Stormwater Regulation In Wa April 2010


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Washington State Stormwater Regulation and Compliance for Industrial and Construction Sites. From a CLE presentation I gave on April 27, 2010 in Seattle.

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Stormwater Regulation In Wa April 2010

  1. 1. STORMWATER GENERAL PERMITS IN WASHINGTON: COMPLIANCE REQUIREMENTS AND ADVICE Allan Bakalian Zeno Drake Bakalian P.S. 4020 Lake Washington Blvd. Kirkland, WA 98033 425 822-1511 [email_address]
  2. 2. Allan Bakalian is a partner with Zeno Drake Bakalian P.S. in Kirkland, WA. He has practiced environmental law in Washington and Oregon for over twenty years. He began his career as an Assistant Regional Counsel for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Seattle, spent 9 years as Senior Environmental Counsel for Univar USA, and has been in private practice since 2001. He has expertise in hazardous waste investigations and cleanups, regulatory compliance and enforcement actions, stormwater and sediment contamination, natural resource protection, real estate due diligence and transactions, zoning and land use. Mr. Bakalian has counseled and successfully represented individuals and business clients in numerous environmental, land use, regulatory enforcement and permitting matters, administrative appeals and litigation. He earned his J.D. degree, with honors, from Lewis and Clark Law School in Portland, Oregon.
  3. 3. Stormwater – The Big Picture
  4. 4. Stormwater Pollution Sources <ul><li>Runoff from construction sites </li></ul><ul><li>Urban and municipal stormwater runoff from roads and commercial development to storm sewer systems </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial stormwater runoff and collection to stormwater sewers </li></ul><ul><li>Sand and gravel operations </li></ul>
  5. 5. STORMWATER REGULATION <ul><li>Federal regulation by EPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Water Act NPDES Permits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stormwater permits in Non-Delegated States </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Washington Dept. of Ecology Stormwater General Permits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand and Gravel, et al. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Stormwater General Permit Regulation in Washington <ul><li>Ecology now administers each of the four stormwater general NPDES permit programs through a delegation of authority by EPA, pursuant to RCW 90.48. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology has targeted and focused on improving stormwater quality and reducing stormwater quantity from all four regulated sources </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, the legislature created the Puget Sound Partnership to oversee and implement over $238 million to clean up and restore the Puget Sound, its habitat and native species, earmarking $29M to reduce stormwater runoff </li></ul>
  7. 7. Industrial Stormwater Industrial Stormwater Sources
  8. 8. Industrial Stormwater Sources <ul><li>Over 1280 industrial stormwater permit applications in Washington </li></ul><ul><li>General Permit focus on stormwater management for a broad spectrum of facilities with similar pollutant-generating activities, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impervious surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles and petroleum usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt, dust, debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Industrial Stormwater Discharges
  10. 10. Ecology Industrial Stormwater General Permit (ISWGP) <ul><li>Re-Issued October 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Effective January 1, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Regulating/Self-Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus Based Work Group (2008-2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Rewritten in “plain English” </li></ul><ul><li>Technical revisions to benchmarks and action levels </li></ul>
  11. 11. New and Improved ISWGP? <ul><li>SWPPP implementation required </li></ul><ul><li>BMPs to be revised as necessary to achieve incremental compliance </li></ul><ul><li>New reduced benchmarks for zinc and copper (required monitoring) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows facility to suspend sampling if runoff meets benchmark for four consecutive quarters </li></ul>
  12. 12. ISWGP APPEAL <ul><li>Boeing, Gunderson Rail, Copper Development Association </li></ul><ul><li>Columbia Riverkeeper, Puget Soundkeeper Alliance, </li></ul><ul><li>Olympians for Public Accountability, Arthur West </li></ul><ul><li>Case scheduled to be argued before PCHB October 18, 2010 </li></ul>
  13. 13. ISWGP APPEAL <ul><li>Appeal involves challenges to Ecology’s jurisdiction, permit coverage, SWPPP conditions, sampling requirements, benchmarks, discharge effluent limitations, inspections, corrective action timelines and triggers, treatment BMPs, reporting and recordkeeping, and treatment requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Permit conditions in effect pending appeal outcome </li></ul>
  14. 14. ISWGP Compliance Requirements <ul><li>Permit Coverage by SIC code (S1) </li></ul><ul><li>Permit Application (S2) </li></ul><ul><li>SWPPP (S3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signature and Submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMPs to protect water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sampling (S4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarterly Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First storm after Oct. 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample anytime during discharge </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. ISWGP Compliance Requirements, Cont’d <ul><li>Benchmarks (S5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington Specific for Copper and Zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspections (S7) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CISM (certified industrial stormwater manager) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corrective Action (Adaptive Management) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 4 triggers regulatory action </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Major Changes to ISWGP <ul><li>Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational source control BMPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum paved surfaces with sweeper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cover dumpsters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean catch basins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect vehicles and equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Properly store chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent rainfall from accumulating in containment areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Major Changes to ISWGP, Con’t <ul><ul><li>Operational source control BMPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Block drains during fueling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain spill log </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent runoff to manufacturing areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect and treat wash water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SWPPP to be signed by Permittee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each distinct off-site point (unless substantially identical outfalls) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample within first 12 hours of discharge </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Major Changes to ISWGP, Con’t <ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample discharge from first fall storm event after October 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four consecutive quarters of samples required for benchmark attainment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quarterly DMRs and Visual Insp. Worksheets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarks and Effluent Limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copper (14 ug/L westside, 32 ug/L eastside) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect discharge locations for visible sheen (oil and grease deleted) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH range is now 5.0 – 9.0, was 6.0- 9.0 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Major Changes to ISWGP, Con’t <ul><ul><li>303(d) Listed Waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effluent limits for discharges to impaired waters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly inspections required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 - For two consecutive quarters above benchmark values (structural source control BMPs required) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 - For two consecutive quarters above benchmark values (treatment BMPs required) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revise SWPPP; document in Annual Report </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Major Changes to ISWGP, Con’t <ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All permittees must submit an Annual Report by May 15 (beginning 2011) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual report must document all Level 1, 2, and 3 corrective actions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Compliance and Inspection Issues
  22. 22. Compliance Inspections <ul><li>Ecology inspects about 50% of permitted facilities each year </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWPPP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate BMPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling, Analysis, Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH, turbidity, total zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible oil sheen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>90% not in compliance with all permit requirements </li></ul>
  23. 23. Inspections Targets <ul><li>Material storage/stormwater contact </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment and container spills and leaks </li></ul><ul><li>Loading and unloading; storage activities </li></ul><ul><li>Dust and airborne contaminants </li></ul><ul><li>Catch Basins </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater and combined sewer drain lines </li></ul>
  24. 24. Joint Inspections <ul><li>Ecology and Seattle Public Utilities using Puget Sound Partnership $$ </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on individual drainages (e.g., Lower Duwamish River Basin) </li></ul><ul><li>240 storm drain outfalls </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping Combined Sewer lines </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating stormwater discharges to combined sewer pipelines </li></ul>
  25. 25. Joint Inspection Targets
  26. 26. Joint Inspections <ul><li>Wastewater discharge compliance and permits </li></ul><ul><li>Commingled Process and stormwater catch basins </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge monitoring (in line grabs and sediment traps) </li></ul><ul><li>Source control </li></ul><ul><li>Sediment contamination source identification </li></ul>
  27. 27. Joint Inspections <ul><li>Material storage/stormwater contact </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment and container spills and leaks </li></ul><ul><li>Loading and unloading; material storage areas </li></ul><ul><li>Quarterly DMRs and Benchmark compliance/ SWPPP revisions </li></ul><ul><li>Catch Basins </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater and combined sewer drain lines (dye testing) </li></ul>
  28. 28. 2002-2007 Enforcement <ul><li>Informal (warning letter) - 549 </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Penalty – 22 </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Order – 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Notice of Violation - 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Notice of Correction -1 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Stormwater Sampling
  30. 30. Industrial Stormwater Compliance and Enforcement Target Issues <ul><li>Permit Status </li></ul><ul><li>SWPPP implementation and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling/Discharge Monitoring Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarterly Sampling for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turbidity (Benchmark is 25 NTUs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH (Benchmark is between 5.0 – 9.0) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil Sheen (Benchmark is no visible oil sheen) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copper (14 ug/L) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc (117 ug/L) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Industrial Stormwater Compliance and Enforcement Issues <ul><li>Additional Sampling Requirements for Specific Industries (S.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Fall Storm Event (after October 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect samples within 12 hours of stormwater discharge (unless outside of normal business hours or ‘not possible’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative Sample from each distinct offsite discharge location (unless substantially similar source and site conditions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspections (visual inspection by qualified person each month) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report permit violations/Notification of illicit discharges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection report log </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Industrial Stormwater Compliance and Enforcement Issues <ul><li>DMR Reporting Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarterly DMR within 45 days of end of quarter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offsite discharge location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document and report sampling of any other pollutant(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document “no discharge” quarters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annual Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due by May 15 beginning 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecology form report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document corrective action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Records to be kept for five years </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Industrial Stormwater Compliance and Inspection Tips <ul><li>Focus on Process and Documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWPPP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DMRs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection Logs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective Action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify ways to improve process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess Drainage ‘basins’ and collection system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate Sheet Flow (e.g., a Point Source) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify problem areas and consider catch basin treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate covering process areas (No Exposure Certificate?) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Industrial Stormwater Compliance and Inspection Tips <ul><li>Know your stormwater and municipal wastewater pipelines and discharges </li></ul><ul><li>Educate your employees </li></ul><ul><li>Assign responsibility for compliance in all process areas subject to rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the reporting and corrective action procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and revise SWPPP annually even if no corrective action </li></ul>
  35. 35. Washington Construction Stormwater General Permit <ul><li>Clearing, grading or excavation of one acre or more </li></ul><ul><li>Permit Status (2005 -2010) </li></ul><ul><li>SWPPP </li></ul><ul><li>BMPs </li></ul><ul><li>Inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul>
  36. 36. Inspection Target Points <ul><li>Permit and SWPPP </li></ul><ul><li>BMPs (silt fences, catch basin protection, soil stabilization) </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking in Roadway </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion and riling </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Turbidity, pH </li></ul>
  37. 37. Construction Stormwater Compliance Issues
  38. 38. Construction Stormwater Discharges
  39. 39. Soil Stabilization
  40. 40. Runoff
  41. 41. Sediment Entering Catch Basin
  42. 42. Improper Cover/Stabilization
  43. 43. What Happens When Things Go Wrong <ul><li>Ecology issues inspection report with necessary corrections (technical assistance) </li></ul><ul><li>Warning Letter or 2 nd Inspection if no follow up or corrective action </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to discuss and resolve BMP compliance </li></ul>
  44. 44. What Happens When Things Go Wrong <ul><li>Notice of Violation (last chance to comply) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Administrative Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance deadline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative is to appeal within 30 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution Control Hearings Board (PCHB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential benefits of appealing orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential detriments of appealing orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homeowner intervention </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Responding to Ecology Notice <ul><li>First line of defense is timely compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Second line of defense is the written response </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to respond is not an option! </li></ul><ul><li>Determine responsibility for response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CESCL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawyer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultant </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Ecology Civil Penalty Actions (When too Late to Resolve) <ul><li>Typical Violations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No permit or SWPPP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate SWPPP/BMPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting and Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Quality Violations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action Levels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Ecology Civil Penalty Actions <ul><li>Seek technical and legal advice </li></ul><ul><li>30 days to file appeal with PCHB or </li></ul><ul><li>Request for Mitigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presented to Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determination by Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can appeal to PCHB </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. PCHB Appeals <ul><li>Formal Notice of Appeal filed and served </li></ul><ul><li>PCHB scheduling order </li></ul><ul><li>Prehearing Statement and Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Prehearing Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Document Request and Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement Negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Appeal </li></ul>
  49. 49. Enforcement Issues and Pitfalls <ul><li>Operator and/or Owner Personal Liability </li></ul><ul><li>Employee and/or manager liability </li></ul><ul><li>City ordinances and code requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Construction at partially completed residential plats (HOAs, access and common areas) </li></ul><ul><li>Property Sales and Permit Transfers (subject to written Agr. and approval) </li></ul><ul><li>Permit Termination (100% stabilization subject to Ecology Approval) </li></ul>
  50. 50. Problems can arise at uncompleted developments still under permit
  51. 51. Lessons learned to avoid problems <ul><ul><li>Plan ahead before clearing (LID?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain Permit and Prepare a practical SWPPP before digging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare inspection reports and file DMRs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain BMPs and address failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversight and inspection is critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address any complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOA control </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. FIVE POINT COMPLIANCE SUMMARY <ul><li>Obtain Permit and Develop SWPPP Before Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Implement and Maintain BMPS (CESCL) </li></ul><ul><li>Undertake Corrective Action and Update BMPs (and SWPPP) as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Respond timely to inspection reports, warning letters, orders and NOVs </li></ul><ul><li>Terminate or transfer permit as soon as possible </li></ul>