Presentation1.pptx, radiological imaging of uterine cervix diseases.
Radiological imaging of
the uterine cervix diseases.
Dr/ ABD ALLAH NAZEER. MD.
The uterine cervix is composed of the portio, which protrudes into the vagina,
and the supravaginal part of the cervix.
Squamous cells cover the epithelial surface of the portio continuing from the
vagina. With age, they grow back to cover the columnar cells of the endocervical
gland. This transitional area is called the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ)
Carcinoma of the cervix develops almost exclusively within the transformation
zone that extends between the original SCJ and the physiologic (SCJ).
Chest X-Rays: X-ray often can show whether cancer has spread to the lungs.
CT Scan: CT is the imaging modality that is most commonly used in clinical
practice to evaluate the extent of spread of cervical cancer. The oral, rectal,
or intravenous administration of contrast material is necessary for optimal
CT evaluation (unless a contraindication exists). The intravenous injection
of contrast material is particularly useful in increasing the conspicuity of the
cervical tumor and in facilitating the evaluation of the parametria and the
US has been used to evaluate the size and local regional extent of the
tumor. In the early stage of cervical carcinoma, the primary lesion is
difficult to depict with any imaging modality, including transvaginal
US and TRUS.
Eventually, with disease progression, the tumor mass may appear as a
hypoechoic or isoechoic region with undefined margins, or the disease
may be manifested as an enlarged cervix with heterogeneous
echogenicity (see the images below). In general, the intracervical cancer
is not clearly distinguished from the surrounding normal cervical stroma.
MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma.
Cervical carcinoma has a long T1 and a long T2 that render this
disease relatively hyperintense on proton-density–weighted and
T2-weighted images, in which the signal intensity of the tumor is
approximately similar to that of the endometrium. The
hyperintense appearance on T2-weighted images accounts for the
essentially consistent conspicuity of the primary tumor against the
background of the hypointense normal cervical stroma.
Positron emission tomography (PET) with use of
fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has some value relative to conventional
imaging methods for the detection of nodal metastatic disease and
recurrent cervical cancer, possibly being effective in the evaluation
of cases of locally advanced cervical cancer in which CT findings are
negative or equivocal, and possibly being predictive of survival
The prevalence of cervical pregnancy ranges from 1 in 1,000 to 1 in
24,000 of all pregnancies . Recently, the occurrence has been increasing,
possibly due to the increased number of induced abortions. The exact
cause is still unknown. Reported risk factors include multiparity, prior
surgical manipulation of the cervix or endometrial cavity, cervical or
uterine leiomyomas, atrophic endometrium, and septate uterus.
The cervix is made up of two different types of epithelium: squamous
epithelium and glandular epithelium. The cause of cervical inflammation
depends on the affected epithelium. The same microorganisms as those
that cause vaginitis can affect the endocervical squamous epithelium.
Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, and herpes simplex virus can
cause inflammation of the ectocervix. Conversely, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
and Chlamydia trachomatis infect only the glandular epithelium and are
major causes of mucopurulent endocervicitis .
Nabothian cysts are common retention cysts of the uterine cervix. They are
formed as a result of the healing process of chronic cervicitis . During chronic
inflammation, the squamous epithelium proliferates, covering the columnar
epithelium of the endocervical glands. After that, the mucus secreted by the
columnar epithelium (now covered by the squamous epithelium) cannot be
evacuated and forms a retention cyst .
Cervical polyps are one of the most common causes of intermenstrual vaginal
bleeding. Most patients are perimenopausal, especially in the 5th decade of
life. The polyps are usually pedunculated, with a slender pedicle of varying
length, but some are sessile .
Endometriosis is a common disease that affects the uterine body. Endometriosis
seldom affects the uterine cervix. Internal endometriosis is called adenomyosis; in
this condition, lesions form an ill-defined hypointense area continuing to the
junctional zone with some hyperintense dots on T2-weighted images. However,
adenomyosis can form a uterus-like polypoid mass growing into the endocervical
canal . It has a cavity surrounded by endometrial mucosa and smooth muscle
layers resembling myometrium.
Carcinoma of the cervix is the third most common malignancy of
the female reproductive tract and the second most common
malignancy in women 15 to 34 years of age, with a peak incidence
at 45 to 55 years.
Risk factors include low socioeconomic class, black race, early
sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, multiparity, and infection
with herpes simplex virus type 2. Because of extensive
Papanicolaou smear screening, the incidence of invasive cervical
cancer continues to decline. In the United States, there are an
estimated 15,700 new cases diagnosed every year.
The vast majority are squamous cell carcinomas(80-80%). Other
histologies include adenocarcinoma(10-20%), small cell carcinoma,
adenoid cystic carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma(5-10%).
Signs and symptoms.
Menstrual bleeding is longer and heavier than usual.
Bleeding after menopause or increased vaginal discharge.
Bleeding following intercourse or pelvic examination.
Pain during intercourse.
Other symptoms that may occur include:
Unusual vaginal discharge
Pain in the pelvic area
Swollen or painful legs
Lower back pain.
Adenoma malignum (also known as minimal deviation
adenocarcinoma) is a special subtype of mucinous adenocarcinoma of
the cervix. Its prevalence is about 3% of all cervical adenocarcinomas.
The most common initial symptom is a watery discharge. The prognosis
of this tumor has been reported to be unfavorable , as it disseminates
into the peritoneal cavity even in the early stage of the disease and its
response to radiation or chemotherapy is poor. Therefore, its
deceptively benign histologic appearance occasionally leads to an
Malignant melanoma of the female genital tract accounts for 1%–5%
of all melanoma cases . It usually occurs in the vaginal mucosa and
occasionally involves the uterine cervix. Malignant melanoma arising in
the uterine cervix is extremely rare, with only about 30 cases reported
in the literature.
Malignant lymphoma frequently infiltrates the uterus in advanced disease.
However, it rarely involves the uterine cervix as the initial manifestation . Its
frequency in Western countries was reported to be 0.008% of primary cervical
tumors and 2% of extranodal lymphomas in women . The common presenting
symptoms are vaginal bleeding, perineal discomfort, and vaginal discharge .
Cervical lymphomas are treated with chemotherapy alone or in combination
with irradiation or surgery.
As about 90% of uterine leiomyomas occur in the uterine body, cervical
leiomyoma is relatively rare. Its prevalence is reported to be less than 10%
of all leiomyomas of the uterus . Clinical symptoms of cervical leiomyomas,
including hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, or abdominal distention, are
identical to those of leiomyomas in the uterine body. They occasionally form
polypoid tumors and protrude into the cervical canal or even the vagina when
they grow in the submucosal region. Because they are located along the birth
canal, they occasionally cause maternal dystocia.
Metastasis to the uterine cervix is a complication of breast cancer
MR imaging is an essential modality for diagnosing cervical
lesions because the signal intensity or configuration of the lesion
demonstrated on MR images reflects the pathologic findings.
Although sagittal T1-weighted and T2-weighted images and
oblique axial T2-weighted images perpendicular to the uterine
axis are sufficient for staging cervical carcinoma in most cases,
only a detailed reading based on the pelvic anatomy and the
pathologic features of the tumor can allow an accurate staging
diagnosis. However, some tumors or tumor-like lesions can show
similar MR imaging findings, such as adenocarcinoma, adenoma
malignum, and florid endocervical hyperplasia. Therefore, a
diagnosis should be made based on clinical manifestations in
conjunction with imaging findings.