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Confined Space Entry


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  • Slide 21 how did you arrive at good air, poor air deadly air? attempting to follow your reasoning I close the door to my store cupboard it has no windows so no ventilation after a few days I open it again to find the air at the bottom of the cupboard is a deadly mix of air!
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  • nice presentation..very informative
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  • This presentation regarding confined spaces is truly excellent and very informative especially for those whose job includes this kind of activity. Particularly seafarers who from time to time are being asks by their senior officers to enter such dangerous area and in some occassions simply forgot the dangers and results to untimely death. This is also to remind the senior officers onboard ships to always be mindful of the well being and safety of their cew at all times without fail. Follow all procedures required in entering confined spaces to avoid any casualties onboard. Any lapses on the part of the senior officer or even the crew is no excuse at all. Life and safety onboard is ALWAYS A PRIORITY ABOVE ALL AT ALL TIMES.
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Confined Space Entry

  1. 1. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY 29 CFR 1910.146
  2. 2. What is a Confined Space? <ul><li>Is large enough and so configured that an employee can enter bodily and perform work; </li></ul><ul><li>Has limited or restricted means of entry or exit; </li></ul><ul><li>Is not designed for continuous human occupancy. </li></ul>A space that:
  3. 3. Examples of Confined Spaces: <ul><li>Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Manholes </li></ul><ul><li>Boilers </li></ul><ul><li>Furnaces </li></ul><ul><li>Sewers </li></ul><ul><li>Silos </li></ul><ul><li>Hoppers </li></ul><ul><li>Vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Pipes </li></ul><ul><li>Trenches </li></ul><ul><li>Tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>Ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Bins </li></ul><ul><li>Pits </li></ul>
  4. 4. Potential Hazards in Confined Spaces <ul><li>Oxygen Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li><19.5% or >23.5% oxygen concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combustibles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetylene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline fumes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxic Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Monoxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Sulfide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welding fumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crushers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ENTRY <ul><li>The act by which a person intentionally passes through an opening into a permit required confined space. </li></ul><ul><li>Any part of the body passing through the opening is considered entry. </li></ul>
  6. 6. IDLH <ul><li>I MMEDIATELY D ANGEROUS TO L IFE OR H EALTH </li></ul><ul><li>Any condition which poses an immediate threat to the health of life on an entrant, or; </li></ul><ul><li>Would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or; </li></ul><ul><li>Would interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ENTRANT <ul><li>The employee who will physically enter the confined space to perform the work. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Attendant <ul><li>The employee who remains outside the confined space and monitors the entrant(s); guards the space against unauthorized entry; warns the entrants of any unusual conditions; and summons the rescue personnel if needed. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Entry Supervisor <ul><li>The employee responsible for coordinating the entry into the confined space. This must be a team leader or foreman. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Responsible Person <ul><li>The person directly responsible for the work being performed in the confined space. This can be the Team Leader, Foreman, journeyman, or other person qualified by training and experience. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Two Options for Entering Confined Spaces: <ul><li>Permit-required confined space entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For hazardous or potentially hazardous confined space work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-permit confined space entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For non-hazardous confined space work </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Permit-Required Confined Space <ul><li>A Permit-Required Confined Space is confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere; </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant; </li></ul><ul><li>Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could become trapped or asphyxiated; or </li></ul><ul><li>Contains any other serious safety or health hazard. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Procedure <ul><li>Isolate the space </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilate the space </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct Tailboard </li></ul><ul><li>Complete permit </li></ul><ul><li>Test the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the space </li></ul>
  14. 14. Isolate the Space from all hazards <ul><li>Close Valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double block & bleed, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blank flange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empty the Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressurize, vent & drain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lockout/Tagout Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotating/reciprocating parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clean residue from the space </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ventilate the Space <ul><li>Use mechanical ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air horns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventilate at the rate of at least four (4) volumes per hour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger spaces require more ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure air supply is not contaminated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation air supply must be from fresh air uncontaminated with flammables, toxins, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Conduct a Tailboard Briefing <ul><li>Entire crew must attend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attendants, entrants, entry supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review hazards of entry and work </li></ul><ul><li>Review PPE (review this training need!) </li></ul><ul><li>Review procedure for contacting rescue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verify rescue available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complete permit </li></ul>
  17. 17. Complete Entry Permit Form <ul><li>Permit must be correctly and completely filled out prior to entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Permit must be activated by Entry Supervisor’s signature to be valid. </li></ul><ul><li>No entry is allowed without a valid permit. </li></ul><ul><li>Permits are valid for up to 12 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>When work is completed, permit and tailboard form should be returned to safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancelled permits must be kept on file for at least one year. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Test the Atmosphere <ul><li>Check for Oxygen Content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 19.5% and less than 23.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for Combustibles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 10% of the LEL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for Toxic Gasses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most commonly carbon monoxide (PEL <35 ppm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or any other hazardous materials as determined by the use of the space. </li></ul></ul>In this order:
  19. 19. NOTICE: <ul><li>Any time a limit is exceeded, no matter what the reason, all personnel shall immediately exit the space, and no others shall enter until atmospheric conditions are returned to safe levels. </li></ul>THERE ARE NO EXCEPTIONS TO THIS!
  20. 20. Atmosphere Testing Shall Be Performed: <ul><li>Prior to every entry when the space is vacant; </li></ul><ul><li>After a 10 minute ventilation period (if ventilation is necessary); </li></ul><ul><li>At least hourly for permit-required confined spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>More frequently, if conditions or suspicions warrant. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Always test the air at various levels to be sure that the entire space is safe. Good Air Poor Air Deadly Air Good air near the opening does NOT mean there is good air at the bottom! Top of vessel Bottom of vessel Middle of vessel
  22. 22. Enter the Space and Proceed with work: <ul><li>An attendant shall be posted near the entrance for the duration of the work. He/She shall be in constant communication with the entrants while the job is in progress. </li></ul><ul><li>All entrants shall sign the sign in log when entering the space and sign out when exiting. </li></ul><ul><li>The attendant shall maintain the permit and sign in log for the duration of the work. </li></ul>
  23. 23. When the Job is Done: <ul><li>Remove all personnel, tools, and debris from the space. Sign off the log. </li></ul><ul><li>Close the space. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancel the permit. </li></ul><ul><li>Review the job with the host employer (hazards, problems, other employers, etc.) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Non-Permit Confined Space <ul><li>A confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death of serious physical harm . </li></ul>
  25. 25. Non-Permit Confined Space Entry <ul><li>Isolate the space </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilate the space </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure justification conditions are met </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conduct tailboard </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the space </li></ul>
  26. 26. Isolate the Space from all hazards <ul><li>Close Valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double block & bleed, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blank flange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empty the Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressurize, vent & drain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lockout/Tagout Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotating/reciprocating parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clean residue from the space </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Use mechanical ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air horns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventilate at the rate of at least four (4) volumes per hour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger spaces require more ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure air supply is not contaminated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation air supply must be from fresh air uncontaminated with flammables, toxins, etc. </li></ul></ul>Ventilate the Space
  28. 28. Evaluate the Space <ul><li>Determine that the space meets all the conditions set forth in the non-permit justifications </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct atmospheric testing </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation must be certified by Entry Supervisor’s signature </li></ul><ul><li>Determine that the confined space does not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contain or have the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous mechanical ventilation not acceptable as good atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contain a material with the potential for engulfment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has an internal configuration which could trap or asphyxiate, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contain any recognized serious safety or health hazard </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Enter the Space and Proceed with work: <ul><li>If non-permit conditions change during the job, the space shall be immediately evacuated, and re-classified as a permit-required confined space; or conditions shall be returned to non-permit conditions and again certified as such by the entry supervisor. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Entrant Responsibilities <ul><li>To assure that the space has been adequately ventilated, isolated, emptied, or otherwise made safe for entry. </li></ul><ul><li>To immediately exit a space, without question, upon word of the attendant, no matter what the reason. </li></ul><ul><li>To follow all safety rules and procedures that apply to the job. </li></ul><ul><li>To be familiar with the work to be performed and the procedures that apply to the job. </li></ul><ul><li>To use the appropriate PPE whenever necessary. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Attendant Responsibilities <ul><li>To monitor entrants during the job and during entry & exit to help insure their safety. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The attendant may not abandon his post for any reason while personnel are in the space unless relieved by another qualified attendant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To monitor atmospheric conditions in the space prior to and during entry. </li></ul><ul><li>To control access to the confined space. </li></ul><ul><li>To summon emergency assistance as needed. </li></ul><ul><li>To assess hazards in and around the space, and take action on the same. </li></ul><ul><li>To keep records of confined space work, such as air test results, personnel entry/exit, etc. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Supervisor Responsibilities <ul><li>To assure adequate protection is provided to the entrants by verifying adequate lockout/tagout and that all hazards are securely isolated. </li></ul><ul><li>To support the attendant’s authority in controlling access to a confined space. </li></ul><ul><li>To verify that all personnel have exited prior to closing the space. </li></ul><ul><li>To assure that all personnel involved are aware of the hazards associated with the space. </li></ul><ul><li>To assure that rescue services are available prior to entry. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Contractor Confined Space Entry <ul><li>Contractors must be informed of the hazards within the space </li></ul><ul><li>Contractors must follow their own established confined space entry procedure and use their own permit forms </li></ul><ul><li>Contractors must supply their own attendants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One attendant is acceptable for multiple companies’ entrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contractors must supply their own air monitors </li></ul><ul><li>Contractors must review entry after completion of job </li></ul>
  34. 34. Testing Evaluation Number your paper from 1 to 10. Validation of training is next…
  35. 35. Testing Evaluation 1. A confined space has limited openings for entry and exit. True or False 2. Permit confined spaces must sometimes be cleaned and/or ventilated prior to entry to remove hazardous materials and gases. True or False 3. No one should enter a permit required confined space without first making sure a permit has been completed and posted. True or False 4. A confined space has good, natural ventilation. True or False 5. Deaths have occurred in a confined space because a presumably safe space was not tested before initial entry. True or False
  36. 36. Testing Evaluation 6. An acceptable means of rescue from a confined space include: a. Hold your breath and quickly remove the injured person from the confined space. b. Enter the space wearing an organic vapor respirator and rescue the injured person. c. Retrieve the person with a retrieval system (life lines) from outside the space. d. Enter the space wearing an acid gas/organic vapor respirator and rescue the injured person. 7. Limited access in a confined space increases the risk of injury. True or False 8. Before entry into a confined space, workers should know the space's potential hazards. True or False 9. Confined space monitors are required for testing the atmosphere for _______. a. flammability, oxygen deficiency, carbon monoxide and physical agents b. flammability, oxygen efficiency, carbon monoxide and physical agents c. flammability, oxygen deficiency, carbon dioxide and physical agents d. None of the above 10. Ignorance and negligence about confined spaces have led to deaths by asphyxiation, by fire and explosion, and by fatal exposure to toxic materials. True or False
  37. 37. Testing Evaluation ANSWERS… Check your papers…
  38. 38. Testing Evaluation 1. True 2. True 3. True 4. False 5. True 6. C 7. True 8. True 9. A 10. True How did you do? Onward to SAFETY EQUIPMENT…
  39. 39. Safety Equipment Do not enter a confined space without hands-on training in use of equipment
  40. 40. Safety Equipment Body Harness: Straps which may be secured about an employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system
  41. 41. Safety Equipment <ul><li>Adjusting harness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your harness must fit and be adjusted correctly in order to work comfortably </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Safety Equipment Lanyard: A flexible line used to secure a body belt or body harness to a lifeline or directly to a point of anchorage.
  43. 43. Safety Equipment Connector: A device used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system, such as a carabiner, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or “D-ring” sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard.) Carabiners
  44. 44. Safety Equipment Lifeline: A line provided for direct or indirect attachment to a worker’s body belt, body harness, lanyard or deceleration device. Such lifelines may be horizontal or vertical in application Retractable life lines
  45. 45. Safety Equipment <ul><li>Hard Hat </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Footwear </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Fall Protection </li></ul>
  46. 46. Psychological Hazards These include claustrophobia or other problems associated with being in a dark, cramped or isolated space. Such hazards can be magnified by a worker’s physical condition. A person in poor physical condition may become easily fatigued.
  47. 47. Communication Alert supervisor upon entering and leaving For Permit Space Entry, maintain contact with attendant throughout entire scheduled operation
  48. 48. Non-Entry Rescue DO NOT ENTER THE CONFINED SPACE YOURSELF!! Call for help. Use your two way communication to get assistance. Call police at 911. Relay your location, the nature of the incident and emphasize the incident has occurred in a confined space. While awaiting help, use retrieval system to get your partner out of the space, only if the rescue is a simple vertical withdrawal.
  49. 49. Non-Entry Rescue Do not move your partner if you suspect a head or neck injury has occurred. Do not attempt a non-entry rescue if the person would be dragged around a corner or between obstacles which could entangle your partner.
  50. 50. Conclusion Remember – A safe worker is a happy worker!