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What are Muscles..
tissue that enable
the body and its
parts to move.
Latin word mus
its due to many of
mouse with tendon
• A contractile
• Muscle can be
motors of body
Properties of Muscle
• Excitability: capacity of muscle to respond
to a stimulus
• Contractility: ability of a muscle to shorten
and generate pulling force
• Extensibility: muscle can be stretched back
to its original length
• Elasticity: ability of muscle to recoil to
original resting length after stretched
can be moved at will
can’t be moved at will
cardiac ,smooth muscle
Heart wall,Visceral organs
have cross striation on
cardiac, skeletal muscle
have no striation
Human body contains over 640 skeletal
muscles 40- 50% of total body weight
Muscle that can be felt and seen
Attached to bone
Comes in pairs.
The contraction is voluntary.
Striated – have visible banding
Cells are multinucleated
Responsible for Body movement (Locomotion)
Functions of muscle
Body movement (Locomotion)
Maintenance of posture
Diaphragm and intercostals contractions
Communication (Verbal and Facial)
Constriction of organs and vessels
Peristalsis of intestinal tract
Vasoconstriction of b.v. and other structures
Production of body heat (Thermo genesis)
Fleshy part direct attached
e.g. intercostals muscle
tendon or aponeurosis meet bones
Tubercles, trochanters, and crests
Movement of Muscles
that remains stationary
or least mobile
of the muscle to the bone
that more mobile
Belly: the fleshy part
of the muscle between
Types of muscle fibers
SLOW FIBERS Type I
Half the diameter of
Take three times as
FAST FIBERS Type IIa
Large in diameter
contractions of short
Intermediate type IIb
Similar to fast fibers
Greater resistance to fatigue
Connective Tissue of a Muscle
Epimysium. Dense c.t. surrounding entire muscle
Separates muscle from surrounding tissue and
Connected to the deep fascia
Perimysium. Collagen and elastic fibers surrounding a
group of muscle fibers called a fascicle
Contains b.v and nerves
Endomysium. Loose connective tissue that surrounds
individual muscle fibers
Also contains b.v., nerves, and satellite cells (embryonic
stem cells function in repair of muscle tissue
Collagen fibers of all 3 layers come together at each end of
muscle to form a tendon or aponeurosis.
Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles
The Organization of a Skeletal Muscle
Types of Smooth Muscle
Single unit Smooth Muscle
•Fibers held together by gap
•Independent of n.s
•Stimulated by stretch
• Exhibit rhythmicity
•Walls of most hollow organs
• Less organized
• Function as separate
• dependent on n.s
• Iris of eye
• Walls of blood vessels
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
rhythmicy due to
No tetanic contraction
– ABNORMAL CONTRACTION OF CARDIADC
– CARDIAC CHAMBER DON,T CONRACT
– RESULT IN DISRUPTION OF PUMPING
– INAFFECTIVE PUMPING AND ABNORMAL
CONTRACTION OF ATRIA AND
A muscle strain, or pulled muscle,
is when your muscle is
overstretched or torn.
can happen in any muscle, but
most common back, neck,
shoulder, and hamstring .
It due to high pressure on
muscles during normal daily
activities, with sudden heavy
lifting, during sports, or while
performing work tasks.
Enlargement of a muscle
Weakening and shrinking of a
May be caused
Loss of neural stimulation
LOSS OF MOTER POWER IS
CAUSED BY DAMAGE TO
OR it could be INHERIT
DESEASE OF MUSCLE
What is fatigue?
“loss in the capacity for
developing force and / or
velocity of a muscle, resulting
from muscular activity under
load and which is reversible by
For your knowledge
How many muscles are there in the human body?
Answer: 640 Muscles
The muscles make up about 40 % of the body mass.
What is the longest muscle in the body?
Answer: The Sartorius
The Sartorius runs from the outside of the hip, down and across to
the inside of the knee. It twists and pulls the thigh outwards.
What is the smallest muscle in the body?
Answer: The Stapedius
The Stapedius is located deep in the ear. It is only 5mm long and
thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing.
What is the biggest muscle in the body?
Answer: The Gluteus Maximus
The Gluteus Maximus is located in the buttock. It pulls the leg
backwards powerfully for walking and running.
There are about 60 muscles in the face.
Smiling is easier than
It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown.
Smile and make someone happy.