satu fenomena yang berlaku apabila satu pasukan mencapai keputusan yang lebih baik daripada jumlah bahagian-bahagiannyaIndividu bekerja bersama-sama dan mencapai lebih melalui semangat kerja berpasukan, berbanding dengan bekerja bersendirian.pasukan mendapatkan rasa yang lebih jelas hala tuju, menjelaskan peranan dan tanggungjawab, memperbaiki proses operasi dan meningkatkankedua-dua hubungan interpersonal dan interteam.
Performance advantages 3 situations
Apabila terdapat tidak jelas "pakar" untuk tugasan tertentu atau masalah, pasukan seolah-olah untuk membuat pertimbangan yang lebih baik daripada purata individu sahaja.Pasukan adalah biasanya lebih berjaya daripada individu apabila masalah yang kompleks, memerlukan pembahagian kerja dan perkongsian maklumatKetiga, kerana kecenderungan mereka untuk membuat keputusan yang lebih berisiko, pasukan boleh menjadi lebih kreatif dan inovatif daripada individu.
The Ringelmann effect is the tendency for individual members of a group to become increasingly less productive as the size of their group increases
chapter 8 teamworl
Study ObjectivesDefinition and types ofteamsWhat are the stages ofteam development?Developing effective teams
What is TEAM?Group of people with complementary skills, brought together to achieve acommon purpose for which they holdthemselves collectively accountable.
What Is the Difference Between Team & Teamwork TEAM TEAMWORKGroup of people with complementary when team members accept theirskills, brought together to achieve a collective responsibility to best usecommon purpose their skills by actively working together to achieve goals.Need to learn how to help one another, willingness of every member applyhelp other team members realize their their personal talents to the work,true potential, and create an cooperate, accept suggestions, andenvironment that allows everyone to go communicate well with the other teambeyond their limitations members. a focus on jointly resolving conflict,A team is any group of people organized building consensus, and refraining forto work together interdependently and any behaviors that would be disruptivecooperatively to meet the needs of their or distract the team from its task.customers by accomplishing a purposeand goals.
Team Formal Informal teams groupsOfficially designated to Emerge without beingserve a specific officially designated by theorganizational purpose. organization and without any purpose.Permanent - department - division Addition to the formal - team team, create their own interlocking networks in anTemporary – created to organization.solve specific problem anddissolve once the purpose Friendship group andaccomplish. interest group
Cross- functional teams Self- Problem-managing solving teams teams Formal groups Virtual Employee groups involvement teams
Cross-functional teams Problem-solving teams• members assigned from • specific task and temporally different functional departments. • Usually headed by chair persons or team leader• Work together with a positive who are accountable for combination of functional meeting the task goal. expertise. Employee involvement team• The advantages is better information and faster • Members meet regularly to decision making. collectively examine workplace issues.• Beat the functional silos • Example: Quality circle problem.
Virtual group Self-managing team• Members work together Small teams empowered to via computers make the decisions needed to manage themselves on a day-• Members can accomplish to-day basis. same tasks as other formal Duties often replace those teams without face to face. that were traditionally done by the manager.
Virtual group Advantage Disadvantages– Obvious cost and time – The lack of personal contact efficiency. between team members may– Focuses task impair development of work accomplishment and relationship and productivity. decision making– reducing the emotional – Group decisions are made in considerations that may a limited social context. surface in face-to-face meetings.– Electronic store for continuous access.
Self-managing Team Advantage Disadvantages– Productivity and quality – Structural changes in job improvements. classifications and management levels eliminate– Production flexibility and the need for first-line faster response to supervisors. technological change. – Managers must learn to deal– Reduced absenteeism and with teams rather than turnover. individuals. – Hard for team member to– Improved work attitudes and adjust to the self managing quality of work life. responsibilities.. – Supervisors who are displaced by self-managing teams may feel threatened.
FormingAdjourning Storming 5 Stages of Team Development Performing Norming
Task TeamPerformance Viability Members Satisfaction
a phenomenon that occurs when a team achieves greater results than the sum of its parts. people working together and accomplishing more through teamwork than by working alone. teams gain a clearer sense of direction, clarify roles and responsibilities, improve operating processes and bolster both interpersonal and interteam relationships.“synergy is the goal and it always should be.”
Make better Increase decisions commitments to actionImprove Help controlcreativity their membersGood for people Help offset large organization size
first, When there is no clear “expert” for a particular task orproblem, teams seem to make better judgments than does theaverage individual alone. Second, Teams are typically more successful than individuals when problems are complex, requiring a division of labor and the sharing of information Third, because of their tendencies to make riskier decisions, team can be more creative and innovative than individuals.
• Social loafing (ringelmann effect) - social facilitation - prevent social loafing• Personality conflicts• Uncertain or competing goals• Poorly defined agendas• Perception that team lacks progress
Technology – Important accessibility and contributors to reliabilityteam effectiveness include: Resources and setting Office design Sufficient (open spaces vs. resources small, isolated cubicles).
Team effectiveness is affected by the nature of the task• Well defined tasks contribute to effectiveness.• Complex tasks pose challenges of uncertainty, information needs, and team members interaction.• Provide intense satisfaction when achieved.• Technical demand vs social demand
Team composition – A team must have the right skills and competencies available for task performance and problem solving. – In homogeneous teams, members are very similar to one another. – In heterogeneous groups, members vary in age, gender, race, and ethnicity.