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AAUP 2008: E-Journal Experience (H. McGregor)


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AAUP 2008: E-Journal Experience (H. McGregor)

  1. 1. What might we learn? Lessons from the e-journal experience AAUP Taking Books Online June 28, 2008 Heidi McGregor Director, Strategic Planning
  2. 2. Relevance Why is the journals experience important?
  3. 3. Observations <ul><li>Online strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Blackwell’s journal list grew by 400 journals between 1995 and 2006. 165 were journals operated independently by scholarly societies. The rest came from commercial publishers, university presses, and through acquisition. During this same period, they launched 112 new journals. </li></ul>1990s Traditional aggregators and subscription agents (e.g. EBSCO) 2000-2005 Independent or specialized aggregations (e.g. Caliber; Project MUSE) 2005-present Large scale independents (e.g. Wiley-Blackwell) Journals Books 1998-2005 Aggregations (e.g. NetLibrary; ACLS HEB) 2005-present Independent (e.g. Springer, Oxford, Duke)
  4. 4. Observations Source: JSTOR-Ithaka Faculty Survey 2000, 2003, 2006 <ul><li>70% of librarians agree that licensing and providing access to e-books will be “very important” five years from now. (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>25% of faculty agree that e-books will be “very important” to their research and teaching five years from now. (2006) </li></ul>Market Readiness “ Very Well” Question How well do the statements describe your views? 49% 54% n/a I’d much rather read the current issue of a journal in its original format than read it off a computer screen or printed out from an electronic database. 63% 53% n/a If my library cancelled the current issues of a print version of a journal but continued to make them available electronically, that would be fine with me. 78% 73% 63% I will become increasingly dependent upon electronic research resources in the future 86% 81% 73% Electronic research resources (e.g., computer databases of academic journals) are invaluable research tools. 2006 2003 2000
  5. 5. Observations <ul><li>Market Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Journals Inflection Point </li></ul><ul><li>The intersection of rising demand and superior offerings </li></ul><ul><li>1998 – 2004 US library spending on e-journals rises from $929 million to $1.3 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>… Then, US library spending on e-journals continues to rise; print begins to fall </li></ul><ul><li>Books (predictions) </li></ul><ul><li>Slower, inflationary spending growth </li></ul><ul><li>More rapid transition of print to electronic </li></ul>
  6. 6. Observations <ul><li>Tipping Points | Barriers to adoption (academic libraries) </li></ul><ul><li>1997 | Journals 2007 | Books </li></ul><ul><li>Access and business models do not support the full range of desired academic use </li></ul><ul><li>Collections are not coherent and do not include front-list and high-use books </li></ul><ul><li>Books are largely “silo-ed” rather than connected to scholarly content </li></ul><ul><li>Digital preservation solutions are inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Digitized books are not archival quality </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lessons Dimensions of a superior offering
  8. 8. JSTOR Perspective <ul><li>Large, independent not-for-profit organization </li></ul><ul><li>With the community, building trusted archives for scholarship </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in 1995; online live since 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers and content owners 500+ </li></ul><ul><li>Journals (complete back runs) 1000+ </li></ul><ul><li>Books 2,000+ </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries 4,300+ </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Article and book downloads (2007) 54.8 million </li></ul><ul><li>User links to publishers from JSTOR (2007) 452,800 </li></ul><ul><li>MyJSTOR accounts (April 2008-present) 65,000+ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lesson 1 | Know Your User <ul><li>Who is your Mary Jane? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lesson 1 | Know Your User <ul><li>Common Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Full-text search </li></ul><ul><li>Citation export </li></ul><ul><li>Cut and paste </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight </li></ul><ul><li>Links to definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations and other materials </li></ul><ul><li>Remote access </li></ul><ul><li>Google search </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Search algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Faceted browsing </li></ul><ul><li>User-controlled display </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile device optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with NINES or the Biodiversity Heritage Library </li></ul>Users should drive online investments.
  11. 11. Lesson 2 | Pursue a Diversified, Balanced Portfolio Strategy depends on goals and desired outcomes. Tiered-pricing * Fees are to support a collection of 120+ journals. $1,300 Very Small $2,300 Small $3,500 Medium $6,000 Large $10,000 Very Large Arts & Sciences V – Annual Access Fees* JSTOR Classification
  12. 12. Lesson 3 | Own Your Territory <ul><li>xxxx </li></ul><ul><li>Market Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Nokia Case Study: China </li></ul><ul><li>30% market share in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Market share drop to teens in 2003 after lower price, lower quality competitor entered the market </li></ul><ul><li>35% market share in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>JSTOR discounts from 20% to 65% or more in non-US markets; considering local market-driven pricing. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lesson 2 | Pursue a Diversified, Balanced Portfolio <ul><li>Multiple outlets for different audiences </li></ul><ul><li>PNAS (1915-2007) | | freely available </li></ul><ul><li>PNAS (1915-2007) | | licensed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xxxx article views in 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xxxx attempted access from Google (Q1-Q3 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PNAS citation savings frequently with: xxx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tiered-pricing; market pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Average price differential research vs. small = X </li></ul><ul><li>Discounts for fringe or emerging markets </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple channels for different audiences </li></ul><ul><li>PNAS (1915-2007) | | freely available </li></ul><ul><li>PNAS (1915-2005) | | licensed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>944,300 article views in 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.75 million attempted access from Google (Q1-Q3 2007); 20% authenticated users </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Lesson 3 | “Own” Your Territory <ul><li>“ University leaders should take a strategic approach to the communication and dissemination of the knowledge they produce… Clearly the more a university’s publishing portfolio evolves to mirror and extend that institution’s reputation and intellectual strengths, the more ambitious administrators can be for their presses or other publishing entities. Provosts should develop strategies that enhance the reach and reputation of the institution through its publishing initiatives” </li></ul><ul><li>Source: “University Publishing in the Digital Age (Ithaka, 2007) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lesson 3 | “Own” Your Territory Source: JSTOR-Ithaka Faculty Survey 2006 4.8 9 (1) Psychology 4.7 15 (3) Performing Arts 13.7 49 (1) Mathematics 9.7 38 (10) Religion x x x 54.2 97 (24) History x x x 36.6 76 (23) Economics x x x 57.6 104 (42) Language & Literature x x x 17.8 76 (7) Art History Faculty view it as extremely important for their articles to be in JSTOR (>50%) Faculty view JSTOR as integral tool for their work (>50%) Faculty perception of JSTOR (Excellent) Total JSTOR Accesses 2007 (millions) Journals in JSTOR (US university press titles) Discipline
  16. 16. Lesson 3 | “Own” Your Territory <ul><li>xxxx </li></ul><ul><li>Leading Technology “Publisher” </li></ul><ul><li>Brand extensions/management </li></ul><ul><li>Books, news, blogs, discussions, conferences, </li></ul><ul><li>continuing education </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship building </li></ul><ul><li>Author profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Select contributor profiles (future authors) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lesson 4 | Embrace the Network RefWorks ExLibris American History and Life ARTstor JSTOR Rotunda NINES ACLS HEB Google E-Book Zotero
  18. 18. Lesson 4 | Embrace the Network <ul><li>Faculty cite following citations and mining footnotes as critical to their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Journals in JSTOR cite books 13.4 million times. </li></ul><ul><li>Journals in JSTOR contain 1.38 million book reviews. </li></ul>Please put books online and give them DOIs! Links into JSTOR account for 23% of all article views. 11,823,000 Unknown Links 423,526 <ul><li>CrossRef </li></ul>178,104 <ul><li>RePEC </li></ul>114,200 Outbound Links (to current issues) 436,000 Internal Links (References) 54,000,000 Google Links 2,286,000 Known Links (not Google) JSTOR Linking Activity (Jan-April, 2008)
  19. 19. Lesson 4 | Embrace the Network <ul><li>Percent of JSTOR Accesses Incoming from Google </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lesson 5 | Bigger is Better <ul><li>Some reasons why… </li></ul><ul><li>Increased visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Market opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Use stimulation </li></ul>
  21. 21. Lesson 6 | All Boats Can Rise
  22. 22. Think about it. Experiment. Learn.
  23. 23. Thank You Heidi McGregor Director, Strategic Planning 149 5 th Avenue New York, NY 10010 Tel: (212)358-6400 Fax: (212)358-6499 [email_address]