International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
(Hazards Analysis Critical Control Point)
Food safety in the early twenty-first century is an
international challenge requiring close cooperation
between countries in agreeing standards and in
setting up transnational surveillance systems.
The behavior of consumers has been gradually
changing. They currently require not only much
higher dietary quality, hygiene and health standards
in the products they purchase, but they also look for
certification and reassurance of products’ origins
(national or geographical) and production methods.
History of HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
(HACCP) was developed in the 1960s in the
United States to ensure food safety for the first
manned National Aeronautics and Space
Administration space missions (NASA).
NASA required a ‘zero defect’ program to
guarantee safety in the foods astronauts
consumed in space.
Since then, HACCP principles have been
defined and endorsed in international food
standards (Codex Alimentarius Commission),
and in European and UK legislation.
Indonesia SNI 1998
Pillsbury presented the HACCP system at a
national food protection conference in 1971
Chronology of Development of HACCP as a
Safety System in the Food Industry
1959. The Pillsbury Company develops concept for
1971. HACCP, as we presently know it, took form
at the US National Conference on Food Protection,
where risk assessment was combined with the
critical point concept (1st mention of HACCP).
1972. The Pillsbury Company in the United
States began the application of its HACCP
concept to the manufacture of its consumer food
products. Pillsbury published the first
comprehensive treatise on HACCP in 1973.
1973. An HACCP system was adopted for the Low-Acid
Canned Food Regulations following the Bon Vivant
Vichyssoise Soup botulism incident, in which several
people died after eating the soup, due to botulism
1980. WHO/ICMSF report on HACCP.
1983 WHO Europe recommends HACCP.
1985. The Food and Nutrition Board of the National
Research Council/National Academy of Science
published two books recommending that HACCP be
used as a product safety system to ensure the
production of safe food and for the broad application to
various categories of non-canned food.
1989. The U.S. National Advisory Committee on
Microbiological Criteria for Food (NACMCF) developed
and approved a standardized and updated HACCP
system, endorsed by federal regulatory agencies
responsible for food safety.
1990s. The United Nations Codex Alimentarius
Commission Food Hygiene standard embraced HACCP
as an internationally accepted method for ensuring food
safety by identifying hazards and monitoring their Critical
Control Points in the process.
1997. Codex Document on HACCP principles and
1997 December. FDA’s Seafood HAACP
program becomes mandatory.
1998. FAO/WHO provide guidance for
regulatory assessment of HACCP
1998 January . HACCP becomes mandatory for
large meat and poultry manufacturers.
1999 January . HACCP becomes mandatory for
small meat and poultry manufacturers.
1999 May. A voluntary pilot study to test the
implementation, evaluation, monitoring, and
enforcement of the proposed National Conference
of Interstate Milk Shipment HACCP program.
1999 September. HACCP becomes mandatory
for frozen dessert manufacturers in the state of
2000 January . HACCP becomes mandatory for
very small meat and poultry manufacturers.
2002 January . The juice HACCP regulation
begins to be mandatory for processors, small
businesses, and very small businesses.
2003. FAO/WHO develop HACCP guidelines.
2004. EC 852/2004 requirement for all food
businesses to adopt HACCP principles in EU.
2006. Legal requirements to apply HACCP in
food businesses (other than primary production)
2006+. Increased worldwide use of HACCP in
food safety legislation
The HACCP system has grown to become
the universally accepted method for food
The need for an effective food safety
Foodborne disease are a widespread public
Emergence of foodborne disease
Increased knowledge and awareness of the
serious and chronic health effects
New food technologies and processing methods
Increased awareness of the economic
consequences of foodborne disease
The need for an effective food safety
Increase in the number of vulnerable people
Industrialization and mass production
Increase tourism and international trade in
Increase consumer awareness of food safety
ASSURING FOOD SAFETY
Emphasizing from end-product testing to
preventive control of critical aspects of producing
Identifying potential food safety problems
Determining how and where these can be
controlled or prevented
Describing what to do and training the personnel
Implementation and recording
It is important to always remember that the
establishment of effective HACCP programs
involves primarily the application of good
common sense and preventive considerations to
address situations before they become
The emphasis is on prediction rather than
reaction, on getting the process right initially
rather than correcting it after problems have
Assurance throughout the food
The objectives of application of the
Prevention of foodborne illness
of food analysis
Protection of reputation
losses due to
Focuses on identifying and preventing hazards from
contaminating food, based on sound science.
Permits more efficient and effective government
oversight, primarily because record keeping allows
investigators to see how well a firm is complying
with food safety laws over a period, rather than how
well it is doing on any given day.
Helps food companies to compete more effectively
in the world market.
Reduces barriers to international trade.
Guidelines for the application of
Assemble the HACCP team
Identify intended use
Construct flow diagram
On-site verification of flow diagram
List all potential hazards, conduct a hazard analysis and
determine control measures
Establish critical limits for each CCP
Establish a monitoring system for each CCP
Establish corrective actions
Establish verification procedures
Establish record keeping and documentation
The 7 principles of HACCP
1. Conduct a hazard analysis
2. Determine the CCPs
3. Establish critical limit(s)
4. Establish a monitoring system
5. Establish corrective actions
6. Establish verification procedures
7. Establish documentation
1. Assemble the HACCP Team
A multi-disciplinary HACCP Team needs to
include knowledge of the following aspects :
technical knowledge of
2. Describe the product
Describe the product giving detail of its composition,
physical/chemical structure, packaging, safety
information, processing treatments, storage and method
End Product Characteristics
Method of Preservation
Packaging – Primary
Packaging – Shipping
3. Identify the intended use
Identify the intended use of the product, its
target consumer with reference to sensitive
Five sensitive groups in the population
4. Construct a process flow
Details of all process activities including inspections,
transportation, storage and delays in the process
Inputs into the process in terms of raw materials,
packaging, water and chemicals
Output from the process e.g. waste – packaging, raw
materials, product-in-progress, rework and rejected
5. On site verification of the
process flow diagram
It should be done by all members of the HACCP
team during all stages and hours of operation.
Validate process flow diagram
By HACCP Team
Observe process flow
Routine / non routine operations