Agroforestry and carbon markets

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Agroforestry and carbon markets

  1. 1. Agroforestry and Carbon Markets: Linking Science and Policy in a Development Context
  2. 2. Framing the Development – Human Wellbeing Context  Land degradation – Degradation affects 65 % of of cropland in Africa and 51% in Latin America (GLASOD) – Deforestation and forest degradation – – 66% of new cropland comes from deforestation  Hunger and malnutrition  22Kg/ha of N, 2.3 Kg/ha P, 15Kg/ha of K lost in 30 yrs – Equivalent to $4 billion in fertilizer cost (Sanchez, 2002)  Persistent decline in household food production in 60% of rural households in the tropics and subtropics (Stocking, 2003)
  3. 3. Framing the Development – Human Wellbeing Context  Persistent decline in household food production in 60% of rural households in the tropics and subtropics  Globally, ca. (14%) 980 million people in the world are chronically or acutely malnourished. – In SSA, the prevalence of hunger is 30% – 50% are smallholder farm households  Chronic hunger results in annual losses of 6 to 10% in foregone GDP due to losses in labor productivity. – Illness and morbidity – Human development – Intergenerational poverty traps
  4. 4. Framing the Development – Human Wellbeing Context  Coupling between GDP and anthropogenic GHG emissions  CO2emissions went up in rapidly expanding economies, led by China and India with increases of 10% and 9% respectively.  Natural resource intensive economic growth models are strongly correlated with tropical deforestation – high deforestation rates: 27% in Asia; 19% in SSA; 14 % in Latin America  Tropical deforestation, accounting for some 20%-25% of global CO2 emissions.
  5. 5. A Veritable Carbon Crisis The Double Whammy: Rapid Increase in Atmospheric CO2 and Severe Depletion of SOC Soil degradation and nutrient depletion Decline in environ. quality; hypoxia Depletion of SOC Food security malnutritio n and hunger Decline in agronomic and biomass productivity
  6. 6. An Existential Challenge Reduce land Degradation, Enhancing Ecosystem Services while Improving Food and Nutritional Security Equitable and Sustainable Development Cut Anthropogenic CO2
  7. 7. Meeting the Challenge  Sustainable Land Use and Land Management: – Sequestration of Carbon in vegetation and soils – Increasing land productivity  Market-based Emission Control Mechanisms: – Strong targets in industrialized countries and economies in transition could drive capital flows and incentive bundles to support sequestration in soil and vegetation
  8. 8. Tools to Meet the Challenge Reduce land Degradation, Enhancing Sustainable land Ecosystem Services use: Agroforestry while Improving Food and Nutritional Security Emissions Cut Trading: Anthropogenic Carbon CO2 Markets Equitable and Sustainable Development
  9. 9. Agroforestry  Land use systems that deliberately integrate trees and woody perennials with agricultural crops, pastures and/or livestock on the same land management unit to harness the ecological and socio-economic interactions and emergent services (Lundgren, 1982; Nair,1993; Young, 1997).
  10. 10. SOC pool under natural forest 80 60 40 20 Planted Fallows Historic loss of SOC equals sink potential Relative SOC Pool 100 Rapidly growing plantations Conversion of TFE to cropland Plantation with shade crop AF with cover crops No till with residue mulch Traditional cropping Improved land use mgt 0 20 Time (yrs) 40 Modified from Lal (2005)

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