Battle of Long Island (NY)• Washington’s forces are only half the # of British and Hessian soldiers and British Navy.
• The Patriots are not as well disciplined, either. We have no real navy at the time. At least 1000 Patriots are captured, and 300 killed. A decisive win for the British.
• Washington retreats across the East River to Manhattan, then goes through a series of retreats and losses in New York.
• Washington sends Nathan Hale to spy on the British and discover their plans. He is caught by the British with their plans in the sole of his shoe, and they hang him.
Nathan Hale’s famous quote before the hanging:• “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
Feeling almost beaten, Washington takes his troops back across the Delaware.
Battle of Trenton (NJ)• Washington surprises the Hessians, and the Patriots take Trenton.
Washington takes Princeton by fooling Cornwallis.• Cornwallis thinks Washington’s troops are still @ Trenton, because the campfires are still lit, but Washington has already left for Princeton.
British conflict• Burgoyne wanted to take Albany, NY, and separate New England from the rest of the colonies.
• King George wanted to capture Philadelphia, which Howe did.
Burgoyne has trouble trying to get to Albany:• Benedict Arnold drives him back at Ft. Stanwix.• Physical Patriot obstacles
• He retakes Ticonderoga, but he loses at the Battle of Bennington (VT) .
• Green Mtn. Boys help out by going to New York.• Burgoyne is completely defeated at Saratoga (NY).
Battle of Saratoga-The Turning Point!• France becomes ally of American Patriots• New England no longer under British threat• Morale boost for Patriots
Foreign allies (individuals)• Marquis de Lafayette• Friedrich von Steuben• Thaddeus Kosciusko
Valley Forge, PA- the worst winter of all"Naked and starving as they are we cannot enough admire theincomparable patience and fidelity of the soldiery." –General GeorgeWashington at Valley Forge, February 16, 1778.