Grammar is :………………………
- partly the study of what forms (or
structure) are possible in a language.
- a description of rules that govern how
language sentences are formed.
- the study of syntax and morphology of
sentences. Syntax is the system of rules
that cover the order of words in a sentence.
Morphology is the system of rules that
cover the formation of words.
The pioneer Definition
Grammar is a description of the rules for
forming sentences, including an account of
the meaning that these forms convey.
Kinds ( approaches) of
What are some of the
kinds (approaches) of
2- Historical Grammar
Changes in word and sentence
constructions in a language over the
years, e.g. how old English, middle
English and modern English differ
from one another.
3- Comparative Grammar
4- Functional Grammar
This Grammar investigates how
words and word order are used in
social contexts to get messages
6- Grammar translation
As its name suggests, took grammar
as the starting point for instruction.
Grammar –Translation courses
followed a grammar syllabus and
lessons typically began with an explicit
There are four common
1- Traditional Grammar.
2- Immediate constituent
3- Tagmemic Grammar.
It had the tendency to plan for
language instead of just reporting
how it actually goes.
Traditional grammars established
the famous”8” parts of speech:
Verb, Adverb, Noun, pronoun,
adjective, Preposition, conjunction
It also categorizes the words within
a certain sentence into subject,
It assumes that every English
sentence can be divided into two
units; each unit can be divided
into further two, and so on till the
word level is reached.
According to the tagmemic
grammar there are two bases for
classification: inflectional and
Inflectional or”morphological”: A
word is a noun if it can talk the
plural morpheme. A word is a verb
if it can take (ing) or the past
morpheme. A word is an adjective
if it can take (er or est). Functional
or “syntactic” classes are
determined by the function of a
This grammar is the modern linguistic
theory. It is represented as a reaction to
all previous grammar theories. Its main
notions are: A- Every sentence has a deep
structure and a surface structure.
B- The deep structure is turned into
a surface one through optional and
obligatory transformational rules.
C- Grammar accounts for all
linguistic facts explicity without leaving
some facts to the reader’s intelligence.
D- This grammar is supposed to be
formal, e.g. symbolized and quasi
mathematical because it uses symbols,
Here you start with the
presentation of a rule and followed
by examples in which the rule
Here you start with some
examples from which a rule is
Step 1: The Grammar Structure:
3 steps for an easy
2- Grammar errors:
Mistakes in verb form and tense.
E.g. The door bell rangs. We speaked.
Or mistakes in sentence structure.
E.g. was four o’clock, where is the subject
of the clause (It) has been left out.
3- Discourse errors:
4- Pronunciation errors (in
There are some grammatical
drills that help pupils to be
familiar with grammar and
develop there accuracy and
Pupils cannot perform these drills
without knowing the meaning of the
new language because they focus on
content instead of the form. Such as,
restatement drill, rejoined drill,
question and answer drill and