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UTPL Educational Research


Published on

Escuela de Ciencias de la Educación mencion Ingles
Lic Alba Vargas
Periodo Abril - Agosto / 2009

Published in: Education, Business
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UTPL Educational Research

  2. 2. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH II FIRST BIMESTER What is our goal?  Identify and describe the major steps and components involved in a research.  Differentiate each one of the steps to design a research project  Select a topic and design a research project or proposal.
  3. 3. Didactic materials  Printed didactic materials Guide  Technological didactic materials EVA e-mail videoconference telephone 3
  4. 4. What is What is educational Research? research? 4
  5. 5. RESEARCH Research Gay & Airasian (2003)  Cn Research ----- way of finding out ANSWERS to ---Questions????? 5
  6. 6. Educational research Systematic application of the scientific method for addressing Educational issues topics problems (phenomena) Information(general /specific conclusion or to make predictions) 6
  7. 7. RESEARCH PROCESS: basic steps Gay & Anderson (2003) 2.Recognize and identify a topic to study 3.Describe and execute procedures to collect information about the topic being studied 4.Analyze the collected data 5.State the results or implication based on analysis of the data. 6.Write the report 7
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH  Attempts to solve a problem.  Involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data  It is based upon accurate observable or empirical evidence.
  9. 9.  Employs carefully designed procedures, methodologies and rigorous analysis.  Enhances knowledge and education  Objective ----validate procedures.  Recorded and reported 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Stage 1: Plan the research Identification of the problem  Is there a relationship between language learning and culture?  Do we have to include culture in the English programs? 11
  12. 12.  The lack of awareness of cultural aspects, when learning to speak a foreign language, affects effective communication.  Why do students in our public schools fail to learn English?  How do adults learn a language? 12
  13. 13. Start to plan the research proposal Why do we need a research proposal or project? 13
  14. 14. Project or Proposal 6. Theoretical background or 2. Title literature review 3. Statement of 7. Methodology the problem 8. Working calendar 4. Justification 4. Resources (budget) 5. Objectives 10. References 6. Hypotheses Alvear Jannett (2009)) 14
  15. 15. 1. The title/topic 15
  16. 16. The title/topic The name of the specific research problem or issue Function: - To differentiate the proposal/ project from other ones. - To announce the content of the proposal or project 16
  17. 17. How to narrow a research topic? English language learning English learning as a foreign language in Ecuador Factors that influence on the learning of English as a foreign language in Ecuador The influence of the native language on learning English in public high schools in the city of Quito Narrow topic 17
  19. 19. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM CONTEXTUALIZATION ACCESSING THE PROBLEM  Description of the problem  Description of the background of the problem - Explain - Analyze - Grounded in theory - Narrow the topic 19
  20. 20. 3.Justification 20
  21. 21. Justification Why is the  Reasons proposal important? Highlight the relevance Who will benefit from the project? Expectations in the society, institution, community … Feasibility and possibility Time and resources 21
  22. 22. 4. Objectives 22
  23. 23. Objectives Aims or objectives the researcher attempts to achieve 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. Examples  Determine the most common Spanish grammatical structures which interfere in the learning of English grammatical structures  Identify the level of influence of the native language on the verbal performance of speakers of English as a foreign language. 25
  26. 26. 5.Theoretical background or Literature review 26
  27. 27. Definition  John Creswell (2008) “a written summary of journals articles, books and other documents that describes the past and current state of information; organizes the literature into topics; and documents a need for a proposal study”.  Document how your study adds to the existing information. 27
  28. 28. Steps Identify key terms Locate different literature sources Critically evaluate Organize the literature Write a literature review 28
  29. 29. Why literature review?  Know more about the topic  Base the research on concepts  Evidence  How other researchers composed their studies 29
  30. 30. Important!!!!!  Follow a standard documentation style when citing sources and writing your bibliography  Social sciences follow American Psychological Association (APA) standards  Humanities follow Modern Language Association (MLA) standards 30
  31. 31. Plagiarism Is the unfair use of someone else's words or ideas. To avoid plagiarism you must Summarize, use quotations, and paraphrase the information that you take from other authors. That is, you must properly integrate and credit all quotes and paraphrases by citing authors or sources in paragraphs. In addition, you must include a reference list at the end of your written work. 31
  32. 32.  Summarizing: express the main ideas into your own words  Quotation: “exact information, match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author” (author / year /page)  Paraphrasing: putting a passage from source material into your own words 32
  33. 33. Examples of in-text citation:  Cheung ( 2009) suggests that the Internet is a useful research tool.  Gao ( 2009) argues that the Internet is a useful research tool.  Naomi Klein (2000, p. 3) notes that some management theorists suggest, “that successful corporations must primarily produce brands, as opposed to products” Verbs: state, argue, reports, suggests, claims
  34. 34. Example (paraphrasing) McKay (2003) argues that culture influences language teaching in two ways: linguistic and pedagogical. Linguistically, it affects the semantic, pragmatic, and discourse levels of the language. Pedagogically, it influences the choice of the language materials because cultural content of the language materials and the cultural basis of the teaching methodology are to be taken into consideration while deciding upon the language materials. For example, while some textbooks provide examples from the target culture, some others use source culture materials. Bilal Genc & Erdogan Bada (2005) 34
  35. 35. 6. Hypotheses 35
  36. 36. Definition A hypothesis is a tentative theory or supposition provisionally stated by the researcher to explain certain facts, and to guide the investigation. 36
  37. 37. Title of the Problem: The inappropriate use of supplementary material for EFL teaching in high school students causes low achievement Hypothesis: Teachers do not use supplementary material considering the characteristics of students Title of a Topic: Anglicisms in business signs banners and builders (no hyphothesis) 37
  38. 38. Types of hyphotheses  Inductive hypotheses Inductive reasoning  Deductive Hypotheses deductive reasoning 38
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. Examples Variables: Dependent variable: low achievement Independent variable: Supplementary material 40
  41. 41. INDICATORS Measurable indicators provide a basis for collecting evidence that is valid and reliable for the intended uses. Example: - Teaching cards - Handouts 41
  42. 42. 7. Methodological design 42
  43. 43. HOW THE RESEARCH WILL BE CONDUCTED? Decide the Population or sample Determine the methods 43
  44. 44. Methodological design  Methods : Descriptive, deductive, bibliographical, comparative, historical etc.  Techniques: surveys, note-taking, interview  Instruments: direct observation, questionnaires, cards 44
  45. 45. 8. WORKING CALENDAR 45
  46. 46. Working Calendar The purpose is to help to :  Organize activities  Set time for each one of the activities  Plan the whole research  Guide the researcher to meet deadlines 46
  47. 47. Working calendar DATE ACTIVITIES April 24 – May 26 Plan and write a research proposal or project May 26 – June 30 … 47
  48. 48. Activities April May June July Plan and write a x x x research x x x proposal or project Literature x x x x x x review x x x x x x 48
  49. 49. 9. RESOURCES 49
  50. 50. RESOURCES  List of human resources  List of material resources  Budget (financial sources) 50
  51. 51. 10. References or bibliography 51
  52. 52. Include all the sources reviewed  Books  Journals  Magazines  Electronic sources, etc 52
  53. 53. Suggestions for REFERENCE/BIBLIOGRAPHY Use the style adopted by the institution or the APA style which is internationally approved. Write the references in alphabetical order Be careful, the information must come from a reliable source. Use updated bibliography (5 years ) 53
  54. 54. Example - Belenky, M.F (1986). A woman´s way of knowing: The development of self, voice and mind. New York: Basic Books. - Schulz, R. (2001). Cultural differences in student and teacher perceptions concerning the role of grammar instruction. The Modern Language Journal, 85, 244–58. 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. Stage 2: research (field research) Stage 3: Write and organize your research report Stage 2: research (field 56
  57. 57. QUESTIONS????? 57
  58. 58. THANKS 58
  59. 59. 59