Introduction to computer


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Introduction to computer

  1. 1. Introduction to windows 1 What is computer? A computer is an electronic device, which accepts input, manipulate the inputs and generate meaningful output, or a computer is an electronic machine that is fed with data or information, processes or works on the data, and give out information. The data or information fed into the computer is referred to as the input, and the result or information is the output. The data is handled in the computer by a combination of systems that either process it directly or serve as accompanying storage systems. A computer can store vast amounts of information, which could fill thousands of pages, and can find any of that information in fractions of a second. It can perform calculations that would take a person weeks or even years to do. But, unlike a person it cannot think for itself, it has to be told what to do. This is done by giving the computer a list of instructions called a program. Basic computer A basic computer consists of three major components: o CPU (Central Processing Unit) o IO (Input/Output) o Memory Data comes through input and the CPU process the data based on a program which is in memory. The result returned to memory or is presented to the user. Basic computer The computer is ensemble of different machines that you will be using to get your job done. A computer is primarily made of the Central Processing Unit (usually referred to as the computer), INPUT CPU OUTPUT STORAGE
  2. 2. Introduction to windows 2 the Monitor, the Keyboard, and the Mouse. Other pieces of hardware, commonly referred to as peripherals, can enhance or improve your experience with the computer. Types of computers There are three (3) types of computer namely: o Digital Computer o Analogue Computer (Analog) o Hybrid Computer Digital Computer A digital computer is designed to solve mathematical problems or to count precisely. An example is a money – counting machine, a calculator etc. Analogue Computer An analogue computer is designed to, or measure quantities such as speed, pressure, temperature, voltage etc an e.g. is an automobile speedometer. Hybrid Computer A Hybrid computer is designed to perform the functions of both Analogue computer and Digital computer an example is a Personal Computer (PC). Classes of computer Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap: Supercomput ers Minicomput ers MainframesWorkstationsPersonal Computers Least powerful Most powerful
  3. 3. Introduction to windows 3  Personal computer: Personal computer can support only one monitor, keyboard and other peripherals at a time. It is designed for independent use and has a low storage capacity and a low processing speed as compared to the other classes Workstation: A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and, in general, a higher-quality monitor.  Minicomputer: Minicomputers are smaller in size as compared to mainframe computer. It has a large storage capacity and a high processing speed. It can also support more than one printer and monitor and other peripherals at a time. A multi-user computer capable of supporting up to hundreds of users simultaneously.  Mainframe: Mainframe Computers are the largest computer. It also has a very large storage capacity and a high processing speed. It can support two or more monitors, keyboards and other peripherals at a time. It can also process numerous programs concurrently and can be used by many people at a time. .  Supercomputer: Super Computers are the most powerful computers. It has a very high processing speed and storage capacity. It is usually used by large organization for research purposes like oil exploration and weather forecasting. Personal computer It can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user. Businesses use personal computers for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, and for running spreadsheet and database management applications. At home, the most popular use for
  4. 4. Introduction to windows 4 personal computers is for playing games and recently for surfing the Internet. Personal computers first appeared in the late 1970s. One of the first and most popular personal computers was the Apple II, introduced in 1977 by Apple Computer. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, new models and competing operating systems seemed to appear daily. Then, in 1981, IBM entered the fray with its first personal computer, known as the IBM PC. The IBM PC quickly became the personal computer of choice, and most other personal computer manufacturers fell by the wayside. P.C. is short for personal computer or IBM PC. However, in recent years, the term PC has become more and more difficult to pin down. In general, though, it applies to any personal computer based on an Intel microprocessor, or on an Intel-compatible microprocessor. For nearly every other component, including the operating system, there are several options, all of which fall under the rubric of PC Personal Computer Types Actual personal computers can be generally classified by size and chassis / case. The chassis or case is the metal frame that serves as the structural support for electronic components. Every computer system requires at least one chassis to house the circuit boards and wiring. The chassis also contains slots for expansion boards. If you want to insert more boards than there are slots, you will need an expansion chassis, which provides additional slots. There are two basic flavors of chassis designs–desktop models and tower models–but there are many variations on these two basic types. Then come the portable computers that are computers small enough to carry. Portable computers include notebook and subnotebook computers, hand-held computers, palmtops, and PDAs. Tower model The term refers to a computer in which the power supply, motherboard, and mass storage devices are stacked on top of each other in a cabinet. This is in contrast to desktop models, in which these components are housed in a more compact box. The main advantage of tower models is that there are fewer space constraints, which makes installation of additional storage devices easier.
  5. 5. Introduction to windows 5 Desktop model A computer designed to fit comfortably on top of a desk, typically with the monitor sitting on top of the computer. Desktop model computers are broad and low, whereas tower model computers are narrow and tall. Because of their shape, desktop model computers are generally limited to three internal mass storage devices. Desktop models designed to be very small are sometimes referred to as slimline models. Parts of a personal computer Main hardware parts of a personal computer Your PC (Personal Computer) is a system, consisting of many components. Some of those components, like Windows XP, and all your other programs, are software. The stuff you can actually see and touch, and would likely break if you threw it out a fifth-story window, is hardware. Not everybody has exactly the same hardware. But those of you who have a desktop system, like the example shown above, probably have most of the components shown above. Those of you with notebook computers probably have most of the same components. Only in your case the components are all integrated into a single book-sized portable unit. Monitor Keyboard System Unit Mouse
  6. 6. Introduction to windows 6 But there are four (4) main hardware components of a personal computer are as follows:  Mouse  Keyboard  Monitor  System Unit Mouse A mouse is a hand-held device that controls the movement of a pointer on your screen. You use your mouse to perform task on your computer. As you move the mouse, a mouse pointer moves on your screen. When you position the pointer over an object, you can press (click or double- click) the mouse button performs different action on the object. For example, you can Click to select files, Double-click to open and Click-and Drag to move files. In fact, you‘ll probably use your mouse for most tasks. The pointer usually appears as an arrow. But it can change shape depending on where it finds itself. Parts of a mouse Plastic Case (Body) Primary Button (Left) Cord PS/2 Mouth Secondary Button (Right)
  7. 7. Introduction to windows 7 Mouse Pad The mouse pad put a stop to dirt from getting the mouse ball and enables the mouse ball to move without stinting Mouse Pointer An icon, typically an arrow that appears on your screen and is controlled by the movement of the mouse. You use the mouse pointer to work with Menus, Icons, Links and other screen objects. Action of the mouse 1) Pointing 2) Clicking 3) Double Clicking 4) Dragging 5) Right Clicking 6) Right Dragging The following sections explain the actions you can perform with your mouse. Pointing You perform most of the tasks on you computer by pointing at an object on your screen, and then clicking a mouse button. To point to an object, move the mouse until the tip of the mouse pointer is over the item or area you want. Clicking Press and release the left mouse button once. Double Clicking Quickly press and release the left mouse button twice.
  8. 8. Introduction to windows 8 Dragging This is done by pressing and holding down the left mouse button as you move the mouse and this reposition an icon or highlight or select a text or picture. Right Clicking Press and release the right mouse button once. A shortcut menu appears. Right Dragging Right-drag: Point to an item, then hold down the right mouse button as you move the mouse. To drop the item, release the right mouse button. Holding a mouse Before you can hold a mouse you need to memorize the name of each of your fingers. All your fingers have their various names just like how all human beings have their various names. The names of your fingers are as follow: 1) Thumb finger 2) Index finger 3) Middle finger 4) Ring finger 5) Little finger Thumb fingerIndex finger Ring finger Little finger Middle finger
  9. 9. Introduction to windows 9 Keyboard The keyboard is the primary input device for entering data and executing commands. Most of the keys on the keyboard are laid out like the keys on a typewriter. But there are some special keys like Esc (Escape), Ctrl (Control), and Alt (Alternate). Computer keyboard vary in design, but all have the same type of keys. Types of keyboard There are two (2) types of computer keyboards namely: 1) Standard Keyboard 2) Multimedia Keyboard Standard Keyboard (QWERTY) A standard computer keyboard is called a QWERTY keyboard because of the layout of its typing area. This keyboard is named after the first six leftmost letters on the top alphabetic line of the keyboard. A QWERTY keyboard might limit your typing speed.
  10. 10. Introduction to windows 10 Multimedia Keyboard A multimedia keyboard is designed to make it one-touch simple for the user to access often-used programs. There are special keys used to access the Internet, music, and other frequently used programs such as email. A typical multimedia keyboard contains buttons that control various computer processes, such as turning on the computer's power, putting the CPU to sleep, and waking it up again. Multimedia keyboards come in various connection formats, including PS/2, USB, and wireless. Depending on the manufacturer Parts of a keyboard
  11. 11. Introduction to windows 11 Function Key Along the top of your keyboard is a row of keys numbered F1 to F10 or F12. Even though you may never use them, they do have function. In fact, the F stands for Function and they are called Function keys. Below is a list of what each key does. After the list is a trick that you can use Function keys for. Most of the items on the list below apply only to Windows and Windows' programs, especially Windows Some programs have their own set of functions that they have assigned to the Function keys. You can find these in the menu of the program. The menu items which are assigned a function key have the corresponding function key designated after the item name. If you press that function key, you can perform that function without using the menu or buttons. The program's help or manual should also tell which functions are assigned to the function keys. You might want to try each one of these as you read through them. Function Keys for Windows * F1 – Opens Help for the currently displayed program (this does not work on all programs). * Windows Logo key and F1 – Opens Windows' Help. * F2 – Highlights the name of a selected object for renaming in Windows Explorer, desktop, and some other Windows' programs. First, you need to select an item that can be renamed (like, a file or shortcut). After pressing F2, you can then type what you want to rename the object to. * F3 – Brings up Search in Windows Explorer. * F4 – Drops down the Address bar in Internet Explorer showing your previous locations. This allows you to scroll down and select one. * Alt and F4 – Closes the currently displayed program. * F5 – Refreshes the view in Windows Explorer, Internet Explorer (in other words, it looks at the source again and reloads the contents), and other programs. In MailWasher it checks the mail (which I guess would be a kind of refresh). * F6 – moves the cursor around the structure of a program. Pressing it may cycle you from window to window or from place to place within the program. In Windows Explorer it moves you from the left pane to the right pane and back. This is similar to what the Tab key does.
  12. 12. Introduction to windows 12 * Alt and F6 – Switches between multiple windows in the same program (for example, when the Notepad Find dialog box is displayed, ALT+F6 switches between the Find dialog box and the main Notepad window). * F7 – does not have any functionality in Windows. It may be used in individual programs. * F8 – accesses Safe Mode if pressed at the right time while the computer is starting. Safe Mode is a trouble-shooting mode, which will start the computer with minimal drivers. * F9 – does not have any functionality in Windows. It may be used in individual programs. * F10 – Changes the focus to and from the menu. Pressing the Alt key will also do this. Once the focus is on the menu items, you can use the arrow keys to navigate to an item and the Enter key to select it. * Shift and F10 – brings up the popup menu in Windows Explorer much like right clicking on an item does. * F11 – Switches between regular screen mode and full screen mode. Full screen mode is like a maximized screen but with more screen space and less toolbar controls * F12 – does not have any functionality in Windows. It may be used in individual programs. E.g. in MS Word F12 is for Save As. You may have noticed that some of the Function keys are not used (F7, F9, F12) in Windows. That doesn't mean that they can't be used. You can assign them or any other key combination to quickly run programs that you frequently use. Here are instructions for doing that. Locate the shortcut of that program. The Start menu is a good place to find shortcuts (every icon in the Start menu is a shortcut). If the program doesn't have a shortcut, create one. Right click on the shortcut and select the Properties item from the popup menu. The Properties dialog will open. Go to the Shortcut tab. Monitor This is a display unit. It helps you to view the content of the System Unit. Monitor look like a television screen. Both a television and a monitor contain a Cathode Ray Tube, and work in a similar way. The image or picture quality is measured in term of the resolution of the screen.
  13. 13. Introduction to windows 13 The computer communicates to the user through the monitor. It also displays instructions sent to the computer by the user as well as results/information sent from the computer back to the user, relays programme message to the user. Types of monitor There are two (2) main type of monitor. These are: Cathode Ray Tube The CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitor. This is of various screen sizes which ranges from 14– inch to 21–inch Liquid Crystal Display The LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). This is also called Flat screen. It has the following advantages over the CRT: Takes up less space Lighter in weight Uses less power System Unit The system unit contain all the components that makeup the computer. E.g. Hard Disk, Memory, Processor, CD Rom, Motherboard, Floppy Drive and so on. A system unit, also known as a base unit, is the main body of a desktop computer, typically consisting of a plastic enclosure Liquid Crystal Display Monitor
  14. 14. Introduction to windows 14 containing the motherboard, power supply, cooling fans, memory models and expansion cards that are plugged into the motherboard, such as video and network cards Component of the system unit All the components below are found inside the system unit System Unit Inside System Unit CD-ROM Drive Memory CPU Heat Sink Cooling Fan Ribbon Cable Power Supply Cmos Battery Hard Disk
  15. 15. Introduction to windows 15 Motherboard The motherboard is the main circuit board inside your PC. Every components at some point communicates through the motherboard, either by directly plugging into it or by communicating through one of the motherboards ports. The motherboard is one big communication highway. Its purpose inside your PC is to provide a platform for all the other components and peripherals to talk to each other. Ribbon cable These are the common ribbon cables used internally in a PC to connect hard disk, CD and floppy. For external connections, round-shaped cables are preferred over ribbon ones. Master Slave Motherboard or IDE Controller Card Motherboard
  16. 16. Introduction to windows 16 Cmos battery This is a tiny device on the motherboard but able to create a computer system to run smoothly. CMOS battery is a battery that is located on the motherboard body, such as a battery of your general battery watch, but has a wider dimension. Cmos battery is entitled to keep the computer date and time up till date. Central processing unit (CPU) A computer CPU is the brain that runs a computer. CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the core chip to a computer. It is the processing unit of a computer. It performs the actual processing of data to information which is then outputted to the user. Another name for a CPU is Processor Cmos Battery Central Processing Unit
  17. 17. Introduction to windows 17 Cooling fan The process of removing excess heat from the processor. Computer components - especially the CPU - produce a ton of heat. CPU overheating: left alone, your CPU will quickly burn itself out, causing a lot of heartache, and costing you a lot of money. The cooling fan produces air to cool the heat sink so it can absorb more heat from the processor (CPU) Hard disk The hard disk or hard drive is the main primarily storage location for the computer system that stores all your data and files. The hard drive is sometimes referred to as the "C drive" due to the fact that Microsoft Windows assigns the "C" drive letter to the primary partition on the primary hard drive in a computer by default. Hard Disk Cooling Fan
  18. 18. Introduction to windows 18 CD-ROM Drive A drive that is connected to a computer and on which a CD-ROM can be ‗played‘ (computer science) a device that writes data onto or reads data from a storage medium Floppy disk drive Place to insert floppy disk (removable plastic information storage disk) This is the smaller drive that takes those little plastic square shaped disks. They are rarely used now as they are no longer needed for a boot disk if you have a cd rom or DVD burner. In fact most new computers are sold without a floppy disk drive as they are obsolete (out of date). Floppy diskette A floppy disk is a disk storage medium composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic carrier lined with fabric that removes dust particles. They are read and written by a floppy disk drive (FDD). This is also a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing information depending on the density. It is slotted into the diskette drive (Drive A: B:) computer to access the information stored on it. DVD Multi Recorder Drive CD-ROM Drive Inside Floppy Disk Drive Floppy Disk Drive
  19. 19. Introduction to windows 19 Types of floppy diskette There are two (2) types of floppy diskette as follow:  3½ floppy diskette  5¼ floppy diskette 3½ floppy diskette This is also a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing information depending on the density. It is slotted into the diskette drive (Drive A:) computer to access the information stored on it. Despite their small size, microfloppies have a larger storage capacity than their cousins -- from 400K to 1.4MB of data. The most common sizes for PCs are 720K (double-density) and 1.44MB (high- density). Macintoshes support disks of 400K, 800K, and 1.2MB. 5¼ floppy diskette This is also a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing information depending on the density. It is slotted into the diskette drive (Drive B:) computer to access the information stored on it. This type of floppy is generally capable of storing between 100K and 1.2MB (megabytes) of data. The most common sizes are 360K and 1.2MB. 3½ Floppy Diskette 5¼ floppy diskette
  20. 20. Introduction to windows 20 Memory The computer memory is a temporary storage area. It holds the data and instructions that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) needs. Before a program can be run, the program is loaded from some storage medium into the memory. This allows the CPU direct access to the program. Memory is a necessity for any computer. Types of memory There are two (2) main types of computer memory as follow:  Read Only Memory (ROM)  Random Access Memory (RAM) Read only memory (ROM) This is the permanent memory which is used to store important control programs and systems software to perform a variety of functions, such as booting up or starting up programs. ROM is non-volatile. That means the contents are not lost when the power is switched off. Its contents are permanently written at the time of manufacture. Random Access Memory Read Only Memory Read Only Memory
  21. 21. Introduction to windows 21 Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM is used as the working memory of a computer system. It stores input data, intermediate results, programs, and other information temporarily. It can be read and written. It is volatile, that is all data will be erased when the power is turned off. Power supply (Power Pack) A power supply is the main power component of the computer system unit that supplies electrical energy to other component in the system unit. Video card (VGA) The video card is responsible for what you see on the monitor. If you like playing graphic- intense games on the computer, a good video card is important to you. The main function of the video card is to generate and output images to the computer screen. Better graphics card equals better performance when playing games or working on a high resolution monitor. Random Access Memory Powersupply Inside Power supply
  22. 22. Introduction to windows 22 Screw hole: The small hole where a screw attaches the video card to the computer case. Monitor port: Where the monitor cable plugs in. Metal bracket: The metal piece attached to a video card that contains the monitor port and screw hole. Gold contacts: The part of the video card that actually connects to the motherboard and gets inserted into the slot. Video cards Peripheral devices Peripheral devices are other parts of the computer, with or without them the computer can function. Peripheral devices are the computer devices that are connected to the computer externally such as printer, scanner, projector, light pen, tape device, microphone and external modem. Peripheral devices can be classified according to their functions Printer Scanner Microphone Sound Speakers Plotter AGP Video Card PCI Express Video Card PCI Video Card
  23. 23. Introduction to windows 23 Printer This device is used to print a report or hardcopy, after data or information has been processes. Printers are designed to print in any colour, but some, just one colour i.e. Black. A print out from the printer is term as hardcopy. Scanner A scanner is a device that is able to transfer images or pictures in to the computer to be store, such images or pictures are usually not found in the computer; thus the need to be scan. Web Cam Projector Light pen Wireless Router HP Laser Jet 2055 Prints only black Canon Selphy DS810 Prints any colour HP Scanjet 3670 HP Scanjet 4370
  24. 24. Introduction to windows 24 Input devices Input devices are the type of the computer devices that are used to provide the control signals to the computer. Keyboard and the Mouse are the examples of the input devices Light pen The light pen consists of a highest-sensitive pen-like device that enters commands into a special display screen when the users touches the screen with the pen Output devices Output devices are the devices that are used to display the results. Printer, scanner, speaker and the monitor are the examples of the output devices. Microphone Keyboard Mouse Scanner Web Cam Light Pen Light Pen
  25. 25. Introduction to windows 25 Plotter A plotter is an output device used to produce a hardcopy. By using line drawings to form an image on a paper. Plotters were the first type of printer that could print with colour and render graphics and full-size engineering drawing. But plotters are much more expensive than printers. Projector A Projector is an output device that project and display video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat form. Monitor Plotter Projector Sound Speaker Printer Plotter Projector
  26. 26. Introduction to windows 26 Sound speaker Sound Speakers enable the computer user (liveware) to hear sound that is been played inside the computer externally. Input/output devices Alternatively referred to as a IO device, an input/output device is a hardware device that accepts inputted information and also has the capability of outputting that information. Sound card A sound card also known as an audio card is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer Sound Speaker Touch Screen Network Card Photocopier Wireless Card Sound Care Modem Wireless Router Sound Care
  27. 27. Introduction to windows 27 Touch Screen A touch screen is a special type of computer display screen that allows commands to be entered by the user's touching by the screen boxes on the screen display choices available to the user. Touch screens are generally used in the locations such as airports and hotels to display certain type of menu. Storage devices A storage device is a device that is used to store the information such as hard disk drive, flash drive, floppy disk and the tape drive. Touch Screen Hard Disk Secure Digital Card Pen Drive Floppy Diskette Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc Blu-ray Disc Zip disk Compact Disc PC Card Secure Digital Card
  28. 28. Introduction to windows 28 Hard Disk A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive or hard disk) is a non-volatile, random access digital magnetic data storage device. Blu-ray DVD Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format. The plastic disc is 120 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Blu-ray Discs contain 25 GB (23.31 GiB) per layer, with dual layer discs (50 GB) being the norm for feature-length video discs. Triple layer discs (100 GB) and quadruple layers (128 GB) are available for BD-XL Blu-ray re-writer drives Zip Drive A zip disk is a computer hardware device that stores data. A zip disk drive is somewhat like floppy disk drive, only that the size of disks inserted into the devices are different. Where a normal floppy disk can hold about 1.44 megabytes of data, a zip disk can hold around 100 megabytes of data. LG-XD4-External-Hard-Disk This new Hard Disk Drive is said to have a unique cooling system to make sure these mini HDD dont get over heated and create problems which can range upto data loss. One of the most important feature of these hard disks is that they are going to feature a one button back-up feature which can help you in saving all the information of your computer super quickly and restore the same easily. These drives are going to be available in 500Gb, 750Gb & 1Tb models MDT Hard Disk Drive Philips Double Layer 50GB
  29. 29. Introduction to windows 29 User Interface User interface is the space where interaction between the user and the computer occurs. Types of user interface There are two types of user interfaces between a computer application and the user. They are:  Graphical User Interface (GUI)  Character User Interface (CUI) or Command Line Interface (CLI) Graphical User Interface (GUI) Graphical User Interface is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with the computer, using icons, windows and menus, with the help of a pointing device, such as a mouse. In GUI more task can run simultaneously very user friendly interface. Application: Windows Character User Interface Character user interface is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with the computer, using codes (text), with the help of a keyboard. In CUI one task run at a time. Anther name for Character user interface is Command Line Interface (CLI) Application: MS Dos
  30. 30. Introduction to windows 30 Booting Computer geeks won‘t tell you to start your computer; the‘ll tell you to boot it. However, this doesn‘t mean you should punt your monitor across the room. The term booting come form the phrase ―pulling oneself up by one‘s won bootstraps,‖ which refers to the fact that your computer can load everything it needs to operate properly without any help from the likes of you and me. Booting is the process of starting the computer. When you boot a computer it check all it components to make sure that all are function in other before it take you to the desktop. Types of booting There are two types of booting namely: o Cool Booting o Warm Booting  Cool booting is the process of putting the switch of the system unit and the monitor on.  Warm booting is the process of restarting the compute Process of booting In computing, booting (also known as booting up) is a process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. A boot sequence is the initial set of operations that System unit Power Monitor Power Switch
  31. 31. Introduction to windows 31 the computer performs when power is switched on. The boot loader typically loads the main operating system for the computer. Desktop The Desktop is a graphical user interface which serves as a communication link between the computer and the user (live ware). Desktop environments are the most popular alternative to the older command-line interface (CLI) which today is generally limited in use to computer professionals. A desktop environment typically consists of icons, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, and desktop widgets. After you start window, the first thing you see is the desktop. Think of the desktop as your personalized workspace. Several icons, or small pictures, are located on the left side of your desktop. Each icon represents an object, such as a folder or a program. Depending on how your computer is set up, your icons may be different from those in the illustration. Information about computer Checking components Type of operating system Welcome Screen Desktop
  32. 32. Introduction to windows 32 Active Desktop A feature you use to make web pages your desktop wallpaper. To start a program Click Start, and then click the program you want to open. To open a program you do not see on the Start menu, point to All Programs, and then navigate through the menus to the program you want and click it. When you open the program, Windows automatically displays it on the Start menu. After you start a program, a button representing the program appears on the taskbar. To switch from one running program to another, click its taskbar button. If a program does not appear on the Start menu or one of its submenus, you can perform a search for it. Background of the Desktop 1) Open the Display properties dialog box. 2) Right click on your Desktop, choose properties 3) In Desktop tab, click the background you want to use or click browse to choose a background of your choice. 4) Click Apply to see the changes before you close the dialog box, or click OK to accept the changes. Monitor displays 1) Open the Display properties dialog box 2) Right click on your Desktop, choose properties 3) In the Settings tab, go to Color quality. 4) In the Color quality, lick the number of colors that you want your monitor to display. 5) Click Apply to see the changes or OK to accept the changes.
  33. 33. Introduction to windows 33 Screen area 1) Open the Display properties dialog box. 2) Right click on your Desktop, choose properties. 3) In the Setting tab, go to Screen Resolution. 4) In the Screen Resolution area, click the desktop size. 5) Click Apply to see the changes or Ok to accept the changes. Change Desktop items look 1) Open the Display properties dialog box. 2) Right click on your Desktop, choose properties. 3) In the Appearance tab, go to Windows and buttons choose a style of your choice, go to Color Scheme choose a color scheme of your choice and go to Font Size and choose a font size of your choice. 4) If you want to change the appearance of only one screen element, on Advanced click that element in item, and then change the Size and Color for the item and it Font. 5) Click Apply to see the changes or Ok to accept the changes. Visual setting for your desktop 1) Open the Display properties dialog box. 2) Right click on your Desktop, choose Properties. 3) In the Appearance tab, click on Effects a dialog box pop up. 4) Choose the effects you want. 5) Click Apply to see the changes or OK to accept the changes. Default desktop icon 1) Open the Display properties dialog box 2) Right click on your Desktop, choose Properties. 3) In the Desktop tab, click Customize Desktop a dialog box pop up. 4) On the General tab, choose a desktop icon and click on Change icon and pick an icon for the item. 5) Click Apply to see the changes
  34. 34. Introduction to windows 34 6) Now click on the Restore Default. 7) Click Apply to see the changes or Ok to accept the changes. The Task Bar This shows the name of the Application, Document, Directory and filename. If more than one window is open, the window that we are working with (Active Window) has a color or intensity different from the other title bar. Windows 95 Taskbar Windows Me Taskbar Windows XP Taskbar Windows Vista Taskbar The taskbar is the long horizontal bar at the bottom of your screen. Unlike the desktop, which can get obscured by the windows on top of it, the taskbar is visible almost all the time. It has four main sections:  The Start button, which opens the Start menu. See The Start menu (overview)  The Quick Launch toolbar, which lets you start programs with one click.  The middle section, which shows you which programs and documents you have open and allows you to quickly switch between them.
  35. 35. Introduction to windows 35  The notification area, which includes a clock and icons (small pictures) that communicate the status of certain programs and computer settings. Setting Taskbar Options Like everything else in Windows XP, you can customize the taskbar to your liking. To do so, right-click the Start button and choose Properties. In the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties dialog box that opens, click on the Taskbar tab. As shown below. Lock the taskbar: If selected, hides all sizing handles on the taskbar so you can't accidentally move or resize it (as discussed below).
  36. 36. Introduction to windows 36 Auto-hide the taskbar: If you select this option, the taskbar will be hidden most of the time so as to not take up any space on the screen. To make it visible, move the mouse pointer to the very bottom of your screen. Keep the taskbar on top of other windows: If selected, makes sure the taskbar is visible at all times, even when large maximized program windows are covering the rest of the screen. Group similar taskbar buttons: If selected, allows multiple taskbar buttons to collapse into a single button so the buttons don't become too small to see on the taskbar. Show Quick Launch: If selected, displayed the optional Quick Launch toolbar to the right of the Start button. You'll find articles on the Quick Launch toolbar and Notification area after you finish this article and click Back to return to the precious page. Moving and Sizing the Taskbar Windows XP is very flexible. You can size, color, and position anything to your liking. But you can only move and size things on the taskbar when the taskbar is unlocked. In addition to the option shown back in Figure 3, you can quickly lock, or unlock the taskbar at any time by right- clicking the current time in the lower right corner of your screen and choosing Lock the Taskbar from the shortcut menu that appears. You can tell when the taskbar is unlocked, because sizing handles are invisible, and Lock the Taskbar on the shortcut menu isn't checked,
  37. 37. Introduction to windows 37 When the taskbar is locked, the sizing handles aren't visible, and the Lock the Taskbar option on the shortcut menu is selected (checked), as in Figure 5. It's best to keep the taskbar locked when you're not intentionally trying to move or size it. That way, you won't accidentally move or size the taskbar while you're whipping around the screen with the mouse pointer. But just so you know, when the taskbar is unlocked, you can change its height as follows: 1. Move the mouse pointer to the thin bar that appears along the top strip of the taskbar, until the mouse pointer turns to a two-headed arrow. 2. Hold down the left mouse button and drag that top edge up or down until the taskbar is the width you want, then release the mouse button. Tip: If the taskbar seems "stuck" between double-height, and no height, drag one of the dotted vertical sizing handles up to the row above it. Then drag the top edge of the taskbar down a notch. To move the entire unlocked taskbar to another edge of the screen, move the mouse pointer to some empty spot on the taskbar (not on a button or icon). Then hold down the left mouse button,
  38. 38. Introduction to windows 38 drag the taskbar to any edge of the screen, and release the mouse button. Figure 6 shows examples of sizing and moving an unlocked taskbar. The taskbar is located at the bottom of your screen. You're likely to use the middle section of the taskbar the most, so we'll discuss that first. Functions/features of the Taskbar  Keep track of your windows  Minimize and restore windows  How the taskbar groups similar items  See previews of your open windows  The Quick Launch toolbar  The notification area  Customize the taskbar
  39. 39. Introduction to windows 39 Keep track of your windows If you open more than one program or document at a time, you can quickly start piling up windows on your desktop. Because windows often cover each other or take up the whole screen, it's sometimes hard to see what else is underneath or remember what you've already opened. That's where the taskbar comes in handy. Whenever you open a program, folder, or document, Windows creates a button on the taskbar corresponding to that item. The button shows the icon and name of the item. In the picture below, two programs are open—Calculator and Minesweeper—and each has its own button on the taskbar. Minimize and restore windows When a window is active (its taskbar button appears pressed down), clicking its taskbar button minimizes the window. That means that the window disappears from the desktop. Minimizing a window doesn't close it or delete its contents—it merely removes it from the desktop temporarily. In the picture below, Calculator has been minimized, but not closed. You can tell it's still running because it has a button on the taskbar.
  40. 40. Introduction to windows 40 You can also minimize a window by clicking the Minimize button, in the upper-right corner of the window. To restore a minimized window (make it show up again on the desktop), click its taskbar button. How the taskbar groups similar items As you open more windows, you'll see existing taskbar buttons shrink in width to let new buttons squeeze in. However, if the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons, then the buttons for the same program will be grouped into a single button. To see how this works, suppose you have many folders open on the desktop. If the taskbar has enough room, it displays the folders as separate buttons:
  41. 41. Introduction to windows 41 But if you have many programs and documents open, the taskbar collapses these four buttons into a single button that shows the name of the group (folders) and the number of items in the group (4). Clicking the button displays a menu listing the folders in the group, as shown above. Clicking one of the items in the menu activates its window so you can see it. To close all of the items in the group, right-click the group's taskbar button, and then click Close Group See previews of your open windows When you move your mouse pointer to a taskbar button, a small picture appears that shows you a miniature version of the corresponding window. This preview, also called a thumbnail, is especially useful if you can't identify a window by its title alone. And if one of your windows has video or animation playing, you'll see it playing in the preview. Pointing to a window's taskbar button displays a preview of the window. When you point to a grouped taskbar button, you'll see a stack of previews, but only the topmost preview will be visible.
  42. 42. Introduction to windows 42 Note: Taskbar window previews won't work unless your computer is running Windows Aero, the premium visual experience of Windows Vista. Aero is not available in Windows Vista Starter or Windows Vista Home Basic. The Quick Launch toolbar To the immediate right of the Start button is the Quick Launch toolbar. As its name implies, it lets you launch (start) programs with a single click. For example, click the Internet Explorer icon to start Internet Explorer. The Quick Launch toolbar sits to the right of the Start button You can customize the Quick Launch toolbar by adding your favorite programs to it. Locate the program in the Start menu, right-click it, and then click Add to Quick Launch. (If you don't see this option, you can also drag the program's icon to the Quick Launch toolbar.) The program's icon now appears in the toolbar. To remove an icon from the Quick Launch toolbar, right-click it, click Delete, and then click Yes. By default, the Quick Launch toolbar also contains two special buttons. Click the Show Desktop button to temporarily hide all open windows and show the desktop; click the button again to show all windows again. Click the Switch between windows button to switch between open windows using Windows Flip 3D. If your computer isn't running Windows Aero, clicking the Switch between windows button won't open Flip 3D. Instead, you'll see the same window as you would if you pressed ALT+TAB on your keyboard. If you don't see icons that you've added to the Quick Launch toolbar, and you see double chevrons instead, it means that the icons won't fit in the toolbar. You can click the double chevrons to access the hidden toolbar programs, but it's better to resize the toolbar to preserve one-click access to them.
  43. 43. Introduction to windows 43 To resize the Quick Launch toolbar  Right-click an empty area of the taskbar, and then click Lock the Taskbar to clear the check mark and unlock the taskbar.  Move the toolbar sizing handle to the right until you see all of your icons.  Drag the handle to resize the Quick Launch toolbar The notification area The notification area, on the far right side of the taskbar, includes a clock and a group of icons. It looks like this: These icons communicate the status of something on your computer or provide access to certain settings. The set of icons you see depends on which programs or services you have installed and how your computer manufacturer set up your computer. When you move your pointer to a particular icon, you will see that icon's name or the status of a setting. For example, pointing to the volume icon shows the current volume level of your computer. Pointing to the network icon displays information about whether you are connected to a network, the connection speed, and the signal strength. Double-clicking an icon in the notification area usually opens the program or setting associated with it. For example, double-clicking the volume icon opens the volume controls. Double- clicking the network icon opens Network and Sharing Center. Occasionally, an icon in the notification area will display a small pop-up window (called a notification) to notify you about something. For example, after adding a new hardware device to your computer, you might see this:
  44. 44. Introduction to windows 44 Click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the notification to dismiss it. If you don't do anything, the notification will fade away on its own after a few seconds. To reduce clutter, Windows hides icons in the notification area when you haven't used them in a while. If icons become hidden, click the Show hidden icons button to temporarily display the hidden icons. In Windows, what is the Start menu? The Start menu is a feature of Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, 2000, and XP that provides a quick way to perform many common tasks, such as launching programs or using control panels. The Start menu appears when you click the Start button, which is located at one end of the Taskbar, typically at the lower left corner of the desktop. Note: The Windows XP default desktop view and Start menu are different from the Windows Classic View (e.g., in Windows 2000). Therefore, navigating to certain items can be different. In the interest of broad applicability, most Knowledge Base instructions assume you are using Classic View. The Start menu includes options for: Running programs, either by selecting from a menu (which you can customize) or by entering text in a dialog box Accessing recently used documents Accessing control panels Finding files, folders, or computers Getting help Shutting down or logging out of the computer