Chapter 9 : Modeling With Databases


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Chapter 9 : Modeling With Databases

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Chapter 9 : Modeling With Databases

  1. 1. By Lydia Cervantes, Ray Bandas,and Alex Calloway Chapter 9 : Modeling With Databases
  2. 2. What are Databases? <ul><li>Database management Systems (DBMS) are computerized record-keeping systems. </li></ul><ul><li>They were designed to replace paper-based information retrieval systems. </li></ul><ul><li>DBMs act as electronic filing cabinets to store information in an organized and convenient system. </li></ul>
  3. 3. ADVANTAGES <ul><li>Compact </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of data input (keyboard, bar code readers, scanners, voice) </li></ul><ul><li>Fast & easy access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Easy updating of information </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of DBMS <ul><li>Flat File (Table) These early systems organized content two-dimensionally into fields and records and used pointers, or computer codes, structured into the file to connect records. They did not offer as much power and flexibility as modern systems. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of DBMS <ul><li>Relational The databases of today are a collection of different tables interconnected based on the type of data in the fields and records. Since they don’t use pointers, organization and resulting queries can be more sophisticated. They allow a higher level of content analysis. </li></ul>
  6. 6. DBM Components & Tools <ul><li>Database The database consists of files containing information in the form of records related to specific events or subjects. These records are divided into fields describing the information they contain. The information within each field is standardized so the computer can locate it effectively. </li></ul>
  7. 7. DBM Components & Tools <ul><li>File management system Ability to manage files allows easy creation of data structure and ability to change later to suit needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Database organization tools Search capabilities allow tailored searches. (EQUALS vs. CONTAINS, NOT, GREATER THAN, EQUAL TO, LESS THAN, SORT, and multiple search criteria per field.) </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting functions </li></ul>
  8. 8. DBM Modeling <ul><li>DBMs answer specific questions about content areas or about relationships among content areas by using matrices. </li></ul><ul><li>Matrices effectively represent information while allowing comparing and contrasting. </li></ul><ul><li>Matrices are superior for representing data in problems. Their use can better define needed information, suggest order of operations, provide a consistent check of the solution, and reduce brain overload. </li></ul>
  9. 9. DBM Modeling <ul><li>Designing databases is a meaningful instructional activity because their creation and the process of determining what information to search for help in learning content material. </li></ul><ul><li>Their use of higher order thinking skills make their use as mindtools valuable. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What Makes an Effective Database? <ul><li>To evaluate the effectiveness of a database, content, as well as ages and abilities of learners, must be taken into account. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of the final product can be judged on a continuum based on specific instructional goals and content. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Advantages of Database Modeling <ul><li>Building databases builds knowledge by comparing and contrasting; thus it engages higher order thinking skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are actively engaged in constructing, rather than just responding. </li></ul><ul><li>Process of comparison is made more efficient by computer technology. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Advantages of Database Modeling <ul><li>Search capabilities can be varied. </li></ul><ul><li>Automated information entry is more efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners arrange data the way their mind works, making each database meaningful and individual. (Jonassen) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Database Limitations <ul><li>Critics say databases only reproduce the information in textbooks in a different format. </li></ul><ul><li>Just the act of creation, according to Jonassen (p.99), results in knowledge that is more meaningful than mere memorization. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual representations may distort the content’s message. </li></ul><ul><li>Jonassen encourages collaboration to increase sharing of information and productivity of the final product (p. 99). </li></ul>