Urban Sprouts Presentation 3 09


Published on

Presentation on the Garden-based Education Model and Urban Sprouts' Evaluation Results from 2006-2008. Version from March 2009.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • This presentation was prepared by myself Abby Jaramillo, I am the Executive Director of Urban Sprouts – (About US….) and Michelle Markesteyn Ratcliffe, who is the Farm-to-School Manager at Ecoturst. Ecotrust is Regional Lead Agency for the National Farm to School Network
  • Urban Sprouts Presentation 3 09

    1. 1. The Real Impacts of School Gardens: How to Make Change & Measure it Abby Jaramillo, Urban Sprouts Michelle M. Ratcliffe, Ph.D., Ecotrust
    2. 2. 1970s 1891 1991 ? Our shared history 1946 - 1st School Lunch WWI & WWII <ul><li>First Wave: 1891 - 1944. Issue : National Security </li></ul><ul><li>Second Wave: 1970s. Issue : Environmentalism </li></ul><ul><li>Third Wave 1990s + Issue : . . . </li></ul>
    3. 3. Examples of WW I Recruiting Posters for the US School Garden Army Poster photos from Victory Grower - http://groups.ucanr.org/victorygrower
    4. 4. Issues today <ul><li>Children's academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Failing public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Global climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Oil dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Urban violence </li></ul><ul><li>Community access to healthy food </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism and Marketing </li></ul>
    5. 5. WWI & WWII 1970s 1891 1991 Strengthening Schools & Greening School Grounds Our shared present
    6. 6. WWI & WWII 1970s 1891 1991 Help youth to: succeed academically, eat better, exercise, protect the environment, and develop resiliency Our shared present
    7. 7. WWI & WWII 1970s 1891 1991 Improve public health & environmental health Our shared present
    8. 8. WWI & WWII 1970s 1891 1991 Support economic development & community food security Our shared present
    9. 9. WWI & WWII 1970s 1891 1991 Are we thinking big enough? Our shared future
    10. 10. Why do we need a Program Model? <ul><li>Not guessing what works – existing theory and the body of knowledge from multiple fields inform our work. </li></ul><ul><li>A recipe for success – what ingredients we must add in order to get the outcomes we desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of outcomes – Inputs and outcomes are tested by research and evaluation to show impact in the real world. </li></ul><ul><li>A Measurement tool – The model guides all our practices, shows how well we’re doing, and tells us where to make improvements at every step. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Understanding “The SCT”: </li></ul><ul><li>The Basic Theory </li></ul>Source: Bandura, 1986
    12. 12. Starting Point: We want Behavior Change! <ul><li> K,  A   B </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in K nowledge and A ttitudes are not the same as changes in B ehaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Programs that DO lead to behavior change are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Theory-driven & behavior-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Deliver adequate number of lessons to affect desired K, A & B (for school gardens, 10 hrs will increase K, 20 hrs for A, 50 hrs for B) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Includes an environmental or situational component. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Personal Sharing Activity <ul><li>One-minute silent reflection exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>Think about a time in your life when you felt successful, like you were doing great things. If you can, choose a nature-based experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Some questions to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What were the things you were doing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you feel? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who was there with you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What were all the things in your surroundings? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you achieve? </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Sharing and Analysis <ul><li>Personal Factors : how did you feel? </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors : what was around you? </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Factors : what were you doing? </li></ul>Turn to the person next to you. You will each have one minute to share. Briefly describe the experience you just reflected upon, by answering these three questions.
    15. 15. Personal Story Sharing <ul><li>Personal Factors (I felt, learned) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: I felt confident, like I could succeed at doing something difficult. I learned to care about nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors (I did) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: I climbed mountains. Now, I never litter in the woods and I’m always a low-impact hiker. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors (around me) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: At summer camp as a youth, we went hiking and backpacking in nature and all the people there were caring and friendly. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Common Assumption Environment (Program or Intervention) Behaviors
    17. 17. Social Cognitive Theory Personal Environment Behaviors Source: Bandura, 1986
    18. 18. 2. Creating the Theory-based Model (Urban Sprouts Model of Garden-based Education) Source: Michelle M. Ratcliffe, Ph.D., 2007
    19. 19. Environmental Factors <ul><li>The School Learning Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning environment </li></ul>
    20. 20. Curricular learning environment Urban Sprouts students observe the properties of different soil samples. <ul><li>Hands-on learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Placed-based curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Project-based curriculum </li></ul>
    21. 21. Physical learning environment Garden signs reinforce learning at Life Lab Garden, Santa Cruz, CA <ul><li>A diversified landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Safe places before and after school </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to eat and cook with vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to perform eco-actions </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to nurture living things </li></ul><ul><li>Places for refuge </li></ul><ul><li>Places to connect with nature </li></ul><ul><li>Visual reinforcement of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Visual and sensory aesthetics </li></ul>
    22. 22. Social learning environment A parent mentors a student at a family Garden Work Day, Burbank MS, San Francisco <ul><li>Cultural exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic participation </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Intergenerational mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful participation in community </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful participation in school </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling healthy behaviors and eco-action </li></ul><ul><li>Visual and sensory aesthetics </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>SCHOOL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievement ** </li></ul><ul><li>Health behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally responsible behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Development of life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic & cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social & moral development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Community-level Outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>Public health ** </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality ** </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital ** </li></ul>
    24. 24. Personal Factors <ul><li>Development of the Whole Child: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Development of life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic & cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social & moral development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility, patience, focus, gentleness, respect, citizenship skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving: teamwork, multicultural cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy: self-efficacy, self-awareness, mastery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of Purpose: pride, ownership, happiness, sense of accomplishment, work ethic, cultural identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & preferences </li></ul>
    25. 25. Knowledge acquisition Urban Sprouts students teach their peers to read Nutrition Facts on food labels.
    26. 26. Development of life skills Urban Sprouts students cook food from the garden with guest Chef Rania from NextCourse.
    27. 27. Academic & cognitive skills Students observe insect predators on plants: ladybugs and aphids.
    28. 28. Social & moral development Youth developmental or Resiliency assets Students learn teamwork in the garden and self-efficacy as they practice leadership.
    29. 29. Attitudes & preferences <ul><li>Ecoliteracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental responsibility & ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health & Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferences towards fruits and vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards healthy foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards school, science, and learning </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>School Learning Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievement ** </li></ul><ul><li>Health behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally responsible behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL FACTORS: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Development of life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic & cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social & moral development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Community-level Outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>Public health ** </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality ** </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital ** </li></ul>
    31. 31. Behaviors <ul><li>Individual Student Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Health behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally responsible behaviors </li></ul>
    32. 32. Academic achievement A student teaches peers, parents, siblings, and a teacher how to identify and save seeds. <ul><li>Academic performance </li></ul><ul><li>Student & teacher enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ ownership of learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Student attendance </li></ul>
    33. 33. Health behaviors Students harvest, cook, and eat collards, kale and other greens from the garden at MLK MS, San Francisco. <ul><li>Fruit & Vegetable Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit & Vegetable Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Activity </li></ul>
    34. 34. Environmentally Responsible Behaviors (Eco-actions) Students teach peers about worm bins, composting, and recycling at home.
    35. 35. <ul><li>School Learning Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENT BEHAVIORS: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievement** </li></ul><ul><li>Health behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally responsible behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Development of life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic & cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social & moral development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Community-level Outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>Public health ** </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality ** </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital ** </li></ul>
    36. 36. Community-level Outcomes <ul><li>Public health </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital </li></ul>Parents and youth build the school garden at Burbank MS.
    37. 37. <ul><li>School Learning Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievement ** </li></ul><ul><li>Health behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally responsible behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Development of life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic & cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social & moral development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & preferences </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY-LEVEL OUTCOMES: </li></ul><ul><li>Public health** </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality ** </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital ** </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>School Learning Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievement ** </li></ul><ul><li>Health behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally responsible behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Development of life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic & cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social & moral development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Community-level Outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>Public health ** </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality ** </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital ** </li></ul>
    39. 39. Social Cognitive Theory Personal Behavioral Environmental Source: Bandura, 1986
    40. 40. <ul><li>Community-level Outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>Public health ** </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality ** </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital ** </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievement ** </li></ul><ul><li>Health behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally responsible behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Development of life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic & cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social & moral development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & preferences </li></ul><ul><li>The School Learning Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning environment </li></ul>
    41. 41. Resiliency Model <ul><li>External Developmental Supports </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to meaningfully participate in school & community </li></ul><ul><li>Caring relationships with youth & adults </li></ul><ul><li>High youth centered expectations </li></ul>Personal Traits Social competence Autonomy Problem solving Sense of purpose Behaviors Academic achievement Health Success in life Source: Benard, B., 2004
    42. 42. Synthesis of the Social Cognitive Theory and Resiliency Model <ul><li>Community-level Outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>Public health ** </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality ** </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital ** </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievement ** </li></ul><ul><li>Health behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally responsible behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>The School Learning Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Development of life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic & cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social & moral development ** </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & preferences </li></ul>
    43. 43. Model for Garden-based Education in School Settings Source: Ratcliffe, M.M., 2007
    44. 44. 3. Using the Model in Garden-based Education Programs Source: Urban Sprouts, 2007
    45. 45. How we use our Program Model: <ul><li>Garden Educators (our staff) use the model as a checklist when implementing garden-based education curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>New lessons are developed based on the model. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual staff Performance Appraisal and goal-setting is based on the model, including a scoring rubric tied to raises in compensation. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual organization-wide reflection, assessment and change is guided by the model. </li></ul><ul><li>Program evaluation based on the model tests achievement of outcomes and is reported to funders and other stakeholders. </li></ul>
    46. 46. A Tool (checklist) for Educators
    47. 47. Using the Model for Program Evaluation: Data Collection Techniques <ul><li>Personal interviews with teachers, staff, administrators school garden leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group interviews with youth participants </li></ul><ul><li>Online student surveys conducted at the beginning and end of the school year, including a control group (students at a similar school with no school garden) </li></ul><ul><li>Staff self-assessment and observations </li></ul>
    48. 48. Sample Question from Online Student Survey
    49. 49. Evaluation Results: 2006-2008 <ul><li>The School Learning Environment </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, 121 thematic statements were identified from student focus groups, and in 2008, 222 statements were identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular learning environment (68 statements; 144 statements) </li></ul><ul><li>The garden was: “Better than being in class; get more out of class; fun, play; educational; learning new things; review of what we were learning; real experiences; different perspectives; Easier to learn outside than to just hear it or read about it; Learned more outside because it refreshes the brain; Something to look forward to; Helped us get through the day.” </li></ul><ul><li>Physical learning environment (46 statements; 74 statements) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Helped us feel relaxed and calm,” “When you help out in the garden you forget about your worries,” The garden “taught us how to cook and eat, different recipes, healthy foods, and how to get healthier .” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think the reason our teacher made us go outside and garden was that she wanted to teach us that one person can make a difference and we can all go green,” “They showed us how to save the earth, save worms, take care of plants, help the world, and keep the world clean and safe .” </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning environment (3 statements; 4 statements) </li></ul><ul><li>Fostered relationships and opportunities to “work together,” “get to know each other,” and “to share.” </li></ul>
    50. 50. Evaluation Results: 2006-2008 <ul><li>Personal Factors </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the garden, I learned to grow up and be a successful person .” </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge : Increased knowledge of food literacy, organics, sugar, soda, advertising, food labels, bugs, animals, insects, decomposers in the garden, life science topics, plants and botany, soil and compost. </li></ul><ul><li>Life skills : Learned skills needed to perform healthy lifestyle behaviors such as gardening, cooking, recycling, composting, water conservation. </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Moral Development: In 105 statements students mentioned: Commitment; Connection to community, including learning how to help the community; Dedication; Determination; Listening, including being quiet and following directions; Participation, including being prepared and awake; Patience; Practice; Respect for and nurturing living things, including respect for plants, saving worms, helping nature, and talking to plants; Responsibility; Self control; Self-esteem, including confidence in gardening, and being comfortable with who you are in the garden; Working together, including team work, cooperation, and being nice to others. </li></ul><ul><li>“ You can use this in life,” “I learned gardening takes commitment, and love, and you need to water your plants every week, and you need some lotion for your hands too,” “I learned to work with other people instead of being all selfish.” </li></ul>
    51. 51. Evaluation Results: 2006-2008 <ul><li>Personal Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards Fruits and Vegetables: Students knew more about what is healthy food, portion size, and organic foods. “Now I like the fruits and vegetables that they made us eat,” “Organic food actually tastes better and it’s more natural,” and “Now I just talk more about food.” </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards the Environment: Students mentioned pollution, littering, global warming, chemical pesticides, bugs, worms, and being outside. “I’m worried about chemicals and stuff in the water, there’s only one earth… and it’s sad because we live here and I don’t want to be living on Mars,” “I learned that we should take more care of the environment.” </li></ul><ul><li>Many students said they were afraid of bugs, insects, dirt, or dust in the air, but said that now “I like being outdoors more,” and, the garden helped me to get over being “afraid of bugs and water.” </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards School: 10 indicated that they were “doing better in school,” particularly in science, after participating in the garden program. Students attribute their enhanced performance to the garden program being “more interesting,” and because they “got to experience stuff instead of just reading and going to class.” Would rather go to garden class “instead of wanting to skip school.” </li></ul>
    52. 52. Evaluation Results: 2006-2008 <ul><li>Student Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to Try new Foods: 61 stated I like fruits and vegetables more; 20 responded they tried new foods this year, my favorite part [of the garden program] was cooking because we got to try healthy foods. showed their parents how to cook the salad after learning how to do it at school. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption of Fruits & Vegetables: 45 stated they eat more fruits and vegetables: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I do better in school now because my body is not being energized with Cheetos, it’s being energized with lettuce.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I told my dad about what we have been doing in the garden and he stopped making us drink soda. We don’t drink soda anymore. We have been drinking water.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I like carrots because they are really hard and juicy, and now I tell my mom to buy me some after I had some in the garden.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have been eating more fruits and now people call me a fruit cup.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our bodies are in good shape because we have been eating more fruits and vegetables.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I eat the same amount but different kinds of vegetables.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When I go in the garden it felt like I had to take care of my body more because nature is trying to feed itself.” </li></ul>
    53. 53. Evaluation Results: 2006-2008 <ul><li>Student Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption of Less Nutritious vs. More Nutritious Foods : Students stopped eating junk food and started eating more healthy stuff,” at least “sometimes.” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: “Making the right choices”, “Sometimes instead of chips I eat apples,” “Switching cookies to fruit,” Choosing “more organic foods,” Drinking “less soda,” “only one a day now,” or “stopped drinking soda” because students “got more aware of the sugar they use and those companies,” “because of the caffeine,” and/or because “its bad for our health,” Eating less food overall because they and their friends were eating “way too much food,” Getting the “real peanut butter you have to mix up,” Trying to “eat the rainbow.” </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Activity: “I think I get more exercise here than at home because of working in the garden.” You “get more exercise” because in the garden “you get to move.” Some students indicated that the garden program “motivated them” to “exercise more” and “work harder.” </li></ul><ul><li>Other motivating factors included wanting to “live a healthy life” and not wanting “to get fat,” “diabetes,” or “die.” “I don’t want to supersize me.” </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-Actions: provided opportunities to perform eco-behaviors at school including recycling, composting, and picking up litter. A few students indicated they started a garden at home, or started helping their parents garden. One student started cleaning up the streets with all their neighbors “so it wouldn’t be dirty and so it would be better for the environment.” </li></ul>
    54. 54. Now YOU use the Model! <ul><li>Work by yourself or with a partner, someone you work with or not. Choose a program that you provide for young people or a program you would like to design for young people. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the full model on page 5 for reference. </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in the blank GBE Model worksheet, applying each set of factors to your program. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with outcomes: What outcomes in boxes #1 and #2 are your goals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your program implementing the elements in Box #3 to achieve the goals/impacts you want? </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Thank you for your participation! “ The ultimate goal of farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human beings.” — Masanobu Fukuoka
    56. 56. References <ul><li>Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Benard, B. (2004). Resiliency: What we have learned. San Francisco, CA: WestED. </li></ul><ul><li>Desmond, D., Grieshop, J., & Subramaniam, A. (2002) Revisiting garden based learning in basic education: Philosophical roots, historical foundations, best practices and products, impacts, outcomes, and future directions. Davis, CA: University of California, Davis. </li></ul><ul><li>Hayden-Smith, R. (2006) Soldiers of the Soil: A Historical Review of the United States School Garden Army. Davis, CA: University of California, Davis, Center for Youth Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Lytle, L., & Achterberg, C. (1995). Changing the diet of America's children: What works and why . J Nutr Educ , 27, 250-260. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratcliffe, M. M. (2007) Garden-based education in school settings: The effects on children’s vegetable consumption, vegetable preferences and ecoliteracy. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tufts University. </li></ul>
    57. 57. Contact Information <ul><li>Abby Jaramillo, Urban Sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>(415) 648-4596 </li></ul><ul><li>www.urbansprouts.org </li></ul><ul><li>Michelle M. Ratcliffe, Ph.D, Ecotrust </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>(503) 476-6080 </li></ul><ul><li>www.ecotrust.com/farmtoschool/ </li></ul>