Why eastern countries are called as eastern and western countries are called as western?Submitted To:Prof. VINITA SRIVASTAVA Submitted By: Karmveer singh PGDM (2012-2014) Sec- ‘A’
EASTERN COUNTRIES:The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures andphilosophical systems of Asia or geographically the Eastern cultures. This includes the Indian subcontinent (comprising Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, theMaldives, and Nepal), the Far East (comprising Russia, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Cambodia,Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea), WestAsia (Syria,Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, the United ArabEmirates and Yemen) and CentralAsia (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan,Afghanistan, and Kyrgyzstan).The division between "East" and west is a product of European cultural history, and of the distinctionbetween European Christendom and the cultures beyond it to the East. With the European invasionof the Americas the East/West distinction became global. The concept of an Eastern, "Indian"(Indies) or "Oriental" sphere was emphasized by ideas of racial as well as religious and culturaldifferences. Such distinctions were articulated by Westerners in the scholarly tradition knownas Orientalism and Indology. People from the East are known by certain regions in the West as"Oriental". During the Cold War, the term "Eastern world" was sometimes used as an extensionof Eastern bloc, connoting the Soviet Union, China and their communist allies, while the term"Western world" often connoted theUnited States and its NATO allies such as the United Kingdom.The concept is often another term for the Far East—a region that bears considerable cultural andreligious commonality. Eastern philosophy, art, literature, and other traditions, are often foundthroughout the region in places of high importance, such as popular culture, architecture andtraditional literature. The spread ofBuddhism and Hindu Yoga is partly responsible for this.
East vs WestIn Saudi Arabia, the term “western”, tends to mean something or someone emanating from the UK, theUS, continental Europe and the antipodes. In the eyes of westerners, western expertise means bestpractice. Western technology is about inventiveness, reliability and superiority over other technologies. Wethink of Japanese technology as “honorary western” in this regard.For many Saudis western means expensive, admired and coveted, but resented for the taint of cultural,political and economic imperialism.Today, Saudi Arabia is increasingly looking east – for manpower, technology and manufactured goods. 25years ago, Japan excepted, the main import from countries east of the Kingdom was labour: Baluchis tosweep the streets, Koreans to build the airports, Keralans to make the tea. What has changed is that theSaudis look east for knowledge and skills that come at half the price of those available in the west: softwareengineers from India, education and e-learning expertise from Malaysia and engineers from Korea.The exodus of westerners in the wake of the terrorist attacks of 2003 created a vacuum which the newly-prosperous far eastern countries happily filled. When western compounds were attacked, and British andAmerican expatriates were murdered in the streets and in their offices, the number of westerners workingin the Kingdom halved. The Saudis replaced them with technical experts from India and the Far East, andwith managers from their own ranks.The attitude of a Malaysian training manager I spoke to recently is revealing. “In the old days we in Malaysia looked up to Britain as our former colonial masters and as the leadingnation of the Commonwealth. We looked for investment and for Britain’s help in making us moretechnically self-sufficient, and that help never came. So we looked east, and drew inspiration from Japan.Matathir Mohammed (the Malaysian Prime Minister of the time) adopted a policy based on the industrialphilosophy of Japan, and with our new oil wealth we invested in infrastructure, education and technicalexpertise we developed the country in a way that owes nothing to the west. As a Muslim country we havenatural empathy with the culture of Saudi Arabia, and this is why people like me are working here in placeof people like you.”He did not of course mention that the cost of an American or British manager is about three times that ofa Malaysian equivalent.
The Eastern Origins of Western CivilizationChapter 4 - The East Remains Dominant: the twin myths of oriental despotism and isolationism in India, South-east Asia and Japan
The East over the West, 1200-1800 Proof that the East was ahead of Europe in economics, trading, and standard of living
Statistics & (Paul Bairoch) Data Eastern income was 220% of Western in 1750 West only got ahead in 1870 Eurocentric scholars focused on per capita income Population differences The decline of the Eastern economy was explained by colonial exploitation 1750 - World manufacturing output: East contributed 77% West contributed only 23%
East Ahead in Global Economy High European demand for Asian products Low Asian demands for European products Europe sent bullion exports to make up difference Bullion: gold or silver not in coin form Europe had trading deficits with other powers besides Asia
The twin myths of Indianisolationism and oriental despotism Examples disproving the myths Key Terms Oriental despotism: single authority ruling with absolute power (depicted as brutal) Isolationism: characterized by: legal barriers to control trade and exchanges avoidance of alliances & wars with other nations
The Indian state as growth permissive: anti-Eurocentric propositions The Mughal state did not crush capitalism Especially supported Gujarati merchants, granted autonomy Support of traders increased trade in India— esp. Surat area Mughal rulers promoted peace (esp. with Persian Shahs & Uzbeck Khans) to maintain trade relations
The Indian state as growth permissive: anti-Eurocentric propositions Merchants became extremely wealthy Low tariffs on foreign trade & local transit Claims about scale of Indian trade before colonization proven false: Not only luxury goods, textiles made for mass market Pulses, wheat, rice, oil traded throughout Indian Ocean Trade not only by town merchants (banians), but also by long-distance merchants (banjaras)
The Indian state as growth permissive: anti-Eurocentric propositions India was not isolated from international trade Complementary role in Indian Ocean trading system Indian villages linked to global economy Indian economy: great levels of productive power Major Brit. Industrial Revo. industries: cotton & steel/iron However, up to 18th century, India actually led the way Produced Wootz steel - exported to Persia - become famous Damascus (Damask) steel Indian steel was cheaper & superior to steel produced elsewhere Foremost cotton-textile producer; also produced silk textiles Khaki, pyjama, sash, shawl
A South-east Asian appendix Eurocentric View/Claims Eastern Support/Justification Eurocentrism reduces: Region involved in trade & South-east Asia to Straits of expeditions that go back to Melaka early yrs. of common era Melaka to an appendix in Kingdom of Srivijaya in mainstream Western trade Sumatra – global economy Voyages of Chinese Viewed merely as a transit (Muslim) admiral Cheng Hopoint between Europe & China Portuguese & Dutch: Melaka was allegedlydominated by Portuguese unable to monopolize South-after 1511 & Dutch after 1641 east Asian trade
Silk RoadSeries of trade routes connecting the East and West – cultural & intellectual interactions
The myth of Japanese orientaldespotism and isolationism: Japan as an ‘early developer’, 1600-1868 Even though Eurocentrics portray Japan as a backwards country, Japanese economic growth rates that were experienced in the post-1868 Meiji period exceeded those of almost all the European economies. Much of the relative ease of the Meiji achievement is now attributed to the start which that the Tokugawa gave it.
How it all really began in Japan:economic dynamism in the Tokugawa era, 1603-1868 Tokugawa enjoyed per capita income growth Japanese enjoyed high living standards Significant growth rate in agricultural production The Tokugawa state sought to undermine the power of the samurai Castle towns caused rapid development & rapid commercialization Credit institutions Advancement of Industry Proto-industrialization Fishing, textiles, paper making, sake & soy sauce brewing, iron & other metalworking, agricultural and marine product processing
The myth of Japanese isolationism: the post-1639 continuation of foreign trade Myth: Japan withdrew and became isolated from international trade The policy of Sakoku taken too literally State sought to regulate foreign trade Tokugawa fundamentally committed to maintaining trade Eradicate influence of Catholic Christian ideas Japan’s desire to counter the dominance of Chinese rather than Western merchants
ConclusionEurocentric ideas have influenced many viewpoints and attitudes of nations & historical events, but through the strong verifications presented, one can see that the East was more dominant & independent than it was accredited for. Of course, Eurocentrism is one point of view; this source is still one point of view as well…Looking at the world through one perspective leads to subjective views and claims.In order to learn about the world as a whole, you must see the world as a whole.