1 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatFOCULTY OF BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY.DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS.STUDY COURSE: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.TITLE OF THE COURSE PAPER:WAS THE COMING OF EUROPEANS A THREAT TO AFRICANS?PRESENTED BY: ABAN PAUL CHOL CHUKUANSUBMITTED TO Prof. Dr.Vilma TafaniDate: 26thjune-2013MATRICULATION NO. OO38.ADDRESS: NEHEMIAH GATEWAY UNIVERSITYRRUGA NEHEMIAH BUCIMAS POGRADEC ALBANIA.STUDY COURSE: BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS.Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgTell: +355697745105
2 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatABSTRACT.The coming of Europeans to Africa in 19thcentury was thought to be a threat by Africans due to somefactors that created fear among the African communities though the reverse and the turn came to bethe two communities are now the beneficiaries of one another. The Europeans were white people whileAfricans were black people and they look at them as strangers, then the unknown languages to Africanswas another big problem, for example. The English, French, Portuguese, Germans to mention but a few.The use of force by the colonies, slave trade, the coming of missionaries that wanted to replace Africangods with European god, god of fire, god of rain, magic gods that can foreseen what will happen in thefuture, that are in charge of sending rain from heaven and taking care of forest, mountains, rivers andcommunity itself. But the price is that both came to realized that they need each other’s support like thethree trinity, then how did the African benefited from the Europeans? The African considered theimpact of the coming of Europeans on them perhaps the most important factor in understanding in thepresent condition of the African people. Their coming was necessary to appreciate the degree to whichit influenced not only the economic and political development of Africa but also the African people’sperception of themselves.
3 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatINTRODUCTIONThe Europeans are the colony who came to Africa in the 18th-19thcentury and these were the British,French, Germans and Portuguese to mention but a few. Their coming to Africa was thought to be due tomany factors that attracted them in Africa. For example, the eruption of industrialization revolution thatneed a lot of raw materials which the Africa continent have plenty, the fertile land of Africa thatproduces good agricultural products like coffee, cotton that were badly needed in Europe for theirfactories. The need for man power in sugar and cotton plantation, they need land for settlement due toover population in Europe. The love for adventure, availability of raw materials in Africa, better livingconditions and trade routes. These were some reasons as to why the Africans were suspicious ofEuropeans. And this caused a big tension. In the other hands, the Africans are believed to be the blackpeople that were found in the continent of Africa. Both in the North, South, East, West and CentralAfrica. Though Africans do not share common history, cultures and norms but they have the sameidentity. They are always organized politically, economically, and socially. These give them togethernessespecially the kingship, tribes, clans, extended family and the community.However, the fear that the Africans were having on Europeans turned to be the way for opening theireyes to see what is good and what bad for themselves on the fact that Africa as continent has enoughvaluable materials that could help them but because of low technology, they were not able to explorethem and make use of it. For example, the fertile land, gold, diamonds, lakes, and rivers that could havebeen use to generate incomes both locally and internationally. But what did European do for Africans tolet them settled?
4 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatLITERATURE REVIEWSNEW FARMING SYSTEM.The introduction of new farming system that help agriculture sector, the use of tractors, hoes, Axes,pangas and double –axe. This easier the ways cultivation, digging and harvesting. It did not improve onlythe agriculture products but the life of the people of Africa. Use of fertilizers was very helpful to someareas where there is no enough rain, also insecticides that help the farmers to spray plants not to bedestroyed by insects. The Europeans introduced some cash crops like coffee, cotton, tea-leaves, onions,cabbages, Bananas, lemons, Groundnuts, sugarcane, and salt to mention but a few. All these improvedthe standard of living of the African people. Irrigation system also was introduced to support farmingsector where it can be use even during the dry seasons for planting things like vegetables. Intercroppingsystem made it simple for farmers to plant many crops at the same time. All these were introduced afterthe settlement of the white men. This help the idea of, ‘’in African tradition society, everyone is aworker’’EDUCATION SYSTEM.Although African people have that kind of education which was provided by uncles, aunts, grandfathersand mothers. This kind of education was given to children and it is always done around fire (classroom)in the evening. Reading of riddles, sitting a poem, giving a proverbs, how to name the parts of humanbody indirectly using the name of insects, girls are taught how to take care of the young children andcooking, fetching fire wood, and water also they are taught how to rest men and should behavethemselves with the opposite sex, they show the girls how to decorate themselves with beads andsmearing themselves cow dung powder to atrack men even to be creative when they get marriage notto call their husbands by names but love names.. Aunts were the great teachers in African families ofsuch things. While uncles and grandfathers teaches the boys how to look after cows, giving thetechniques of hunting in the bush and how to attack wild animals like lions, Hyenas, tigers in case theycame under such attack.However, when the Europeans came to Africa, they introduced new modern education system. Theybuild classrooms where children are brought together and learn in one environment. The use of pensand exercise books. Schools were open like primary, secondary, colleges, and universities. This improvedthe education system and improved the life of people of Africa. They give scholarship to African studentsto come to Europe and learn sciences and laws and other ways of how to live a good life. This Africansafter going back from school, some of them are giving responsibilities to manage their organizations
5 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatback home. The Europeans taught languages like English, fence, and this made communication simpleboth locally and internationally.TRANSPORT SYSTEM.The Europeans open up new roads, tama roads, marum roads, railway roads, airfields and watertransport were improved. This easier the movements of people from one place to another not only theAfricans but also the Europeans who came in different directions to Africa and were getting themselves.Communities who were locked in African tropical forests and those who do live behind the hills andmountains were exposed to one another. Airports were open for both Europeans and Africans to flyfrom Europe to Africa and from Africa to Europe vice verse-versa. The Europeans brought the transportsystem like the use of cars, euro plane, trains, ships in the water transport, and even bicycles and motorcycles for short distances. It reduced the long distance movement and time wasted was eliminated bythis kind of new transport system.TRADE AND ECONOMICS.The Europeans improved the trade in Africa. The barter trade, which was used by the traders in Africa.This is where goods are changed with good and services with services in business transactions. Whenthe Europeans came there was introduction of money especially during long distance trade both coinsand money notes (paper money) were introduced for different countries in Africa. This made it possiblefor financial institutions to be built like banking institutions, micro-finances and commercial banks. Theysupported the economy of their states by giving loans to some cooperatives, farmers, and someindividuals benefited from this. Business schools were opened to train those who want to learn subjectslike accounting, economics, commerce, and human resource management etc.It is still up to today even the current Europeans leaders want to do more trade with Africa to improvetheir relationship with African leaders and communities to build better trade.Recently, Jaffar M Jasiri 23-June-2013,Obama committed to increased trade and investment in Africa. The need for American business to beengaged and increase their trade and investment in Africa will be among the highlights of presidentObama’s visit to the three countries in AfricaThis proves that the need to trade in Africa is not only with European countries but also with wholeworld. The gold, diamonds, precious stones, and oil, still the main target especially the natural resourcesfor the European investors and it is being welcome by the African people though not everybody like theidea in Africa some for one way or the other.THE MISSIONARIES in Africa.According to www.francofrsecura.co.za A study of missionary settlement and the spread of Christianity inSouth Africa during the period of 1800-1925. Including a piece on role of mission, a list of mission, andcase studies of individual stations.
6 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatThe European missionaries came to Africa through many routes .Others came through West Africa, SouthAfrica, and northern Africa. They preached the gospel of salvation to human kind. The love of God tohumankind that he sends his begotten son Jesus Christ who died for our sins. This smeared the hearts ofthose who received the message and were convicted by it. They decompaiged slave trade in Africa. LikeDavid Livingstone who fought for humanity. Built churches, schools like Primary, secondary colleges,Universities, hospitals and dispensaries. They taught people how to live in harmony with one another.‘’Like love your neighbor as you love yourself’’. This made it possible for more development in Africa andeven they send students to their home countries where they came from for scholarship to learn andcome back to help them in their missionary work like evangelism, teaching in schools, training teachersand nurses in colleges and universities. Some missionary do give charity work and donate assistant tosome community who are in need of help of Food, clothes, medication etc. they help government insome countries in Africa in organizing and training leaders how to manage their leadership and thecommunity.According to www.missionariesofafrica.org for more than 130 years, the missionaries of Africa a catholicsocieties of religious men have been reaching out to men, women, and children throughout Africa topreach, teaching, healing and build.GAMES AND SPORTSThe Europeans improved the sport activities. New games were introduced like football, netball, valleyball, and athletics. Although some of these games were there in African societies but the Europeanscame and improved some of them. Africans have some their natural kind of games running, jumpingover a robe, swimming in water, throwing of spears. Other like beating of drums, nightclubs or nightdance. European came with their games like football, riding motorcycles, driving, skydive and manymore. Today we have African cup of nations and other premier leagues that are now going onADVANCE TECHNOLOGY.The advance technology that improved the standard of living of the people was also extended to Africa1today. The new communication system, telephones, telegraphs, introduction of mobile network andcomputer literacy was in Africa. The use of internet that it easy for messages to be sends and received.Due to this technology advancement, weapons for fighting have been manufactured, machineguns andwar tanks. It is not hard today to communicate far distances due to technology advancement.Textile industry was introduced after Europeans settled in Africa because of the availability of cotton,sisal, and some trees that can be use for making clothes. The use of animal skins was replaced by thenew types of clothes Europeans brought and manufactured locally with in Africa. It created employmentopportunity to many people and increase the knowledge for those who use to make traditional bakeclothes in small industries.
7 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatPOLITICAL ORGANIZATION.The Political organization of Africa is almost the same with European’s system. There were religiousorganizations, structure of kinship ties, and lineage group in Africa. The same in Europe where there iskings and queens, religious and spiritual leaders. For example, in England, the first king was called KingEbert who united the realms of Essex and East Anglia in 9thcentury back in 800 AD. In addition, givethem the name England. Moreover, there had been 24 kings of England from then until King Williamarrived.This is according to www.behindthename.com/namesake/categoryenlishruler .However, the European came with new kind of administration that allow more democracy and rule oflaws in which it was not the same case in Africa. Now there is decentralization of powers in thegovernment and respect of human rights. Today is president, cabinets, legislative assembly, politicalparties, police, and Army and prison services.In Africa, kings were look to be head of community and there was no rule of laws. One they decided, theirdecision was final and there were no election. People wait until the king is dead then someone withinthe royal family will be chosen to replace him.There was creation of borders of countries Africa that up to today is very help full in controlling themovement of the people and even the movement of goods from one state to another. These improvethe issue of security maintaining and peace in some societies.According to: Leander Heldring, James A Robinson (10-January 2013)However, most of the African countries spent two generations under rule. This column argues that,contrary to some recent commentary highlighting the benefits of colonialism. It is this intenseexperience that signiffically retarded economic development across the continent. Relative to plausiblecounterfactual, Africa is poorer today than it would be had colonialism.Due to the colonialism and African, experience of colonialism impact, also there are some negativeeffects after the coming of Europeans.They caused division among African communities that brought conflict in Africa and this has broughtdeath that lead to loss of many lives today. The racism in South Africa was the example of discriminationthe black from the white.Since African do live in extended family, it is believed that due to the coming of Europeans to Africa whodecompaiged the issue of marriage many wives through Christian religion. This left many childrenremained redundant or helpless who could have been there in extended family. There is no inheriting ofwidows as it was before. The abject poverty and unequaled distribution of wealth made the life of manyto remain in ruins.
8 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatEthnic violent are very common due to what Europeans did by giving some clan and tribe marks on theirfaces to be Identify easily by their opponent especially in central Africa.According to: Craig, Graham, Kagan, Ozment &Turner, 2007, p.690. (‘’south Africa apartheid’’ 2009)FINDINGSAlthough the Africans did not welcome the Europeans warmly, the Europeans in Africa have done at leastmuch development. For examples,Introduced the modern education system that helped to eradicate illiteracy. Schools were open fromlower level of education to the higher level like primary schools, secondary schools, colleges anduniversities. Students were given scholarship to come to Europe to learn and get degree, PHDs andmasters up to today such service are still being provided though Africans are independent. The liveexample is the Nehemiah Gateway University that offered scholarship to African students.The improvement of communication and transport system, construction of roads railways, airfields andwater transport is improved. This made it easy for the movement of the people from one place toanother.Political organizations in the government were established where there is democracy and parties whopractice their rights to whom they may vote and whom they may not. Now there is rule of laws, eachstate has president, and his cabinets, parties and so on.The advance technology that today as we see in many things like telephones, computers, internet andmobile network has been established in Africa in which there is many mobile network company that areoperate in Africa now. Examples are Mobile telephone networks. (MTN) ZAIN Network, VodafoneNetwork Kenya, Congo, in Africa and Europe.New farming system of using tractors, hoes, irrigation, intercropping, and fertilizers. This lead to betterfood production and it improved the standard of living of the people. Today many African countriesgrow agricultural products and export some even to European countries. E.g., cocoa, coffee, cotton, Tealeaves. sisal, is export from Africa to international markets. hence, onions, Groundnuts, sunflowers, sim-sim, beans, rice, Irish potatoes, sweat cassava, sweat potatoes, Bananas, jack fruits and many more aresold in local markets in Africa and people earn a lot of money on this agriculture production sector and itgenerate a lot of income.METHODOLOGY.During this exercise of scientific research, it has not been simple for one to find enough information onthe ground but due to consultation of some historical websites colonialism and African experience. Thisgives some little information about the both positive and negative points on what happened betweenthe communities.
9 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatThrough fellow African students who have some ideas on the African nationalism also give somehistorical of the past according to their knowledge of what they learned about the coming of Europeansto Africa and how their settlement was a great advantage to African people. Ahmed Musana and LokoloMartin who gave the example of Nehemiah Gateway University program of bringing African students tocome and learn in Albania and as part of European countries who did not even involved during the timeof colonialism.Through personal experience on what the European are doing good in African countries until today. Mostof charity organization comes from western world who in one way or the other supporting thecommunities and those who are in need. For example, united nation high commission for refugees(UNHCR) who have been helping the south Sudanese during the war between the South and NorthernSudan in which I have been one of the refugees in Kakum refugee’s camp in Kenya. Save the childrenorganization, world vision organization etc these are fact on the ground and they are still supporting thecommunity up to now.CONCLUSION.Although many has tried to compare and contrast between the two continents before and aftercolonialism, it is difficult to come up with final a conclusion. though many good things are happeningright now and then. However, it is true that both of them need each other support. Many scholars arestill looking for away forward ‘’ what could be done to make African forget what was done to them andwhat do the Europeans need to do in order to compensate back African and how to cemented theirrelationship’’? Especially the British who hand over powers to Arabs and to African dictators.However, the question remains “will the Africa develop without Europe”?
10 | the coming of Europeans to Africa is not threatReference lists1. www.behindthename.com/namesake/categoryenlishruler p.72. www.francofrsecura.coza p.53. www.missionariesafrica.org p.64. Blundell J. (2004) Try, belove county. Published by Amand Nelson. Effects of colonialism in Africa.5. Jaffar mjasiri 23rdjune 2013 Obama increase trade and investment in Africa. p.56. Craig, Graham, Kagan, Ozment, & Turner (2007) p.690. (south Africa apartheid 2009) p.77.Leander Heldring, James A Robinson 10 January 2013 p.7