Educationalsystems ofSouth Africa, UKand USAAs presented before classby:Avila, Ernie C. BSE 4B
Objectives of the report: Identify/ characterize/ distinguish the different educational system of South Africa, United kingdom, and USA Distinguish and compare it with the educational system of our country, specifically the BEC and k-12 curriculum, and: Raise the awareness on the said matter for the future purpose it may serve
InSouth Africa, the constitution guarantees equal access to basic education.
The identified values and principles of South African Education includes: Equity and redress Relevance of Education Access to basic Sustainability ofeducation opportunities development for lifelong learning quality Democratic Quality in terms of participation providing learners withlearning opportunities of acceptable standards efficiency Ministry of Education
Structure and organization in theBasic Education System
Formal Education categories in South Africa Sectors or level Public ordinary school education University trainingIndependent school education technikon Teacher training
Public school Maybe an ordinary school or a public school for learners with special education needs. Levels are:a. Pre-primaryb. Primaryc. Secondaryd. Higher education
Compulsory GeneralEducation and Training Cover the reception years such as:a. Grades R to Grades IX
The general education and Trainingcorresponds to the Level 1 of theNational qualifications framework(NQF) Divided in three phases1. Foundation phase (Grades R-III)2. Intermediate (Grades IV-VI)3. Senior Grades (Grades VII-IX)
Primary Education is dividedinto categories Junior primary-(Grade I-III) Senior Primary (Grade IV-VI) Grade VII-IX is the last stage for compulsory education and will lead to General Education and Training Certificate. Further Education And Training (FET) is not compulsory (Grade X-XII). This will lead to Senior Certificate.
Technicalschools offers technical education which generally last for three years are offered n technical centers, high schools, and vocational schools.
8 leaning areas of FET1. Language, Literacy and Communication2. Mathematical literacy, Math and Math. Sciences3. Natural sciences4. Technology5. Human and Social Sciences6. Economics And Management Science7. Arts and Culture8. Life Orientation
Higher Educational System Tertiary and higher education corresponds to Level 5-8 of the National Qualification Framework (NQF). Which is more advance than Senior Certificate. Institutions of higher education includes colleges, universities, and technikons. Most colleges of education offers 3 year program leading to the Diploma in Education (4 years or higher diploma).
College of nursing and hospital schools offers four year diploma courses for nursing. Agricultural schools offer 1 year certificate, 2 year for higher certificate programs and 3 year diploma courses. Technikons offers bachelor and three years of technical courses diploma in technology.
Master’s degrees (magister technologiae) usually requires a minimum of 1 yr study, the doctorate (Lauretus in Technology/ Doctor of Technologiae) at least two years. A honours degree requires one additional year of study. A master’s degree is obtained after one or two year of study and the mininum time to complete doctorate is two years.
School year consist of 196 days (41 week) Other relevant sector of the educational structure includes special education, private education or independent schools, adult and non-formal education and HV/AIDS education.
In England, education is compulsory for children ages 5-16. Most children attend primary schools until they are eleven then transfer to secondary schools. In primary schools, the subject are taught by same teachers for a year before moving on to the next teacher and next grade level on the next year.
National Curriculum-requiredfor all state and privateschools. Is defined as the minimum educational requirement for compulsory school, age 5-16 years. It is mandatory for all state schools to provide a balance broadly based curriculum which promotes spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development, prepares them for opportunities and experiences of adult life. Includes religion and sex education for secondary students.
A. Basic Education Core subjects includes:a. Englishb. Mathematicsc. Science Each key level definitely emphasis that gradually becomes more advanced as the level progresses.
Basic Education1. Foundation Stage-this is included in the national curriculum which covers children ages 3-5 yrs. But does not have a strong mandate as to what needs to happen during these key years of schooling as it is not mandatory.
2. Key Stage One- it includes children ages 5-7years and year group mandates 1-2. core subjects mandated includes English, math and science and non core foundation subjects as design/ technology, history, art/design, music and P.E. Non-statutory areas are religious education (design by local authority or kind of religion).
3. Key stage- two- it includes children aged7-11 and year group 3-6. Mandate same group of core subjects and non-core foundation subjects with more difficult topics and addition of sex education to additional statutory areas which is left on the policy of school governors.
4. Key Stage Three- includes children ages11-14 years and groups 7-9. Same corefoundation subjects in key 1&2 but addsforeign language and ICT subjects to mixwhile adding appropriate difficulty to thecore subjects.
5. Key Stage Four- includes aged 14-16. itcovers statutory programs of study that mustbe thought to all the students.6. Post 15 Education- it is not mandatory inEngland. Students can either continueeducation or work. Some secondary schoolsgo beyond 1-16 and mandate to 11-18 andthe students may stay there.
If the high school does not offer these “sixth form” of extra years, the students may go to a “Further Education College” (FEC). Diplomas on FEC can be awarded in Post 16 Education.1. GCE2. VCE3. Foundation and Intermediate GNVQ4. Key skills qualifications at level 1-4 of the National Qualifications framework.
B. Higher education In 1992, the binary in education divide in the higher education system was abolished. Former polytechnics become universities enabling them to award their own degrees. Division continue to label pre-1992 university as the “old universities” and former polytechnics become the “new Universities”.
Universities are not only concerned with the undergraduate and post graduate teaching. Higher education in UK needs to include reference to the Open University as a major provider of the undergraduate and post- graduate degrees for adults. The Open University pioneered the way for opening access by offering greater flexibility for adult learners through distance learning programs.
Students studying at a university for their first degree are called “undergraduates”. Once a student graduated, she/ he becomes graduate in University. Ordinary degree in UK universities are usually 3 year courses. Graduates are awarded as BA, B.Sc and degree are not permitted to place B.A and B.Sc after their names.
Honours degree programs are usually four years courses. The degree is extended to B.A (Hons) and B.Sc (Hons) respectively. Master degree is usually achieved after two or more years study following an ordinary of honour degree. The students are awarded M.A and M.SC. Doctorate is normally awarded after several years (three yrs. Fulltime) of research.
Educational System in USA The levels of education in the U.S are similar to those other countries . There are public schools, and private colleges and universities in USA Public school is funded by state, city or the federal government.
Structure of the Educationalsystem in USA Primary/Elementary School Usually the education for Americans starts at around 5 years of age. The tenure of primary schooling will be about five to six years. In this level students will be completing five grades of their education. Students have choice to select their education held either in public schools, or private schools, or home school.
High/Secondary School Upon completion of five grades of education in primary school, students will enter high/secondary school. The tenure of secondary school will be about six to seven years, by which students will be completing their 12 grades. After completion of their secondary education, successful students will be obtaining a high school diploma which gives eligibility to get admission in any college or university. International students applying for graduation in U.S should have an equivalent grade of this diploma.
Primary/elementary schools STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM Pre-higher education: Duration of compulsory education: Age of entry: 6 Age of exit: 16
Structure of school system: Pre-Primary Type of school providing this education: A) Kindergarten B) Nursery Schools C) Preschool programmes; D) Child/day Care Centres Length of program in years: 2 Age level from: 3 to: 6 Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Certificates may be given, especially if needed, to prove attendance for entry into Elementary School. Primary Type of school providing this education: Elementary School (Grades 1-4 on average, but state and local practice may vary). Length of program in years: 4 Age level from: 6 to: 10 Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Awards may be given in States/Districts when necessary for transition to Middle School.
Primary Type of school providing this education: Elementary Schools (Grades 1- 6 or 7) Age level from: 6 to: 14 Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Awards may be given in States/Districts when necessary for transition to Secondary School.
Middle Type of school providing this education: Middle Schools (Grades 4-6, 5-7 or 6-8) Length of program in years: 3 Age level from: 10 to: 14 Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Awards may be given in States/Districts where middle school is a recognized level.
Secondary Secondary Type of school providing this education: High Schools (Grades 7-12 or 8-12) Length of program in years: 6 Age level from: 13 to: 18 Certificate/diploma awarded: High School Diploma (Regular/Standard, Vocational, Honor/Regents, College/Academic Preparatory) Junior Secondary Type of school providing this education: Junior High Schools (Grades 7-8, 7-9 or 8-9) Length of program in years: 3 Age level from: 13 to: 15 Certificate/diploma awarded: Practice varies. Awards may be given in States/Districts where secondary education is divided into lower and upper divisions. Upper Secondary Type of school providing this education: High Schools, Senior High Schools (Grades 9-12 or 10-12) Length of program in years: 4 Age level from: 15 to: 18 Certificate/diploma awarded: High School Diploma (Regular/Standard, Vocational, Honor/Regents, College/Academic Preparatory)
Higher education• Community colleges• Public 4+ year colleges and universities• Private 4+ year colleges and universities• For-profit institutions (2 or 4 year)
Public 4+ yearcolleges/universities• Comprehensive universities: range of programs, focused on undergraduate teaching; some focus on graduate education.• Some of these are research universities that offer a comprehensive set of undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees and have a research mission as well as a teaching mission.• Every state has at least one of these institutions; funded primarily by state legislatures.• Some (large) states have multiple campuses, for example, University of California – Berkeley, University of Texas – Arlington, University of Tennessee – Memphis.• Variation in quality; many public colleges and universities have well-established reputations as high quality institutions, for example, University of Washington, University of Michigan, University of California.
Public 2-year: CommunityColleges• Award associate degrees in vocational fields• Prepare students for transfer to four-year institutions• Serve communities : English language instruction for immigrants, recreational courses, etc.
Private 4+ yearcollege/universities• Non-profit institutions• Wide variety of institutions in this category: - research universities - four-year “liberal arts colleges” - specialized institutions (faith-based, women’s colleges, historically black colleges).
Number/types of differentinstitutions• Associate Institutions are the most common, but these tend to be small.• Research Institutions are least common but tend to be large and more famous.