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  1. 1. Reviewing Essential Linguistics by David Freeman and Yvonne Freeman Presented Kathryn Jesser and Abigail Bloem
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Why this Book is important according to Halliday and Freeman and Freeman
  3. 3. First and Second Language Acquisition
  4. 4. The technical aspects of linguistics and how they work in the classroom </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why This Book is Important to Teachers <ul><li>According to Halliday, cited in Freeman and Freeman, we all learn </li><ul><li>Through Language
  6. 6. About Language
  7. 7. Language </li></ul><li>Freeman and Freeman: “Teachers with linguistic knowledge can help their students learn language.” (xi) </li></ul>
  8. 8. What Does it Mean to “Know” a Word? <ul><li>Phonological recognition
  9. 9. Morphological recognition
  10. 10. Syntactic  understanding
  11. 11. Semantic understanding
  12. 12. P ragmatic  understanding
  13. 13. We have to know what these things are in order to teach them. </li></ul>
  14. 14. First Language Acquisition: History <ul><li>Skinner and Behavioris m: all learning is a process of stimulus and response
  15. 15. However, Lindfor Believed: </li><ul><li>Environments vary, and children learn at about the same time all around the world
  16. 16. Animals would also speak if this were the case
  17. 17. Children do not imitate adults
  18. 18. Learning language is too speedy to be done this way! </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. First Language Acquisition: Chomsky: A Door to Current Views <ul><li>“ Cognitive Science” Children are born with innate cognitive abilities
  20. 20. Evidence for the innate: </li><ul><li>Quick learning
  21. 21. Limited amount of evidence for hypotheses
  22. 22. Limited feedback (mostly from caretakers)
  23. 23. Children never maker certain mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chomsky's Grammars: How children acquire language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Grammar: we're born with the qualities of all languages (the one we learn is the dominant one) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generative Grammar:the rules of the dominant language that make up any given sentence. These must be learned. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. First Language Acquisition: Current Views <ul><li>Psychology: Children have a specific way of learning: babbling, first words , 2 word phrases, then rapid growth into fluency.
  25. 25. Sociology, Anthropology and Education: Do we let children make mistakes? </li><ul><li>Children who are corrected more often don’t use more error free language. Actually, “their language didn’t develop as well, and they did not succeed to the same degree academically as children whose parents focused on  understanding and extending...meaning” (9) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Second Language Acquisition: Two Ways to Learn in the Classroom <ul><li>Merriam Webster: </li><ul><li>To Learn: “to gain knowledge understanding or skill but study, instruction or experience”
  27. 27. To Acquire: “to come into possession or control of…to have as a new characteristic or trait” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Language: teachers will use correct form versus content (how it is said is better than understanding the meaning)
  28. 28. Acquiring Language: making meaning is more important than how it is said.
  29. 29. The Views of the teacher greatly affect how the student learns </li></ul>
  30. 30. Phonics: A History <ul><li>Arguably the oldest reading technique: </li><ul><li>A to Z claims Martin Luther created phonics learning.
  31. 31. 200 years without change: Phonics was for reading, not for comprehension </li></ul><li>19 th century educators changed phonics and made it work for both reading and comprehension
  32. 32. Whole Word Learning split educators around the 1920's
  33. 33. Today we have an approach that balances the best of both! </li></ul>
  34. 34. Phonology and Teaching <ul><li>Phonemic Awareness: words are made up of individual sounds which can be perceived and manipulated
  35. 35. The Five Levels: </li><ul><li>Hear rhymes and alliteration
  36. 36. Do oddity tasks
  37. 37. Blend or split syllables
  38. 38. Perform phonemic segmentation
  39. 39. Perform phoneme manipulation tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Language Learning: </li><ul><li>Learning:phonology is acquired through audiolingual (repetition and drills)
  40. 40. Acquisition: phonology is acquired by using the language to communicate </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. A Note on Phonics <ul>There are at least 5 approaches to teaching phonics: </ul><ul><li>Synthetic: letters to sounds to words
  42. 42. Analytic:analyzing known words and sounds to make new words
  43. 43. Analogy based: use word families to make new words
  44. 44. Spelling: segment words into phonemes and write the words with the sounds
  45. 45. Embedded: letter-sound correspondences while reading
  46. 46. Onset-rime: connect sounds of new words and rhymes to the letters that spell them </li></ul>
  47. 47. Some Issues with Phonics <ul><li>The Student: </li><ul><li>Readers need to see the whole word to know it's meaning and pronunciation
  48. 48. Some words are spelled the same but sound different and have different meanings
  49. 49. Sounding out doesn't always work </li></ul><li>The Teacher: Often assumes a child having trouble needs more phonics. Actually, these problems could be a result of an over reliance on phonics.
  50. 50. A Note on the Book </li></ul>
  51. 51. Morphology in the Classroom Key in Second Language Learning <ul><li>Front loading: learning, talking, wondering, reading and writing about a new subject/word.
  52. 52. 2 Types of Language: </li><ul><li>Conversational
  53. 53. Academic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academic Language: </li><ul><li>Content Specific
  54. 54. Cognates
  55. 55. Text Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Resources <ul><li>Freeman, David E and Yvonne S. Freeman. Essential Linguistics . Portsmouth, NH. Heinneman, 2004.
  57. 57. Merriam-Webster Online. Merriam-Webster Inc. 2009. < >
  58. 58. Halliday, M. A. K. “Three Aspects of Children's Lanugage Developement: Learning Language, Learning Through Language and Learning About Language.” In Oral and Written Development Research: Impact on Schools. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. </li></ul>Scharr, Bill. “The History of Phonics- The Oldest Argument in the World.” A to Z 30 May 2009 <>.