-assisted passive (BAP) RFID are a fast-growth area for RFID, as itcombines be er performance than passive tags with a less costly price point than ac ve tags.Semi-ac ve ba ery tags can be used for tracking livestock or for electronic toll systems. Forexample, in case of a health issue coming up from livestock, an RFID tag can provide inves gatorswith a wealth of informa on, including loca on of the animal and what it ate.The problem is that the ac ve tags are far more expensive that what the market will bear forsome major applica ons, while passive tags don’t have the performance characteris csnecessary for some applica ons. There are also physical limita ons to RFID systems, mostnotably when used in tracking metal or liquids, as readings can be difficult to obtain due to signalreflec on, detuning and grounding.One goal for RFID is the development of item-level systems for supermarkets, to u lize a readerto do instant checkouts as well as record real- me inventory levels. This can’t be done withbarcodes. However, such a tag cannot cost much; the level most cited is one cent. It is hard tosay whether silicon chip-based RFID systems can reach that sweet spot; this is a likely area whereprinted electronics can play a major role.An RFID tag is typically composed of a chip or integrated circuit mounted on a substrate. Thesubstrate tends to be flexible, made either from plas c or paper. The antenna has beenpreprinted on the substrate, using either a conduc ve ink or a stamped or etched pa ern. Oncethe inlay is assembled, it is placed on an adhesive layer, with a printed layer placed over it.There are a number of major players in the RFID tag and label market. Among the most notablecompanies are Alien Technologies, Avery Dennison, Confidex, Impinj, NXP, Power ID, Tagsys,Texas Instruments and UPM Raflatac.
  28. 28. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 27One area of great interest due to the poten al to reduce cost is prin ng plas c RFID systems.OrganicID was working on this type of system when it was acquired by Weyerhaeuser in 2006.There are a tremendous number of providers of hardware in the RFID space. Alien Technology,Datalogic, Feig, Impinj, Intermec, Motorola, Odin Technologies, Sirit, Texas Instruments andThingMagic are among the leaders in RFID readers. Mark IV Industries, Sirit and Transcore are theleaders in RFID technology for tollways. Inkjet printers made by iTi Solar, PixDro, Printed ElectronicsLtd. and Trident Solar are making headway. Daetwyler, manroland and Mark Andy are among thepress manufacturers. Printronix and Zebra Technologies are major printer manufacturers.Here are a few of the major areas where RFID is making headway, and where printed RFID couldbecome prominent in the coming years: Smart and Contactless CardsThe field of “smart” cards and contactless cards is a tremendous growth opportunity. Typicallythe size of a credit card, smart cards have an embedded integrated circuit, which transmits orprocesses data. These are ideal for security, as authen ca on features can be added. ATM cardsare one example, but smart cards can be used for financial, security iden fica on and healthcare (pa ent records) applica ons as well. Some na ons, notably China, are even adop ng smartcards as na onal IDs for its ci zens. Toppan Prin ng is a major player in this field.American Express, MasterCard, ExxonMobil and Hess are just a few of the companies employingcontactless cards, which use NFC (near field communica on) systems to read the card, which isembedded with an RFID chip. Texas Instruments is the leader in the field, with NFC anothermajor player. Toll Systems For many people, the use of RFID is best known for toll collec on on highways and bridges. The tags are ba ery-powered transponders, which communicate with readers sta oned at the tolls. Manufacturing RFID systems for tolls presents plenty of challenges, whether it is a wide range of extreme temperatures, reading signals at high speeds, and having metal and glass surfaces poten ally interfering with signals. The three main manufacturers are Mark IV Industries,Photo courtesy of Sirit whose E-ZPass System began in the northeastern U.S. and is spreading out through agreements with other regionalhighway systems; TransCore, which created the first electronic tolling system in the U.S., and is amajor force in the South, notably in Texas, Florida and Georgia; and Sirit, which manufactures theFasTrak system that is used throughout California as well as addi onal systems worldwide.
  29. 29. 28 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] BioSensorsIt is a sad but true fact that medicine is an area that is badly neglected by the people who mostneed it: the pa ents. Ge ng consumers to actually properly take their medicine is a challenge,and as the popula on ages, it will become even more difficult. RFID and biosensors can play arole in ensuring that medicine is taken effec vely, monitoring pa ents from afar.The key here is the development of what is known as “ac ve” drug delivery, a non-invasivesystem that uses controlled low-level electrical energy to transport drugs through the skin(transdermal) or other sites in the body. Through the “ac ve” system, the drugs are moreefficiently delivered.Among the companies that are ac ve in the field are Agave BioSystems, Cypak, SmartSensorTelemed, Teikoku Seiyaku Inc., (which acquired Travan Pharma in 2009) and ToumazTechnology. GSI Technologies is a key printer in this area. Food SensorsRFID has numerous benefits in the cold chain field. Consumers benefit by having access to safer,fresher and higher-quality products. It reduces the poten al for out of stock situa ons, cutsdown on product shrinkage, aids in recall efforts and the tracking of ingredients. It also aids inthe management of perishables. In par cular, Sealed Air Corpora on, PakSense, Informa onMediary Corpora on, Sensitech and Evidencia are among the companies that have made inroadsin this field. Luggage As airline passengers will a est, lost luggage is one of the most irrita ng experiences in air travel. It is also costly: The Interna onal Air Transport Associa on (IATA) es mates that 30 million pieces of luggage are lost annually, and up to $4 billion is spent tracking, returning and replacing lost or mishandled luggage. Simply put, barcodes are not as effec ve as RFID can be, as they require line-of-sight reading, and typically are read at 80 to 90 percent rates. RFID can be read from long distances at a rate of be er than 99 percent. There has been numerous a empts to develop RFID systems that will replace bar codes; Boston Scien fic, using technology developed by Inkode, did some work with Boston’s Logan Interna onal Airport in 2006, for example. The most successful work has been done at McCarron Interna onal Airport in Las Vegas, NV, and Hong Kong Interna onal Airport (HKIA). One key is that these two airports ownPhoto courtesy of Avery Dennison RFID their own luggage-handling infrastructure.
  30. 30. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 29The McCarron project ini ally u lized tags created by Matrics, Inc., a Rockville, MD-based RFIDsystems manufacturer. In 20004, Symbol Technologies, Inc. acquired Matrics, Inc. for $230million in cash. Symbol Technologies, inc., Holtsville, NY, itself was a major force in the RFID andbarcode scanning fields, and was acquired by Motorola in January 2007 for $3.9 billion.For the recent project at HKIA, which calls for up to 70 million RFID enabled baggage trackingtags to be produced, Motorola supplied the hardware and coordinated the project. AveryDennison RFID Division and Print-O-Tape, Inc. partnered with Motorola. Motorola supplies thehardware. Avery Dennison provided its new 96-bit AD-833 RFID inlays, while Print-O-Tape, theleading North American luggage tag converter with nearly 75 percent of the market, is prin ngand assembling the high-performance RFID baggage tags, at a rate approaching 400,000 per day.Cost remains higher for RFID luggage tags, but considering the high cost of mishandled and lostluggage, it will ul mately be well worth it.In March 2009, ODIN Technologies announced that it is conduc ng neutral tes ng on RFIDstandardiza on for the Interna onal Air Transport Associa on (IATA).Among the other companies examining the luggage space are Alien Technologies, Impinj andIntermec. LivestockOne of the niche areas where RFID has made gains has been in the area of livestock tracking. Inthe old days, of course, ranchers used branding irons to keep track of which animals were intheir herd. Now, new technologies allow livestock to be followed from birth through the foodchain.Aside from the benefits of track and trace capabili es, the outbreak of mad cow disease has ledgovernments to expand safety measures to keeping accurate records of where the animals arecoming from and what they are consuming. Through the use of RFID tags, ranchers can keepaccurate records.RFID is not just for land animals; Canada is using RFID tags for conserva on efforts for its fishingindustry.While this is a niche area, there are a few companies that have made headway in themarketplace. These include Bluehill ID, Precision Dynamics, Sirit and Somark Innova ons. Siritrecently signed an agreement with eriginate Corpora on, a subsidiary of HerdStar, LLC, in whicheriginate will u lize Sirit’s UHF RFID tag and reader technology to support its eTa oo UHF system,incorpora ng a Sirit UHF inlay embedded into a livestock ear tag and Sirit’s IDen ty 5100 reader.Key Manufacturers:Agave BioSystems: Located in Aus n TX and Ithaca, NY, Agave BioSystems is a biotechnology-based small business founded in 1998. The company focuses on building nanoscale engineereddevices and systems. Agave BioSystems is engaged in a number of research projects where
  31. 31. 30 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]biological components for sensor systems are being tailored to complement ongoing work in thearea of nanofabrica on. Several of these sensors are being developed to combat biowarfare andbioterrorists agents, but will have broad applica on in the food, environmental and medicalindustries. Agave BioSystems enjoys a close collabora ve rela onship with Cornell University.Alien Technologies: Founded in 1994 and headquartered in Morgan Hill, CA, Alien Technologiesprovides a full range of UHF RFID systems in applica ons running the gamut from retail,pharmaceu cals and consumer goods to logis cs, defense and military uses. The company is akey supplier of RFID tags, notably its Squiggle line featuring the Higgs3 IC, and readers.Avery Dennison: The leader in the field of labeling and adhesives, Avery Dennison RFID, FloweryBranch, GA, is a major force in the RFID inlay market, where it can broker its exper se inadhesives into the manufacturing of inlays and durable tags. It manufactures both HF and UHFinlay systems. Avery Dennison RFID systems are used in avia on (at the Hong Kong Interna onalAirport), health care (Walgreens), retail, supply chain and many other applica ons.Bluehill ID Corpora on: Based in St. Gallen, Switzerland, and founded in 2007, Bluehill ID AG hasbuilt up an impressive por olio of technology companies in the RFID space. Among Bluehill ID’sacquisi ons were Mul card AG, a specialist in secure iden fica on programs; TagStar SystemsGmbH, an HF and UHF inlay manufacturer; Arygon, a maker of advanced RFID reader modulesfor personal iden fica on and payment; and ACIG, an RFID distributor. For RFID for livestock,Bluehill ID acquired Syscan ID in February 2009. Syscan was noted as a specialist in RFIDsolu ons for animal ID, including RFID readers. In September 2009, SCM Microsystems, Inc.announced it had entered into an agreement with Bluehill ID to combine their respec vecompanies, subject to certain regulatory and shareholder approvals. Under the agreement, SCMwill make an offer to the Bluehill ID shareholders to acquire all shares of Bluehill ID.Boston Engineering: Located in Waltham, MA, Boston Engineering is a major engineering firmthat led a pilot program called SEATS (Secure Environment for Airport Terminal Systems) in 2006that aimed to demonstrate the effec veness of chipless RFID technology in tracking customerbaggage at Logan Airport. In collabora on with Inkode, Vienna, VA, Boston Engineering usedVienna, a chipless remote iden fica on system (CRIS), as the basis for the pilot.Bundesdruckerei GmbH: A leader in high-security ID technologies, Bundesdruckerei GmbH .Berlin, Germany, specializes in chip technology and biometric processes. In 2009, the FederalRepublic of Germany became the company’s sole shareholder. The company worked closely withGerman government agencies on Iden gram ePassport, in which personal data and the photo ofthe passport holder is stored in an integrated chip. The German ePassport also features two ofthe document holders fingerprints stored in the ePassport chip.Confidex Ltd.: Confidex Ltd. is an industry leader in HF and UHF RFID cket and tag design andmanufacturing. In addi on to its headquarters in Tampere, Finland, the company launchedproduc on opera ons in China in August 2006. Among the company’s areas of focus areaerospace and asset tracking, and the company also offers contactless RFID ckets for publictransport, replacing magne c stripe ckets.
  32. 32. [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ] 31Cypak AB: Cypak AB, Stockholm, Sweden, specializes in the area of connected health, and itstechnologies include PE and RFID. Cypak’s PE circuits connect to the Cypak Electronic Module(CEM), where events are recorded and me-stamped. Its low cost antenna can be printed in thesame produc on step as circuits, in the form of a patch the size of a credit card. Cypak is anexpert in the applica on of various RFID technologies for smart packaging. Most Cypakapplica ons use an ac ve RF tag in which the product or package is itself intelligent – with anon-board microprocessor, sensors, and non-vola le memory to record events.Datalogic S.p.A.: Located in Bologna, Italy, Datalogic produces bar code readers, data collec onmobile computers, RFID systems and photoelectric sensors for the industrial automa on sector.Datalogix is noted for having developed the first RFID post office applica on in the world back in1999.Evidencia: Located in Memphis, TN, Evidencia manufactures RFID tags and monitors for coldchain and medical applica ons. Its ThermAssureRF, a stand alone, miniaturized RFIDtemperature sensor, records and monitors temperature fluctua ons and cold chain eventsduring shipment and storage.Feig Electronic GmbH: Feig Electronic GmbH, Weilburg, Germany, was founded in 1970. Itspecializes in contactless iden fica on (RFID), door controllers and traffic sensor technology.Feig’s UHF and HF OBID RFID reader systems are used for access control and vehicle accesscontrol, ckets, me and a endance, electronic locking systems and supply chain.Gentag: Gentag, located in Washington, D.C. and founded by Dr. John Peeters, focuses oninnova ve, low cost, wireless sensor network technologies based on cell phones. The companystarted paten ng its wireless sensor technologies in 1997. The combina on of cell phone readertechnology with a disposable sensor pla orm has led to a variety of medical diagnos capplica ons providing consumers, physicians, and various industries with instant access to vitalinforma on over established wireless networks. Gentag, Inc. co-owns with Motorola severalpatents covering the uses of cell phones as RFID readers. Gentag provides solu ons ranging frominjec on-molded an -counterfei ng tags for pharmaceu cals to diagnos c skin patches andimmunoassay testers.Identec Solu ons: Headquartered in Lustenau, Austria, Identec Solu ons was founded in 1999through an ini al investment by Gartner Electronic GmbH. The company’s key product is itsIntelligent Long Range (ILR) ac ve tag and reader RFID technology. Its 2006 acquisi on ofautomo ve RFID specialist Baumer IDENT GmbH was a key move; Identec Solu ons claims thatone in three vehicles produced worldwide is made with the assistance of its technologies.Impinj: Located in Sea le, WA, Impinj specializes in UHF RFID systems for applica ons as diverseas apparel and food safety to pharmaceu cals. Impinj’s product offerings include its Speedwayreaders, Impinj reader antennas, and Monza and Monaco tag chips. Foundered in founded inMay 2000, Impinj’s work is based on technology developed by Dr. Carver Mead of the CaliforniaIns tute of Technology and Dr. Chris Diorio of the University of Washington, that enables lowpower, programmable, minimum-size analog circuits. Impinj is privately held and has raisedmore than $110 million in funding.
  33. 33. 32 [THE GROWING MARKET FOR PRINTED ELECTRONICS ]Informa on Mediary Corp. (IMC): Informa on Mediary Corpora on, O awa, Canada, hasdeveloped low cost single-chip RFID sensor technology (Class 3 semi-passive RFID tags), HF RFIDreaders and electronics printed on plain paper using non-toxic, Acheson-brand water-basedconduc ve inks under exclusive license from Henkel (formerly XINK). The company’s marketsinclude pharmaceu cal (Med-ic, eCAP) and logis cs (Log-ic) industries. eCAP is the worlds firstand only RFID smart cap, an electronic medica on bo le which tracks medica on usage withoutac ve pa ent input. It consists of an RFID "smart tag" embedded into a standard medica onbo le cap, which records the me at which the bo le is opened by the pa ent to remove theirprescribed dose, thus logging the pa ents medica on use. Shipments of refrigerated goods canbe tagged with Log-ic temperature tracking tags.Intermec Inc.: Headquartered in Evere , WA, Intermec is a specialist in supply chainapplica ons, from Gen 2 RFID to bar codes. The company was founded in 19666 as InterfaceMechanisms, switching to its present name in 1982. IN 1997, Intermec entered the RFIDbusiness when it acquired the RFID semiconductor technology business from IBM, Inc. Thecompany manufactures fixed and handheld readers as well as RFID tags and smart cards.The Kennedy Group, Inc.: The Kennedy Group’s RFID Solu ons Division specializes incustomizing smart labels, cards and disposable and reusable tags. The company reports that ithas the largest smart label and card manufacturing capacity in North America.Mark IV Industries Corpora on: Located in Amherst, NY, Mark IV IVHS claims it is the largestsupplier of electronic toll collec on equipment in North America, with more than 19 milliontransponders on the road and more than 3,100 lanes equipped. All told, the company accountsfor more than one billion toll transac ons annually.Mekoprint A/S: Headquartered in Støvring, Denmark, Mekoprint A/S specializes in RF antennasand RFID labels produced through screenprin ng and etching, manufactured in reel-to-reelproduc on. The company has developed solu ons par cularly for GSM and Bluetooth antennasfor mobile phones and RFIDs, safety labels and smart card labels.Motorola: Motorola is one of the leading integrators and manufacturers in RFID. The companydevelops fixed and mobile RFID readers, reader antennas and tags for cargo and supply chainapplica ons. One of the industry’s early leaders, Motorola made a cri cal acquisi on inSeptember 2006, when it bought Symbol Technologies, Holtsville, NY, for $3.9 billion. AmongSymbol Technologies’ key areas of interest are RFID, bar codes and real me informa onsolu ons.NXP: A leading semiconductor company founded by Philips more than 50 years ago, NXP isheadquartered in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. A specialist in semiconductors for electronicsranging from TVs to cell phones, NXP is ac ve in the RFID tag and inlay markets, from pharmaand postal systems to contactless and smart cards.ODIN Technologies: A leader in RFID hardware and so ware, ODIN Technologies isheadquartered in Ashburn, VA. The company is involved in many facets of RFID, includinghealthcare, government, aerospace and defense. In March 2009, ODIN announced that it is