What is Civil Service?

A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of
professional me...
had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly
responsible for the creation of a clas...
1847, that "the long duration of the Chinese empire is solely and altogether owing to the
good government which consists i...
-

positions are established centrally and classified according to rank;

-

bureaucrats are paid a salary and pension tha...
Lateral entry

There

points

external lateral entry at senior grades;

(internal

are

often

impediments

to

or

there ...
Political

Modern spoils systems

Merit systems arise under mature

arrangements

are

democracies

and the civil-

behind...
established on January 20, 1899. The objective was to formulate the criteria for
employment of Filipinos in the government...
government service throughout the period of 1899-1920. The period 1913-1921 marked
the rapid Filipinization of Civil Servi...
administrative reform in the country’s history. The IRP provided for decentralizing and
reducing the bureaucracy, and stan...
1989, p.12). Taking advantage of its revolutionary character, the Aquino Government
resorted to a purge of thousands of ci...
had the same fate as that of the Ramos Administration’s plan. The so-called ― Edsa Dos ―
or another ― people power ―, mobi...
responsibility in the national government structure, it is also tasked to render final
arbitration on disputes and personn...
servant. “Lingkod bayani” is a play on the terms “lingkod bayan” (public servant) and
“bayani” (hero), thus associating st...
Francisco

Duque

III,

MD,

MSc.

Chairman, Philippine Civil Service Commission
He completed his medical education from t...
namely, cases adjudication, examination administration, and appointments processing,
that meets international standards.

...
of the Center for International Trade Expositions and Missions from 1994 to 2002, and as
Corporate Secretary to the Citem ...
The Philippine Civil Service System faces tougher challenges, given the premiere of
globalization, the growing trend towar...
always be kept so that the most qualified and competent applicant who eventually gets
the position will perform and delive...
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What is civil service

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What is civil service

  1. 1. What is Civil Service? A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations. The body of employees in any government agency other than the military. A civil servant is a person in the public sector employed for a government department or agency. How Civil Service Evolved? Administrative institutions usually grow out of the personal servants of high officials, as in the Roman Empire. This developed a complex administrative structure, which is outlined in the Notitia Dignitatum and the work of John Lydus, but as far as we know, appointments to it were made entirely by inheritance or patronage and not on merit, and it was also possible for officers to employ other people to carry out their official tasks but continue to draw their salary themselves. There are obvious parallels here with the early bureaucratic structures in modern states, such as the Office of Works or the Navy in 18th century England, where again appointments depended on patronage and were often bought and sold. The origin [1] of the modern meritocratic civil service can be traced back to Imperial examination founded in Imperial China. The Imperial exam based on merit [2] was designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system
  2. 2. had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree. From the time of the Han Dynasty (206 BC to AD 220) until the implementation of the imperial examination system, most appointments in the imperial bureaucracy were based on recommendations from prominent aristocrats and local officials whilst recommended individuals were predominantly of aristocratic rank. Emperor Wu of Han (141 BC to 87 BC) started an early form of the imperial examinations, transitioning from inheritance and patronage to merit, in which local officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics.[3] The system reached its apogee during the Song Dynasty (960-1279).[5] The Chinese civil-service system gave the Chinese empire stability for more than 2,000 years and provided one of the major outlets for social mobility in Chinese society.[6] The modern examination system for selecting civil service staff also indirectly evolved from the imperial one.[7] This system was admired and then borrowed by European countries from the 16th century onward,[8] and is now the model for most countries around the world. The first European power to successfully implement the meritocratic civil service was the British Empire, in their administration of India: "company managers hired and promoted employees based on competitive examinations in order to prevent corruption and favoritism."[9] British colonial administrators in China advocated the spread of the system to the rest of the Commonwealth, the most prominent of which was Thomas Taylor Meadows, Britain's consul in Guangzhou, China. Meadows successfully argued in his Desultory Notes on the Government and People of China, published in
  3. 3. 1847, that "the long duration of the Chinese empire is solely and altogether owing to the good government which consists in the advancement of men of talent and merit only," and that the British must reform their civil service by making the institution meritocratic.[10] The report was influential. The British adopted a meritocratic civil service following the Northcote-Trevelyan Report in 1853, and the Americans did likewise in 1883, with the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. 1 "China's Examination Hell: The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China". History Today. Retrieved October 25, 2011. 2 "Imperial China: Civil Service Examinations". Princeton University. Retrieved October 25, 2011. 3 "Confucianism and the Chinese Scholastic System: The Chinese Imperial Examination System". California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Retrieved December 7, 2011. 4 Roberts, J. A. G. (1999). A Concise History of China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00075-7. 5 "Chinese civil service". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 7, 2011. 6 Patricia Buckley Ebrey, The Cambridge Illustrated History of China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd, 2010), 145-147, 198-200, 7 Brook, Timothy (1999). China and Historical Capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64029-6. 8 Kazin, Edwards, and Rothman (2010), 142. 9 Bodde,, Derke. "China: A Teaching Workbook". Columbia University. 10 L'Observatoire de l'administration publique, The Provincial Governments Workforces, Merit-based Civil Servants  Entrance to the service based on competitive exams.  Protection of civil servants from arbitrary removal.  Protection of their political neutrality.  Policing of these rules by an independent body. Common features:
  4. 4. - positions are established centrally and classified according to rank; - bureaucrats are paid a salary and pension that is determined by their rank, rather than the work that they do; - there are often impediments to external lateral entry at senior grades; - there are few points of entry, with most entering at a young age and most senior positions filled by promotion. Table 1: Comparing Civil-Service Systems: Management Principles Patronage system (modern) Merit system Entrance Informally based on loyalty/affinities, Competitive, transparent process open criteria formally on merit criteria to all citizens. Tenure & Most appointments on political/ welfare Lifetime tenure, with removal only relation to grounds. Lifetime tenure, with removal through due process, protects political only through due process. neutrality. Formal pay structures undermined by Relatively rigid pay structure based variety of allowances, supplements, etc. largely on rank (rather than work political principals Remuneration done); Position classification Same as merit system. Positions are established centrally and classified according to rank.
  5. 5. Lateral entry There points external lateral entry at senior grades; (internal are often impediments to or there are few points of entry, with external labor most entering at a young age and most market) senior positions filled by promotion. Senior Many countries have flexible appointments approaches to political appointments. The amount and depth of political (as opposed to merit) appointments is limited. Management Management is centralized, often with an independent appointments. Table 2: Comparing Civil-Service Systems: the External Environment Patronage system (modern) Merit system body managing
  6. 6. Political Modern spoils systems Merit systems arise under mature arrangements are democracies and the civil- behind service system systems. informal, hidden formal merit with checks and balances and where political parties are funded independently of civil- Informal patronage service spoils. politics are based on spoils A merit system, by protecting civil systems, affinity systems servants from politicians, promotes credible commitment, but at the risk of shirking and inefficiency. Labor-market Scarcity of ―modern- conditions sector‖ jobs. many civil services function as and the civil- Poorly functioning labor internal labor markets, insulated service system markets, and scarcities of from the national market. Well-functioning labor markets, but qualified people. When a political party comes to power, its leaders tend to place many of their faithful followers into important public offices. The use of public offices as rewards for political party work is known as the "Spoils System." Historical Background The Civil service system in the Philippines is a product of its colonial history under Spain and the United States of America. The First Philippines Commission otherwise known as the Schurman Commission, adopted and organized by American President William Mc Kinley, sat about to lay down the foundation of a Philippine civil service. This was
  7. 7. established on January 20, 1899. The objective was to formulate the criteria for employment of Filipinos in the government. Therefore, as early as April 1899, the Shurman Commission guaranteed to the Filipino people ― a honest and effective civil service in which, to the fullest extent practicable, natives shall be employed‖ The Civil Service System in the Philippines was established by Act No.5 on September 19, 1900 of the Second Philippine Commission entitled ― An Act for the Establishment and Maintenance of an Efficient and Honest Civil Service in the Philippines Island .‖ It established the framework for a merit-based civil service system, mandating the appointment and promotion to government positions according to merit and through competitive examinations as far as practicable. The Bureau of Civil Service was established, then, on November 31, 1900, with the mandate that the ―greatest care should be taken in the selection of official for civil administration.‖ To head the various executive and line agencies, the Philippine Commission preferred American civilians or military men who had been honorably discharged. All recruits, both American and Filipino, were to be ―men of the highest character and fitness ―who could conduct their duties unaffected by ―partisan politics‖ [11]. In 1916 the Civil Service Law was embodied in the new Administrative Code. The Bureau of Civil Service was, however, to continue under the control of an American director until Jose Gil was appointed in 1920 as the first Filipino Director of Civil Service. American leadership, coupled with Filipino cooperation made possible good
  8. 8. government service throughout the period of 1899-1920. The period 1913-1921 marked the rapid Filipinization of Civil Service. In 1913, there were 2,623 Americans and 6,365 Filipinos in the government services. By 1921, there were only 614 Americans as against 13,240 Filipinos at the services. 11). Report of the Philippine Commission, January 31, 1900 (Washington, DC, : GPO, 1902-1916),p.121. On June 19, 1959, the new era for the civil service was ushered in with the approval by President Carlos P. Garcia of the Republic Act No. 2260 which set down the new Civil Service Law. It was one of the most progressive merit systems in the world at that time. Among many benefits, it provided career and employee development, employee suggestions and incentive awards, progressive performance rating and promotion plans, and opportunity for the establishment of complaints and grievances procedures. Despite such efforts, many defects were still found in the civil service system. Delays in recruitment examination and placement of employees, inadequate discipline of civil service employee, and the inability to attract persons of high caliber into the civil service, widespread use of the spoil system, and rampart graft and corruption were characteristics of the civil service until the decade of the 1970s. By virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1, which was made part of the law of the land on September 24, 1972, President Ferdinand E. Marcos had implemented the Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP) which promised the most extensive and wrenching effort at
  9. 9. administrative reform in the country’s history. The IRP provided for decentralizing and reducing the bureaucracy, and standardizing departmental organization. The IRP also sought to introduce structural changes and reforms to strengthen the merit system as well as professionalize the civil service system. As far as the civil service itself were concerned, the IRP also provided the conversion of the single headed Civil Service Commission (CSC) into a three-man body and the formation of the Career Executive Service (CES). Two dramatic purges undertaken in 1973 and 1975 through which thousands of government employees, including cabinet members, were fired, delivered the message that the regime was not going to tolerate bad behavior. The bureaucracy under President Marcos become more subservient than at any other time in the Philippine history (Endriga, 2001,p.216). Under President Corazon Aquino, who was sworn in after the four day ― people power ― revolt of February 22-25, 1986, another wave of administrative reforms was introduced. Aside from restoring democratic institution and ratifying the new 1987, Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, guidelines for promoting public participation and private initiative in state affairs were established. Accountability institutions, such as CSC, Commission On Audit (COA), and Tanodbayan (an independent office of the ombudsman), which were established during the Marcos era, were given expanded powers under the new Constitution. Civil society organization became more visible in government decision making and program implementation. According to one observer : ― this was the most comprehensive articulation of bureaucracy for democracy ― (Carino,
  10. 10. 1989, p.12). Taking advantage of its revolutionary character, the Aquino Government resorted to a purge of thousands of civil servants through the expedient of reorganization aiming to downsize the bloated government bureaucracy. Although the said step was justified, paradoxically, the number of civil servants and political appointees, who did not enter through the traditional career system and many of them from the private sector, in the government increased considerably. The proliferation of political appointees blurred the merit and career system of the civil service. Civil service reform efforts were minimal during the presidential tenures of Fidel Ramos (1992-1998) and Joseph Estrada (1998-2001). President Ramos simply focused on giving life to the concept of new public management (NPM) with the end goal of reengineering the civil service. His flagship program was the ―Philippines 2000 ― which was envisioned to make the country globally competitive by pursuing the thrusts of deregulation, market liberalization and privatization. The reengineering plan, however, remain just that with the Congress not lying down the legal framework for streamlining the bureaucracy. Under the Estrada Administration, Executive Order No.165 or ― Directing the Formulation of an Institutional Strengthening and Streamlining Program for the Executive Branch ― laid down the ― Re-Engineering the Bureaucracy for Better Governance Program ― which eventually prompted the creation of the Presidential Committee on Effective Governance (PCEG). The PCEG was also tasked with creating an Integrated Administrative Reform Plan. President Estrada’s term however, was plagued with charges of corruption and incompetence, and the reengineering initiatives
  11. 11. had the same fate as that of the Ramos Administration’s plan. The so-called ― Edsa Dos ― or another ― people power ―, mobilization unseat President Estrada from January 16 to 20, 2001, abruptly ending Estrada’s 2,5 years rule and Vice President Gloria MacapagalArroyo (GMA) was immediately sworn in as president of the Republic of the Philippines. Upon its assumption to office, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010) continued the initiatives to streamline the bureaucracy, but as yet no overall agenda for reform in the bureaucracy. In the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPD) 2001-2004, the present administration had adopted the ― Reengineering the Bureaucracy for Better Governance Program ― inherited from the Estrada’s administration. The PCEG was likewise reactivated as the ad-hoc body that shall be the focal point of administrative reforms in the civil service. In October 4, 2004, the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) and the CSC pursued the Rationalization Program as mandated in the executive order from the Presidents or EO No.366. ---- Philippine Civil Service Commission The Civil Service Commission (CSC) is the central personnel agency of the Philippine government. One of the three independent constitutional commissions with adjudicative
  12. 12. responsibility in the national government structure, it is also tasked to render final arbitration on disputes and personnel actions on Civil Service matters.  RESPONSIBILITY  Recruitment, building, maintenance and retention of a competent, professional and highly motivated government workforce truly responsive to the needs of the government's client - the public.  SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS  leading and initiating the professionalization of the civil service;  promoting public accountability in government service;  adopting performance-based tenure in government; and  implementing the integrated rewards and incentives program for government employees. The Philippine Civil Service has undergone a great number of reforms in terms of structure, size, leadership, position classification, and pay scheme, among others, under the management and regulation of the CSC. Presently, CSC’s mandate is based on Executive Order No. 292 or the Revised Administrative Code of 1987. Through the years, the CSC has initiated various programs and issued policies towards building a highly competent, credible, and motivated bureaucracy. Its latest agenda is to elevate itself as ―Asia’s leading center of excellence for strategic human resource and organization development by 2030‖ and to make a lingkod bayani out of every civil
  13. 13. servant. “Lingkod bayani” is a play on the terms “lingkod bayan” (public servant) and “bayani” (hero), thus associating state workers with their capacity to be heroes in their own right. The CSC manages and develops the bureaucracy’s most important resource— its people—through five HR initiatives:   Recruitment Hiring of high-performing, competent, and credible civil servants through the Competency-Based Recruitment and Qualification Standards (CBRQS);  Performance Management Performance review and appraisal through the Strategic Performance Management System (SPMS);  HR Coaching Coaching to improve employee performance, as well as develop leadership skills of supervisors and managers;  Learning and Development Direct training and personnel development interventions in the areas of governance and leadership, human resource and organizational development, public service reforms, and values and culture building through the Civil Service Institute; and  Agency Accreditation Accreditation of agencies for the establishment of their own human resource management systems and standards through the Program to Institutionalize Meritocracy and Excellence in Human Resource Management (PRIME-HRM). The Civil Service Commission Leadership
  14. 14. Francisco Duque III, MD, MSc. Chairman, Philippine Civil Service Commission He completed his medical education from the esteemed Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas (UST) in 1982. In 1987, he earned a Master of Science degree from Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He subsequently excelled in the Executive Education Program of the distinguished Harvard University School of Public Health in 1992. He was the PhilHealth President and CEO from 2001-2005, and later became the Health Secretary from 2005 to 2010. Appointed in 2010 as Chairman of the Civil Service Commission, he lost no time in charting a brighter, better course for the bureaucracy. He was pivotal in developing the Commission’s Roadmap for Development and Reforms for 2010-2015, a five-year blueprint which spelled out the Commission’s priority programs for the country’s 1.4 million workforce. He steered the Commission in the adoption of the Performance Governance System onwards to setting the agency’s vision of becoming ―Asia’s leading Center of Excellence for Strategic Human Resource and Organization Development by 2030.‖ Through his initiative, the CSC was awarded just recently, the ISO 9001:2008 certification for establishing a quality management system in three core functions
  15. 15. namely, cases adjudication, examination administration, and appointments processing, that meets international standards. Chairman Duque’s extensive portfolio mirrors a dedicated public servant and a recognized leader who has served the health needs of the Filipino nation for nine years and is now blazing new trails, and breaking new grounds in the challenging field of public Human Resource Development and Management. His passion for service keeps the CSC moving towards achieving its core purpose of making every public servant a servant hero – Gawing lingkod bayani ang bawat kawani. Atty. Robert S. Martinez Commissioner, Civil Service Commission Appointed by President Benigno S. Aquino III. Former Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA) Deputy Administrator. He replaced Rasol I. Mitmug, will serve as CSC Commissioner until Feb 2, 2018, according to his appointment paper signed by the President on July 6. He obtained Civil Service Professional Eligibility in 1981, and Career Executive Service (CES) Eligibility in 2001. He was appointed to CESO Rank IV in 2003. He was director for general administrative serve of the Department of Trade and Industry from 2002 to 2008, and worked as chief of the Human Resources Development Division
  16. 16. of the Center for International Trade Expositions and Missions from 1994 to 2002, and as Corporate Secretary to the Citem Board of Governors from 1989 to 1994. Nieves L. Osorio Commissioner, Civil Service Commission Former Chairperson of the Career Executive Service Board (CESB), was appointed ad interim commissioner last March 20 by the Office of the President replacing former Commissioner Mary Ann Z. Fernandez-Mendoza. Her term expires on February 2020. As the new Commissioner, Osorio brings to the CSC her vast managerial and executive experience in government service, as well as her advocacy for good corporate governance. She holds a Career Executive Service Officer (CESO) Rank I. She served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management (PSALM) Corporation from 2005 to 2007 and as Finance Undersecretary in 2001-2005. She also served as Executive Vice President of the Philippine National Oil Company (1996-2001), Director IV in the Department of Budget and Management (1988-1995), and Assistant National Treasurer (1984-1988). She likewise had experience in the academe as instructor/faculty member/lecturer on statistics, public administration, tax policy, and business administration. She finished her Master of Business Administration and Bachelor’s degree in Statistics from the University of the Philippines.
  17. 17. The Philippine Civil Service System faces tougher challenges, given the premiere of globalization, the growing trend toward greater civil society and private sector participation in the management of state affairs, and the paradigm shift in the Government’s role from command and control to facilitation and flexibility. Increasingly, stakeholders are realizing and accepting that the Government cannot fulfill its mandate effectively if it operates in isolation. A positive trend toward strengthening existing institution will enhance cooperation within the public sector and between government agencies and civil society and government agencies and the private sector. In this context, institutional reform efforts require capacity-building strategies to mainstream good governance, not just as end in it but also as a process for improving the performance of public services. The expanding economic activities demand that not only civil servants in general be fully equipped and trained for the great tasks but orientation and motivation should permeate especially the higher echelons. Such orientation is being provided in almost all countries to equip them to undertake the more complex tasks and to create the necessary environment. It is also be ensured that professionalism within the civil service always be required in modern administration. The merit-based hiring and promotion system should
  18. 18. always be kept so that the most qualified and competent applicant who eventually gets the position will perform and deliver the serviced expected of him or her [12]. 12 ). Professionalism is difficult to be maintained if incoming political leadership often instituting personnel who are the supporters of the new regime. The new recruits, the ―political appointees‖, were perceived to be arrogant, ignorant of government’s working environment, culture and procedures, since many of them come from the non bureaucratic-sector. Discussion with DR. Karina Constantino-David, a former chairperson of the Civil Service Commission (CSC) on Wednesday, July 2, 2008, at the University of the Philippines (UP) Campus, Dilliman, Quezon City.

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