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Chapter 10 Sections 1 & 2


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Chapter 10 Sections 1 and 2

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Chapter 10 Sections 1 & 2

  1. 1. Our 3 rd President Jefferson’s Presidency
  2. 2. Jefferson wanted <ul><li>greater democracy </li></ul><ul><li>smaller role for the Federal Government </li></ul>
  3. 3. Economic Policies <ul><li>Keep the Federal debt low. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sec. of Treas. Gallatin reduced spending. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t. should take a laissez faire approach. Allow businesses and markets to operate without gov’t. interference. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Less Active Government <ul><li>Government only there for protection of citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced government departments and size of departments. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced military size. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cut federal budget. </li></ul><ul><li>Repealed Whiskey Tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Pardoned Sedition Act convictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Repealed Alien Act. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some Federalist policies left in place <ul><li>Bank of United States </li></ul><ul><li>State debts paid. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Federalists kept gov’t. jobs </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Supreme Court problem for Jefferson <ul><li>During Adams’ Presidency, Federalist controlled Congress passed a law adding more judges to the Supreme Court. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Adams made these appointments (all Federalists) after Jefferson was elected, but before he was inaugurated. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The last appointment was named Marbury. It was Adams’ last day.
  10. 10. <ul><li>The 1800 Congress, now mostly Republicans, hated the appointment. They called him a “midnight judge.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Jefferson told James Madison (his Sec. of State) not to deliver his appointment papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Marbury sued Madison. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Judicial Act said that cases against federal officials ( like Madison) had to go to the Supreme Court.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall( a Federalist appointed by Adams) said that the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional, anyway. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Marbury v. Madison was both good and bad for Jefferson. <ul><li>Marshall had ruled against Marbury. </li></ul><ul><li>The decision gave much more power to the Supreme Court to throw out laws passed by Congress. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Marshall set a precedent. <ul><li>This is called Judicial Review. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Chapter 10 Section 2
  17. 17. Trouble in New Orleans <ul><li>Vital to the U.S. for shipping and holding, Washington had worked out use of the port w/ Spain (Pinckney Treaty). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Questions about New Orleans Spain returned N.O. to France in 1800. Would Napoleon want to take over here, too?
  19. 19. <ul><li>Haiti’s revolution diverted his attentions long enough for Jefferson to make him an offer for the port. </li></ul><ul><li>Would he take $10 Million for New Orleans? </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Surprising Counter-Offer <ul><li>Talleyrand:How would you like to buy ALL of Louisiana? </li></ul><ul><li>Livingston: How about $4 Million? </li></ul><ul><li>Talleyrand: Too low. See me tomorrow. </li></ul>
  21. 21. What a Deal! <ul><li>Next day: Livingston buys ALL of Louisiana for $15 Million (The Louisiana Purchase) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Wait a minute… Is this Constitutional? <ul><li>Jefferson decided to call the land deal a treaty and Congress could approve it. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>They also appropriated the money for an expedition by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore what Jefferson had bought. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>While staying with the Mandans in the plains of North Dakota, they met Sacagawea and her French Canadian husband. She helped them negotiate with other Indians, including the Shoshone tribes. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>During their trip across the Rockies, they crossed the Continental Divide. They brought back invaluable information about people, animals, land, and vegetation along the way. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Zebulon Pike explored present-day Colorado and New Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Pike’s Peak in Colorado is named for him. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>The first westward settlement was mainly along the MS River, and particularly, New Orleans. Louisiana had a large enough population for statehood by 1812. </li></ul>