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Heat Exchangers

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Heat Exchangers

  1. 1. Heat Exchangers<br />
  2. 2. Heat Exchangers<br /><ul><li>Heat exchangers are one of the most common pieces of equipment found in all plants.
  3. 3. Heat Exchangers are components that allow the transfer of heat from one fluid (liquid or gas) to another fluid.
  4. 4. In a heat exchanger there is no direct contact between the two fluids. The heat is transferred from the hot fluid to the metal isolating the two fluids and then to the cooler fluid.</li></li></ul><li>Types of Heat Exchangers<br />
  5. 5. Double-Pipe Exchanger<br />
  6. 6. Double Pipe<br />Simplest type has one tube inside another - inner tube may have longitudinal fins on the outside<br />However, most have a number of tubes in the outer tube - can have very many tubes thus becoming a shell-and-tube<br />
  7. 7. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger<br />
  8. 8. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers are the most important type of HE.<br />It is used in almost every type of industry.<br />This type of heat exchanger consists of a set of tubes in a container called a shell.<br />The fluid flowing inside the tubes is called the tube side fluid and the fluid flowing on the outside of the tubes is the shell side fluid.<br />
  9. 9. Main Components of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers<br />
  10. 10. Some common heat-exchanger terms<br />Tube side: Inside the tubes.<br />Shell side: Outside the tubes, between the tubes and the shell.<br />Tube sheet A thick plate provided with holes (one per tube) in which the tubes are fixed.<br />Tube bundle Consists of tubes, tube sheet and baffle plates<br />Shell A cylinder of plate in which the tube bundle is placed<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. TEMA Heat Exchangers<br />
  13. 13. Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Construction<br />Fixed Tube-sheet type<br />U-tube type<br />Floating Head type<br />
  14. 14. Front head type<br />A-type<br />B-type<br />B<br />A<br />Channel and removable cover<br />Bonnet (integral cover)<br />
  15. 15. Shell type<br />E-type <br />F shell<br />Longitudinal baffle<br />F<br />E<br />One-pass shell<br />Two-pass shell<br />
  16. 16. More shell types<br />G and H shells normally only used for horizontal thermosyphon reboilers<br />J and X shells if allowable pressure drop can not be achieved in an E shell<br />G<br />H<br />Longitudinal<br />baffles<br />Split flow<br />Double split flow<br />J<br />X<br />Divided flow<br />Cross flow<br />
  17. 17. Low-finned Tubes<br />Flat end to go into tube sheet and intermediate flat portions for baffle locations<br />Available in variety of metals including stainless steel, titanium and inconels<br />
  18. 18. Plate and frame<br />Plates hung vertically and clamped in a press or frame.<br />Gaskets direct the streams between alternate plates and prevent external leakage<br />Plates made of stainless steel or higher quality material<br />Plates corrugated to give points of support and increase heat transfer<br />
  19. 19. Plate Heat Exchanger<br />
  20. 20. Corrugations on plate<br />improve heat transfer<br />give rigidity <br />Many points of<br />contact and a<br />tortuous flow path<br />Chevron<br />Washboard<br />Plate types<br />
  21. 21. General view of plate exchanger<br />“Plate exchanger” normally refers to a gasketed plate- and-frame exchanger<br />
  22. 22. Flow Arrangement within a PHE<br />Gaskets<br />arranged for<br />each stream to<br />flow between<br />alternate plates <br />Alternate plates (often same plate types inverted)<br />
  23. 23. Air-Cooled or Fin-Fan Exchanger<br />
  24. 24. Air-cooled exchanger<br />Air blown across finned tubes (forced draught type)<br />Can suck air across (induced draught)<br />Finned tubes<br />
  25. 25. ACHE bundle<br />
  26. 26. Spiral Heat Exchanger<br />
  27. 27. Spiral Heat Exchangers<br />Spiral heat exchangers can be used in most applications in the chemical process industry<br />In many difficult applications where fouling and plugging are problems, a standard shell and tube design may not be effective<br />While a spiral heat exchanger often has a higher initial cost, it may provide a lower life cycle cost due to lower fouling rates and ease of maintenance<br />
  28. 28. A spiral heat exchanger is composed of two long, flat plates wrapped around a mandrel or center tube, creating two concentric spiral channels <br />In a spiral heat exchanger, the hot fluid flows into the center of the unit and spirals outward toward the outer plates while at the same time, the cold fluid enters the periphery and spiral inward, exiting at the center <br />