ESCUELA: CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACION
NOMBRES Lic. Alba Vargas Saritama
FECHA: ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH II
What is our goal?
Identify and describe the major steps
and components involved in a
Differentiate each one of the steps to
design a research project
Select a topic and design a research
project or proposal.
What is What is
Research Gay & Airasian (2003)
Research ----- way of finding out
ANSWERS to ---Questions?????
Systematic application of the scientific method
Educational issues topics
Information(general /specific conclusion or to
make predictions) 6
RESEARCH PROCESS: basic steps
Gay & Anderson (2003)
2.Recognize and identify a topic to study
3.Describe and execute procedures to
collect information about the topic being
4.Analyze the collected data
5.State the results or implication based on
analysis of the data.
6.Write the report
Attempts to solve a problem.
Involves gathering new data from
primary or first-hand sources or
using existing data
It is based upon accurate
observable or empirical
Employs carefully designed
procedures, methodologies and
Enhances knowledge and
Objective ----validate procedures.
Recorded and reported
Stage 1: Plan the research
Identification of the problem
Is there a relationship between
language learning and culture?
Do we have to include culture in the
The lack of awareness of cultural
aspects, when learning to speak a
foreign language, affects effective
Why do students in our public schools
fail to learn English?
How do adults learn a language?
Start to plan the research proposal
Why do we need a research proposal or project?
Project or Proposal
3. Statement of
8. Working calendar
4. Resources (budget)
Alvear Jannett (2009))
The name of the specific research
problem or issue
- To differentiate the proposal/ project
from other ones.
- To announce the content of the
proposal or project
How to narrow a research topic?
English language learning
English learning as a foreign language in
Factors that influence on the learning of
English as a foreign language in Ecuador
The influence of the native language
on learning English in
public high schools
in the city of Quito
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
ACCESSING THE PROBLEM
Description of the problem
Description of the background of the problem
- Grounded in theory
- Narrow the topic
Why is the
Highlight the relevance
Who will benefit from the project?
Expectations in the society,
institution, community …
Feasibility and possibility
Time and resources
Determine the most common Spanish
grammatical structures which interfere
in the learning of English grammatical
Identify the level of influence of the
native language on the verbal
performance of speakers of English as a
5.Theoretical background or
John Creswell (2008) “a written
summary of journals articles, books
and other documents that describes
the past and current state of
information; organizes the literature
into topics; and documents a need
for a proposal study”.
Document how your study adds to the
existing information. 27
Identify key terms
Locate different literature sources
Organize the literature
Write a literature review
Why literature review?
Know more about the topic
Base the research on concepts
How other researchers composed their
Follow a standard documentation
style when citing sources and writing
Social sciences follow American
Psychological Association (APA)
Humanities follow Modern Language
Association (MLA) standards
Is the unfair use of someone else's words or
To avoid plagiarism you must Summarize, use
quotations, and paraphrase the information
that you take from other authors. That is, you
must properly integrate and credit all quotes and
paraphrases by citing authors or sources in
paragraphs. In addition, you must include a
reference list at the end of your written work.
Summarizing: express the main ideas
into your own words
Quotation: “exact information, match
the source document word for word
and must be attributed to the original
author” (author / year /page)
Paraphrasing: putting a passage from
source material into your own words
Examples of in-text citation:
Cheung ( 2009) suggests that the Internet is a
useful research tool.
Gao ( 2009) argues that the Internet is a useful
Naomi Klein (2000, p. 3) notes that some
management theorists suggest, “that successful
corporations must primarily produce brands, as
opposed to products”
Verbs: state, argue, reports, suggests, claims
McKay (2003) argues that culture influences
language teaching in two ways: linguistic and
pedagogical. Linguistically, it affects the semantic,
pragmatic, and discourse levels of the language.
Pedagogically, it influences the choice of the language
materials because cultural content of the language
materials and the cultural basis of the teaching
methodology are to be taken into consideration while
deciding upon the language materials. For example,
while some textbooks provide examples from the
target culture, some others use source culture
Bilal Genc & Erdogan Bada (2005)
A hypothesis is a tentative theory or
supposition provisionally stated by the
researcher to explain certain facts, and to
guide the investigation.
Title of the Problem:
The inappropriate use of supplementary material
for EFL teaching in high school students causes
Teachers do not use supplementary material
considering the characteristics of students
Title of a Topic:
Anglicisms in business signs banners and
(no hyphothesis) 37
Include all the sources reviewed
Electronic sources, etc
Use the style adopted by the institution
or the APA style which is
Write the references in alphabetical
Be careful, the information must come
from a reliable source.
Use updated bibliography (5 years )
- Belenky, M.F (1986). A woman´s way of
knowing: The development of self, voice
and mind. New York: Basic Books.
- Schulz, R. (2001). Cultural differences
in student and teacher perceptions
concerning the role of grammar
instruction. The Modern Language
Journal, 85, 244–58.