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  1. 1. Immigration/Migration Block 1 Abbie Chelsea Delane Keirika Cortez
  2. 2. Causes? <ul><li>they had been raiding Britain for 200 years and were aware of rich pickings to be had and, no doubt, the geography of much of the Eastern sea-board.
  3. 3. the Anglo-Saxons must have been aware of the withdrawal of the Roman Army and the collapse of the economy. The time was right for a takeover.
  4. 4. devastating epidemics such as plagues which reduced the population in parts of Britain and a worsening of the climate in Northern Europe.
  5. 5. There is some evidence of Romano-British survival in agricultural practices with the cultivation of spelt wheat at West Stow. Some of the Romano-British people were assimilated into Anglo-Saxon society as slaves. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Physical evidence <ul><li>It took more than 200 years for the borders of Saxon England to be pushed to the far west.
  7. 7. we can see examples of the pottery with deep furrowed grooves on the shoulder like those from the Anglian homelands and from cemeteries in Norfolk; sharply angled pots with facets cut out, like those from the Saxon regions of the Elbe Weser area in North West Germany. West Stow clearly does not represent straight migration of a single settlement but is part of a movement of peoples. It seems unlikely that all the Anglo-Saxon people on the continent had boats that could bring families, and possibly animals across the North Sea. Is it possible that some enterprising group ran a profitable business running settlers across from the Hook of Holland to Harwich? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pre-Anlgo-Saxon <ul><li>* &quot;Celts - Prior to the Germanic invasions Britain was inhabited by various Celtic tribes who were united by common speech, customs, and religion.&quot;
  9. 9. * &quot;When Britain gained &quot;independence&quot; from Rome in the year 410ce, the Roman legions withdrew leaving the country vulnerable to invaders. Soon after the withdrawal of Roman troops, inhabitants from the north began attacking the Britons.&quot;
  10. 10. * &quot;a man named Hengest arrived on the shores of Britain with &quot;3 keels&quot; of warriors in 450ce. This event is known in Latin as the &quot;adventus Saxonum,&quot; or the coming of the Saxons.&quot; </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tribes, yo <ul><li>the intruding population is traditionally divided into Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, but their composition was likely less clear-cut and may also have included Frisians and Franks.
  12. 12. Angles: - the Angles were a group of Germanic people that invaded Britain after the Romans were pushed out. - they were pagan, worshiped a goddess named Nerthus. - they are believed to have lived on the Jutland peninsula (Denmark) . this is traced back to Danish legend about events in that area and related to the worship of the goddess Nerthus </li></ul>
  13. 13. More tribes <ul><li>St. Gregory: The Angles are the subject of a legend about Pope Gregory I which apparently has roots in history. Gregory happened to see a group of Angle children from Deira for sale as slaves in the Roman market. Gregory inquired about their background. When told they were called &quot;Anglii&quot; (Angles), he replied with a Latin pun that translates well into English: “Bene, nam et angelicam habent faciem, et tales angelorum in caelis decet esse coheredes” (&quot;It is well, for they have an angelic face, and such people ought to be co-heirs of the angels in heaven&quot;). Supposedly, he thereafter resolved to convert their pagan homeland to Christianity. </li></ul>
  14. 14. More tribes <ul><li>Jutes: - another tribe of Germanic people that resided in Jutland (modern Denmark) although there is dispute over the exact location of these people. - The Jutes have also been identified with the Eotenas (ēotenas) involved in the Frisian conflict with the Danes as described in the Finnesburg episode in the poem Beowulf (lines 1068–1159). - The Jutes, along with some Angles, Saxons and Frisians, sailed across the North Sea to raid and eventually invade Great Britain from the late 4th century onwards, either displacing, absorbing, or destroying the native Celtic peoples there. - they were believed to have settled in Kent. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Okay, last tribe. <ul><li>Saxons: -were a confederation of Old Germanic tribes. -The pre-Christian settlement of the Saxon people originally covered an area a little more to the northwest, with parts of the southern Jutland Peninsula, Old Saxony and small sections of the eastern Low Countries (Belgium and the Netherlands). During the 5th century AD, the Saxons were part of the people invading the Romano-British province of Britannia. One of the other tribes was the Germanic Angles, whose name, taken together with that of the Saxons led to the formation of the modern term, Anglo-Saxons. -The Saxons may have derived their name from seax, a kind of knife for which they were known. The seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Facts <ul><li>The history of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the fifth century until the Norman conquest of England in 1066. Anglo-Saxon is a general term that refers to tribes of German origin who came to Britain, including Angles, Saxons, Frisians and Jutes.
  17. 17. There are records of Germanic infiltration into Britain that date before the collapse of the Roman Empire.It is believed that the earliest Germanic visitors were eight cohorts of Batavians attached to the 14th Legion in the original invasion force under Aulus Plautius in AD 43.
  18. 18. The early Anglo-Saxon society was organized around clans or tribes and was centered around a system of reciprocity called comitatus. The eoldorman expected martial service and loyalty from his thanes, and the thanes expected protection and rewards from the lord. By the middle of the ninth century the royal family of Wessex was universally recognized as the English royal family and held a hereditary right to rule. Succession to the throne was not guaranteed as the witan, or council of leaders, had the right to choose the best successor from the members of the royal house.ed to the position of thane or eolderman.
  19. 19. * The Middle Class - The middle class was divided into three main classes of freemen, also known as ceorls: The geneatas, a peasant aristocracy who paid rent to their overlord, the kotsetlas, and the geburs, or lower middle class. All ceorls had the right and duty to serve in the fyrd, which was the Anglo-Saxon military. Ceorls won promotion through economic prosperity or military service. If a ceorl possessed five hides of land, he became entitled to the rights of a thane, but could not be elevat </li></ul>
  20. 20. Facts, again <ul><li>* The lower class - At the lowest end of the social strata was the slave or bondsmen, also known as the theow. Although they were slaves or bondsmen, they were entitled to certain provisions, such as grain. The slaves were allowed to own property and could earn money in their spare time which allowed them to buy their freedom. When times were difficult people sold themselves into slavery to ensure they were provisioned. </li></ul>