Update on Latest  Technology Developments for Specialized   Equipment Used in Thermal Processes to Promote Efficiency and ...
Residue Upgrading Technologies Catalytic options <ul><li>RFCC unit </li></ul><ul><li>Ebullated Bed Hydrocrackers  </li></u...
Residue Upgrading  Catalytic Options- Overview <ul><li>All catalytic processes mentioned have been in operation except Uni...
Residue Upgrading Catalytic options <ul><li>RFCC is natural extension of FCC for residue upgrading which is the major work...
Residue Upgrading Catalytic options <ul><li>Uniflex is UOP process for residue upgrading and uses slurry reactor to perfor...
Residue Upgrading Catalytic options <ul><li>Hydrotreating/Hydrocracking and  hydrotreating/FCC/Hydrocracking have been pra...
Residue Upgrading Technologies Thermal Process <ul><li>Visbreaker </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed Coker </li></ul><ul><li>SDA/Co...
Thermal Upgrading Processes   <ul><li>Visbreaker </li></ul><ul><li>Provides low conversions so does not provide the comple...
Thermal Upgrading Processes   <ul><li>Delayed Coker </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed Coker provides good economics for residue de...
<ul><li>SDA/DCU </li></ul><ul><li>SDA provides DAO which can be sent to FCC. SDA/DCU economics is enhanced compared to Del...
<ul><li>Hydrogen Donor Visbreaking </li></ul><ul><li>Exxon and Gulf have patents but the process has not been commercializ...
<ul><li>New Concept Rotary Kiln Option </li></ul><ul><li>Refining Hydrocarbon Technologies LLC </li></ul><ul><li>has devel...
<ul><li>NEW CONCEPT ROTARY KILN OPTION </li></ul><ul><li>The rotary kiln is capable of upgrading the product by removing t...
<ul><li>New Concept Rotary Kiln Option </li></ul><ul><li>Process can be applied to residue, Shale, Oil Sands and biomass w...
FIGURE 1   Resid UPGRADER FURNACE Heavy Crude/Resid KILN To Fractionator for separation of  liquid fractions COKE  Pellets...
FIGURE 2   Resid Upgrading FURNACE Heavy Crude/Resid 1 KILN To Fractionator for separation of fractions COKE Pellets/ oil ...
FIGURE 3   SHALE/OIL SANDS/BIOMASS   on purpose on site 111 KILN To Fractionator for separation of fractions Residual Shal...
RHT-Rotary Kiln Process  For Resid upgrading <ul><li>Thermal processes in general have lower Capex and Opex than Catalytic...
Catalytic Reactor Types Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>CSTR </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Bed down flow or Expanded bed up...
Catalytic Reactor Types Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Reactive Distillation (RD)  </li></ul><ul><li>Channel Reactor...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>CSTR </li></ul><ul><li>CSTR are used in petrochemical, pharmaceutica...
Catalytic Reactor Types Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>CSTR </li></ul><ul><li>CSTR application are common in batch p...
Catalytic Reactor Types Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>FIXED BED REACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed bed down flow reac...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>FIXED BED   </li></ul><ul><li>Up flow expanded bed reactors are adva...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RHT FIXED BED SMART TM  Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>RHT Fixed be...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RHT FIXED BED SMART TM  Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Config...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RHT FIXED BED Smart Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Configurat...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>Published data on reactive distillation that reflux washing action o...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>FIXED BED   </li></ul><ul><li>Up flow expanded bed reactors are simi...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>FCCU </li></ul><ul><li>FCCU riser cracking is most common in refinin...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>FCCU </li></ul><ul><li>Some of petrochemicals, Acrylonitrile/Phathal...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>SLURRY REACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Slurry reactors are used mostly by...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>Reactive Distillation (RD) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive distillation v...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>The Ethers and hydrogenation reactions are conducted at 40 to 60 C, ...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RD   </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline HDS published articles suggest CDHyd...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RD   </li></ul><ul><li>The reactive distillation should have higher ...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RD   </li></ul><ul><li>RD Benzene Saturation based on kinetics needs...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RD   </li></ul><ul><li>Isomerization of feeds, like 1-butene to 2-bu...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>Reactive distillation for additional  capacity, will need another tr...
Catalytic Reactor  Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>CHANNEL REACTOR   </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the problems of Reactive...
RHT Portfolio <ul><li>Please see website  www.rhtgulfcoast.com </li></ul><ul><li>and linkedin for other details and presen...
RHT Thank You  Refining Hydrocarbon Technologies LLC 20130 Chateau Bend Drive Katy ( Houston Suburb),  Texas 77450 USA Dr....
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Bbtc 2011 Dubrovnik ( Th International Bottom Of The Barrel Technology Conference

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Heavy Oil developments in existing technology development to new technology and equipment

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Bbtc 2011 Dubrovnik ( Th International Bottom Of The Barrel Technology Conference

  1. 1. Update on Latest Technology Developments for Specialized Equipment Used in Thermal Processes to Promote Efficiency and Plant safety Dr. Amarjit Bakshi President Refining Hydrocarbon Technologies Texas, USA. www.rhtgulfcoast.com Presented at BBTC 9 th International Bottom of the barrel Technology Conference 15 & 16 June, 2011 Rixos Libertas, Dubrovnik, Croatia RHT
  2. 2. Residue Upgrading Technologies Catalytic options <ul><li>RFCC unit </li></ul><ul><li>Ebullated Bed Hydrocrackers </li></ul><ul><li>UOP Uniflex Process </li></ul><ul><li>SDA/Uniflex </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrotreating/Hydrocracking </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrotreat/FCC/Hydrocracking </li></ul>RHT
  3. 3. Residue Upgrading Catalytic Options- Overview <ul><li>All catalytic processes mentioned have been in operation except Uniflex, and provide upgrading which enhances the economics. But most have high Capex and Opex, due to catalyst, complex design, maintenance, feed metals and upgrading requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>But in last 10 to 15 years with the Crude price quadrupling these technologies have become viable, and are used more and more due to upgrading. </li></ul>RHT
  4. 4. Residue Upgrading Catalytic options <ul><li>RFCC is natural extension of FCC for residue upgrading which is the major work horse in the refinery to produce gasoline. RFCC uses more catalyst and due to additional coke, design is modified for heat balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ebullated bed hydrocrackers, LC-Fining and H-oil have been used more and more in last 15 years in syncrude resid upgrading. The processes have high Capex and Opex. In 1980 to 1990 these were used very seldom and had economic viability issues when Crude cost was much lower. </li></ul>RHT
  5. 5. Residue Upgrading Catalytic options <ul><li>Uniflex is UOP process for residue upgrading and uses slurry reactor to perform the hydrocracking. First impression are that it might be less Capex and opex intensive than ebullated bed hydrocrackers, only market forces and commercialization will prove it. </li></ul><ul><li>SDA/Uniflex provides an option to send the DAO to FCC and uniflex is used on residue asphalt so the unit size is smaller and gives better economics. </li></ul>RHT
  6. 6. Residue Upgrading Catalytic options <ul><li>Hydrotreating/Hydrocracking and hydrotreating/FCC/Hydrocracking have been practiced for considerable time and does need any comments except does not provide the complete solution to residue destruction and upgrading. </li></ul>RHT
  7. 7. Residue Upgrading Technologies Thermal Process <ul><li>Visbreaker </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed Coker </li></ul><ul><li>SDA/Coker </li></ul><ul><li>Flexicoker </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Donor Visbreaking </li></ul><ul><li>New Concept Rotary Kiln option </li></ul>RHT
  8. 8. Thermal Upgrading Processes <ul><li>Visbreaker </li></ul><ul><li>Provides low conversions so does not provide the complete solution for residue destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed Coker </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed Coker is widely used residue upgrading and has been used more and more in last 10 years all over the world especially due to Syncrude applications. Delayed Coker has been used by North American refiners for long time to improve the refinery economics. </li></ul>RHT Confidential
  9. 9. Thermal Upgrading Processes <ul><li>Delayed Coker </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed Coker provides good economics for residue destruction at high Capex. It is cumbersome to operate the Coke drums/ cutting rotator head with water jets at high pressure, removing of coke from drums in cyclic operation. Process has safety issues, and OSHA document on hazards of DCU provides guide for operators. </li></ul>RHT Confidential 9
  10. 10. <ul><li>SDA/DCU </li></ul><ul><li>SDA provides DAO which can be sent to FCC. SDA/DCU economics is enhanced compared to Delayed Coker only by reducing the size of unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexicoker </li></ul><ul><li>Flexicoker with low BTU gas product at high Capex, has marginal economics. Exxon refineries have used at few locations. Two units have been licensed outside Exxon to other refiners, last one being to Hellenic in 2008. </li></ul>RHT Thermal Upgrading Processes 10
  11. 11. <ul><li>Hydrogen Donor Visbreaking </li></ul><ul><li>Exxon and Gulf have patents but the process has not been commercialized. The process is an extension of visbreaking, where some of gas oil is hydrogenated and is recycled back to visbreaker and one can essentially go to destruction of residue. But did not show that much of promise even though pilot work was done until about 1985 by Gulf Canada so as to apply it for syncrude applications. </li></ul>RHT Thermal Upgrading Processes 11
  12. 12. <ul><li>New Concept Rotary Kiln Option </li></ul><ul><li>Refining Hydrocarbon Technologies LLC </li></ul><ul><li>has developed a new concept where Coker drums are replaced by a rotary kiln after the furnace which provides the coke in pellets/ Chunks, and the gas product is fed to the existing fractionator, same as in a Coker. </li></ul><ul><li>The option provides easy coke handling solution, coke comes out of the kiln as small pallets/ balls/chunks, with same liquid yields. </li></ul>RHT Thermal Upgrading Processes
  13. 13. <ul><li>NEW CONCEPT ROTARY KILN OPTION </li></ul><ul><li>The rotary kiln is capable of upgrading the product by removing the metals and also desulfurizing simple sulfur species by hydrogenation catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept is explained in Figures 1 to 3 and provides better economics. It is much easier and safer to operate compared to classical Delayed Coker operation. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>RHT Thermal Upgrading Processes
  14. 14. <ul><li>New Concept Rotary Kiln Option </li></ul><ul><li>Process can be applied to residue, Shale, Oil Sands and biomass with much better economics than any of the onsite above ground processes being used is patented for applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Process does not use any water hence no waste water produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Rotary Kiln operates under moderate positive pressure to meet the process requirements, so gas produced is fed to the fractionator. Additional information can be provided under NDA. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>RHT Thermal Upgrading Processes
  15. 15. FIGURE 1 Resid UPGRADER FURNACE Heavy Crude/Resid KILN To Fractionator for separation of liquid fractions COKE Pellets/ oil to Storage Binding Agent RHT
  16. 16. FIGURE 2 Resid Upgrading FURNACE Heavy Crude/Resid 1 KILN To Fractionator for separation of fractions COKE Pellets/ oil To storage Catalyst recycle Hydrogen Catalyst removal screen Binding Agent RHT Catalyst recycle/removal Catalyst Addition Catalyst Removal
  17. 17. FIGURE 3 SHALE/OIL SANDS/BIOMASS on purpose on site 111 KILN To Fractionator for separation of fractions Residual Shale, Sand waste or Biomass To Disposal Fuel gas Syncrude to Storage or to Figure 2 for upgrading Residual Shale/Sand Seperator Screen 1 Shale/Oil sand Or Biomass RHT
  18. 18. RHT-Rotary Kiln Process For Resid upgrading <ul><li>Thermal processes in general have lower Capex and Opex than Catalytic processes for Resid upgrading. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotary Kiln Process provides Paradigm shift, </li></ul><ul><li>coke pellets or chunks as product </li></ul><ul><li>Similar liquid yields as Delayed Coker or better. </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of upgrading the products </li></ul><ul><li>Safer operation, cost effective, no mechanical or hydraulic equipment required for coke cutting. </li></ul>RHT
  19. 19. Catalytic Reactor Types Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>CSTR </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Bed down flow or Expanded bed up flow reactors </li></ul><ul><li>FCCU </li></ul><ul><li>Slurry Reactors </li></ul><ul><li>Ebullated bed Reactors </li></ul>RHT
  20. 20. Catalytic Reactor Types Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Reactive Distillation (RD) </li></ul><ul><li>Channel Reactors </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramic membrane reactors </li></ul>RHT
  21. 21. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>CSTR </li></ul><ul><li>CSTR are used in petrochemical, pharmaceutical and refining industry. Classical example is Sulfuric Acid alkylation process. It is effective, in Alkylation it uses lot of power, requires maintenance but this is due to nature of the process design. </li></ul>RTH
  22. 22. Catalytic Reactor Types Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>CSTR </li></ul><ul><li>CSTR application are common in batch processes and had its advantages with homogeneous catalysts. </li></ul>RHT
  23. 23. Catalytic Reactor Types Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>FIXED BED REACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed bed down flow reactors are used </li></ul><ul><li>commonly in refinery/petrochemical plants. If designed properly one can avoid channeling and have good catalyst life/utilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Bed reactors are economical and may need standard internals, some licensors provide proprietary distributors . </li></ul>RHT
  24. 24. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>FIXED BED </li></ul><ul><li>Up flow expanded bed reactors are advantageous in avoiding hot spots and channeling. Need proper design so as to keep feed velocity low and avoid losing the catalyst. Normally suffer from higher Capex than down flow reactors . </li></ul>RHT
  25. 25. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RHT FIXED BED SMART TM Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>RHT Fixed bed are conventional reactors, and may be a side reactor to a fractionator based on process requirement. Smart configuration, uses multiple draw off from column, reactor effluent is returned to the column. Smart configuration provides multiple stages of reaction and separation without increasing the column size, provides multiple stages at low cost. </li></ul>RHT
  26. 26. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RHT FIXED BED SMART TM Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Configuration emulates multiple reaction and separation stages in series, providing maximum conversion/yield, selectivity and removes the equilibrium constraints with out increasing the column, reboiler or condenser size. For close or wide boiling products in the column it still works. Major process efficiency is realized with proper selection of multiple draw off and reactor effluent returning to the column. </li></ul>RHT
  27. 27. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RHT FIXED BED Smart Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Configuration is superior alternative than Reactive distillation. Volume of packaged catalyst with low density for distillation, column/condenser size are much bigger, due to heat of reaction and is paid off for extra equipment used in Smart configuration in 3 to 12 month, depending on the application. </li></ul><ul><li>Published data on longer catalyst life for reactive distillation verses fixed bed has not been proven by unit operation and chemical engineering principles. </li></ul>RHT
  28. 28. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>Published data on reactive distillation that reflux washing action of the catalyst provides longer catalyst life verses fixed bed operation is not borne by unit operation principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Washing action of catalyst beds is normal in all HDS reactors where fresh feed is washing the catalyst very close to coking conditions, still catalyst life is comparable in both applications. </li></ul>RHT RHT FIXED BED SMART CONFIGURATION
  29. 29. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>FIXED BED </li></ul><ul><li>Up flow expanded bed reactors are similar in performance, except advantageous in avoiding hot spots but need proper design so as to keep feed velocity low and avoid losing the catalyst. </li></ul>RHT
  30. 30. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>FCCU </li></ul><ul><li>FCCU riser cracking is most common in refining applications. The coking takes place very quickly and catalyst is regenerated all the time by burning the coke on the catalyst. FCCU is cost effective and due to requirements of the process it is widely used for gasoline production in refinery operation. </li></ul>RHT
  31. 31. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>FCCU </li></ul><ul><li>Some of petrochemicals, Acrylonitrile/Phathalic anhydride/VCM, polymerization reactions and now gasifiers for power generation use fluid bed processes for performance advantages which make FCCU cost effective. </li></ul>RHT
  32. 32. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>SLURRY REACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Slurry reactors are used mostly by suspending fine particles of catalyst in reactant and used in some of the hydrogenation and other chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages are maximizing surface area of catalyst available for reaction, mass transfer and heat of reaction from the catalyst is taken away by reactants, providing better efficiency. </li></ul>RHT
  33. 33. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>Reactive Distillation (RD) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive distillation verses Fixed Bed reactors articles published to date have stated the advantages of RD over Fixed bed reactors in all technologies, like Ethers, all hydrogenation and HDS, dimerization, isomerization, Benzene saturation applications in following areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Capex, Opex, longer catalyst life, higher conversion and overcoming equilibrium constrains, but Chemical engineering unit operation and kinetic principles do not prove it. </li></ul>RHT
  34. 34. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>The Ethers and hydrogenation reactions are conducted at 40 to 60 C, coke cannot form based on unit operation principles. Problem due to poison in Fixed bed recycle is less pronounced compared to Reactive distillation, as reflux will bring the poison back. Reflux washes the catalyst provides longer life does not meet the engineering scrutiny in any application. </li></ul>RHT RD
  35. 35. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RD </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline HDS published articles suggest CDHydro and CDHDS will meet 10 to 15 wppm sulfur. But MCN has maximum olefins/ H2S from CDHDS hence mercaptan will form, and spec will not be met. To meet the spec, it needs another stage of HDS making three stages, increasing the Capex by 20 to 30 percent compared to fixed beds gasoline HDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline HDS reflux cannot enhance catalyst life. If MCN olefins get to severe conditions, below feed and come in contact with additional catalyst volume, octane loss will increase per unit operation principles. </li></ul>RHT
  36. 36. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RD </li></ul><ul><li>The reactive distillation should have higher Opex, catalyst life equal or less than Fixed Bed units based on kinetic and chemical engineering basic principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Reactive distillation publication claims that there are savings in Capex due to less equipment. But based on catalyst/packing cost, the extra equipment can be paid off in 3 to 12 months. Essentially Smart configuration provides better yield/Opex and in some cases lower Capex making it best option. </li></ul>RHT
  37. 37. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RD </li></ul><ul><li>RD Benzene Saturation based on kinetics needs, will operate at higher pressure, that requires high level heat source. Fixed bed can operate at optimum distillation conditions at lower pressure. As the feed is clean both Fixed bed and Reactive Distillation catalyst should have similar life, but Reactive distillation column and condenser will be much larger due to heat of reaction vapor generation. Need for high level heat requires Furnace/HPS increasing Capex/Opex. </li></ul>RHT
  38. 38. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>RD </li></ul><ul><li>Isomerization of feeds, like 1-butene to 2-butene or vice versa, needs huge catalyst. In finite catalyst system, components are in equilibrium, before those could be separated. RHT multiple side draw off concept from column, side reactors, provides best yield, less catalyst volume, smaller column and Opex. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>RHT
  39. 39. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>Reactive distillation for additional capacity, will need another train. Fixed bed capacity expansion is easy by installing additional reactor(s), revamping the stripper/stabilizer capacity to 50 percent with high efficiency trays, which will be lower than new train for reactive distillation </li></ul>RHT RD
  40. 40. Catalytic Reactor Advantages & disadvantages <ul><li>CHANNEL REACTOR </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the problems of Reactive distillation system are common with channel reactor. Both the systems are prohibitive for high pressure systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramic Membrane Reactors </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane reactors are developing and have potential considered for dehydrogenation, oxidation and other reactions. The benefit are lower Capex, higher efficiency and overcome the equilibrium constraints. </li></ul>RHT
  41. 41. RHT Portfolio <ul><li>Please see website www.rhtgulfcoast.com </li></ul><ul><li>and linkedin for other details and presentations attached to profile. </li></ul><ul><li>RHT LLC provides technology for Oil and gas production from Shale Frac/Oil Sands/ Biomass and heavy oil production by new concept which does not produce any liquid or gases waste and has better economics than available options. </li></ul><ul><li>Please contact us and look up the Patents/IP. </li></ul>RHT
  42. 42. RHT Thank You Refining Hydrocarbon Technologies LLC 20130 Chateau Bend Drive Katy ( Houston Suburb), Texas 77450 USA Dr. Amarjit Bakshi Phone 281-398-8408/281-235-7780 E-mail:abakshi@rhtgulfcoast.com www.rhtgulfcoast.com

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