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TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online
Reputation System
Dimitri DeFigueiredo and Earl T. Barr
Dept. of Computer Science, University of California at Davis
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
2
Motivation
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
3
Motivation
• Should we buy?
• How do we decide?
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
4
Motivation
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
5
Motivation
• Should we buy?
• How do we decide?
• What we want:
– accurately estimate risk of default
– minimize the risk of default
– minimize losses due to pseudonym change
– avoid trusting a centralized authority
• How do we achieve these goals?
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
6
Motivation
• TrustDavis is a reputation system that
realizes these goals.
• It recasts these goals as the following
properties:
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
7
Motivation
1. Agents can accurately estimate risk
– Third parties provide accurate ratings
2. Honest buyer/seller avoids risk (if possible)
– Insure transactions
3. No advantage in obtaining multiple identities
– Agents can cope with pseudonym change
4. No need to trust a centralized authority
– No centralized services needed
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
8
Motivation
Incentive Compatibility:
Each player should have incentives to
perform the actions that enable the
system to achieve a desired global
outcome.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
9
Motivation
1. Agents can accurately estimate risk
– Third parties provide accurate ratings
2. Honest buyer/seller avoids risk (if possible)
– Insure transactions
3. No advantage in obtaining multiple identities
– Agents can cope with pseudonym change
4. No need to trust a centralized authority
– No centralized services needed
Incentive Compatibility!
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
10
Motivation
A Reference is:
Acceptance of Limited Liability.
$100
BAC
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
11
Motivation
1. Agents can accurately estimate risk
– Third parties provide accurate ratings
– Parties are liable for the references they provide
2. Honest buyer/seller avoids risk (if possible)
– Insure transactions
– Buyers/sellers pay for references to insure their transactions
3. No advantage in obtaining multiple identities
– Agents can cope with pseudonym change
– References are issued only to trusted identities
4. No need to trust a centralized authority
– No centralized services needed
– Anyone can issue a reference
Use References!
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
12
Motivation
Related Work:
• Z. Abrams et al. – Workshop P2P Econ 2004
• S. Buchegger et al. – Workshop P2P Econ 2004
• C. Dellarocas – Ideabook 2004
• S. Lee et al. – IEEE Infocom 2003
• S. Kamvar et al. – “EigenTrust” 2003
• J. Golbeck et al. – Sematic Web 2003
• T. Riggs et al. – ACM/IEEE-CS CDL 2001
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
13
Outline
• Motivation
• The Model
– Buying references
– Selling references
• A Non-Exploitable Strategy
• Future Work
• Conclusion
– Key ideas
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
14
Outline
• TrustDavis leverages social networks
• For now, examples assume No False Claims
(NFC)
• The use of TrustDavis does NOT preclude trade
outside the system.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
15
Paying for References
150
150
100
50
50
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
16
Outline
• Motivation
• The Model
– Buying references
– Selling references
• A Non-Exploitable Strategy
• Future Work
• Conclusion
– Key ideas
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
17
• vb wants to buy three shirts.
• Shirts cost $100 each from a
trustworthy seller
• Unknown seller offers shirts for
$50 each (but maybe they are
only worth $25).
• vb would risk 3 x $50 = $150 in
the transaction
• vb can borrow and lend money
at rate r=1.25 through the
period of the transaction
For $30, vb can insure herself!
Paying for References
How much is vb willing to pay to insure the transaction?
(No riskless profitable arbitrage criterion)
Example:
$100 each
Trust-me.com
Blowout SALE!
$50 each!$150!
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
18
Paying for References
To insure herself vb buys the shirts and a hedging portfolio
as follows:
1. Instead of buying 3 shirts for $50 each
she buys only 2, saving $50.
2. The buyer, vb , adds $30 of her own money and
lends the resulting $80 at rate r = 1.25.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
19
Paying for References
On Success:
– vb obtains $100 from the loan and buys
the 3rd
shirt
On failure:
– vb sells the two shirts for $25 each
– gets $100 from the loan.
– She obtains a total of $150
Thus, vb can insure herself for $30.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
20
Outline
• Motivation
• The Model
– Buying references
– Selling references
• A Non-Exploitable Strategy
• Future Work
• Conclusion
– Key ideas
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
21
Selling References
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
22
Selling References
Seen as an investment…
On Success the ROI is:
On failure the ROI is:
If repeated many times the insurer may go bankrupt.
Assume the insurer has W dollars available to insure this
transaction.
K
C
K
CK
+=
+
1
K
C
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
23
Selling References
Insurer maximizes the expected value of the growth rate of
capital (Kelly Criterion).
For given:
– probability of failure p,
– a desired growth rate of capital R; and,
– fraction of the total funds W being risked in a transaction.
The insurer can obtain a lower bound on the premium C.
















=
n
n
W
W
ER
1
0
log
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
24
Selling References
Insured Value as a fraction of total funds – f
Cost/InsuredValue–C/K
Minimum Return/Risk Ration for Different Failure Probabilities
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
25
Outline
• Motivation
• The Model
– Buying references
– Selling references
• A Non-Exploitable Strategy
• Future Work
• Conclusion
– Key ideas
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
26
A Non-Exploitable Strategy
Two Scenarios:
• No False Claims - NFC
• With False Claims - FC
False claims only change the probability p.
We can incorporate the cost of verification.
Key Idea:
Save part of the money obtained in successful transactions
in excess of the opportunity cost.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
27
A Non-Exploitable Strategy
Example.
The buyer, vb, has $190 to spend on 1 of
3 options:
1. Buying 3 shirts from an unknown
seller for $50 each and insuring the
transaction for $40. She values each
shirt at $100.
2. Buying 2 pairs of shoes from a
reliable retailer for $70 each. She
thinks each pair is worth $90.
3. Buying 1 game console for $150,
from a reliable online shop. She
values the console at $240.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
28
A Non-Exploitable Strategy
vb’s valuation for each of the 3 options is:
1. Shirts: 100 x 3 + 0 (no cash leftover) = $300
2. Pairs of Shoes: 90 x 2 + 50 (cash) = $230
3. Console: 240 x 1 + 40 (cash) = $280
Gains in excess of the opportunity cost are:
300-280=$20.
Part of these $20 should be saved to insure
future transactions.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
29
A Non-Exploitable Strategy
The Strategy:
1. Initially only provide references to known
agents or those that leave a security deposit.
2. Insure all trade through references provided by
trusted agents.
3. Do not provide more insurance than you can
recover. Charge at least the lower bound for
providing a reference.
4. Save part of the money received “in excess of
the opportunity cost”.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
30
A Non-Exploitable Strategy
150
150
100
50
50
50
OK!
$10 saved to
provide future
insurance 10
Failed!
Payment made
automatically by
v1
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
31
Outline
• Motivation
• The Model
– Buying references
– Selling references
• A Non-Exploitable Strategy
• Future Work
• Conclusion
– Key ideas
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
32
Future Work
• Simulation
– sensitivity to estimates of p
– growth rate of capital
– dynamic behavior
• Price Negotiation
– should avoid “double spending” problem
– fair distribution among insurers of the premium
paid
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
33
Outline
• Motivation
• The Model
– Buying references
– Selling references
• A Non-Exploitable Strategy
• Future Work
• Conclusion
– Key ideas
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
34
Conclusion
TrustDavis provides:
• Accurate Ratings
• Non-exploitable strategy for honest agents
• Pseudonym change tolerance
• Decentralized infrastructure
Through the use of References.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
35
Conclusion
Key Ideas:
• Incentive Compatibility
– Incentive to accurately rate
– Incentive to insure
– No incentive to change pseudonym
• Saving gains in excess of the opportunity
cost to insure future transactions.
TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System
D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr
Computer Science, UCDavis
36
The End
Questions?
Thank you!
{defigueiredo,etbarr}@ucdavis.edu

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Trust davis final

  • 1. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System Dimitri DeFigueiredo and Earl T. Barr Dept. of Computer Science, University of California at Davis
  • 2. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 2 Motivation
  • 3. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 3 Motivation • Should we buy? • How do we decide?
  • 4. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 4 Motivation
  • 5. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 5 Motivation • Should we buy? • How do we decide? • What we want: – accurately estimate risk of default – minimize the risk of default – minimize losses due to pseudonym change – avoid trusting a centralized authority • How do we achieve these goals?
  • 6. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 6 Motivation • TrustDavis is a reputation system that realizes these goals. • It recasts these goals as the following properties:
  • 7. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 7 Motivation 1. Agents can accurately estimate risk – Third parties provide accurate ratings 2. Honest buyer/seller avoids risk (if possible) – Insure transactions 3. No advantage in obtaining multiple identities – Agents can cope with pseudonym change 4. No need to trust a centralized authority – No centralized services needed
  • 8. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 8 Motivation Incentive Compatibility: Each player should have incentives to perform the actions that enable the system to achieve a desired global outcome.
  • 9. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 9 Motivation 1. Agents can accurately estimate risk – Third parties provide accurate ratings 2. Honest buyer/seller avoids risk (if possible) – Insure transactions 3. No advantage in obtaining multiple identities – Agents can cope with pseudonym change 4. No need to trust a centralized authority – No centralized services needed Incentive Compatibility!
  • 10. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 10 Motivation A Reference is: Acceptance of Limited Liability. $100 BAC
  • 11. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 11 Motivation 1. Agents can accurately estimate risk – Third parties provide accurate ratings – Parties are liable for the references they provide 2. Honest buyer/seller avoids risk (if possible) – Insure transactions – Buyers/sellers pay for references to insure their transactions 3. No advantage in obtaining multiple identities – Agents can cope with pseudonym change – References are issued only to trusted identities 4. No need to trust a centralized authority – No centralized services needed – Anyone can issue a reference Use References!
  • 12. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 12 Motivation Related Work: • Z. Abrams et al. – Workshop P2P Econ 2004 • S. Buchegger et al. – Workshop P2P Econ 2004 • C. Dellarocas – Ideabook 2004 • S. Lee et al. – IEEE Infocom 2003 • S. Kamvar et al. – “EigenTrust” 2003 • J. Golbeck et al. – Sematic Web 2003 • T. Riggs et al. – ACM/IEEE-CS CDL 2001
  • 13. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 13 Outline • Motivation • The Model – Buying references – Selling references • A Non-Exploitable Strategy • Future Work • Conclusion – Key ideas
  • 14. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 14 Outline • TrustDavis leverages social networks • For now, examples assume No False Claims (NFC) • The use of TrustDavis does NOT preclude trade outside the system.
  • 15. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 15 Paying for References 150 150 100 50 50
  • 16. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 16 Outline • Motivation • The Model – Buying references – Selling references • A Non-Exploitable Strategy • Future Work • Conclusion – Key ideas
  • 17. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 17 • vb wants to buy three shirts. • Shirts cost $100 each from a trustworthy seller • Unknown seller offers shirts for $50 each (but maybe they are only worth $25). • vb would risk 3 x $50 = $150 in the transaction • vb can borrow and lend money at rate r=1.25 through the period of the transaction For $30, vb can insure herself! Paying for References How much is vb willing to pay to insure the transaction? (No riskless profitable arbitrage criterion) Example: $100 each Trust-me.com Blowout SALE! $50 each!$150!
  • 18. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 18 Paying for References To insure herself vb buys the shirts and a hedging portfolio as follows: 1. Instead of buying 3 shirts for $50 each she buys only 2, saving $50. 2. The buyer, vb , adds $30 of her own money and lends the resulting $80 at rate r = 1.25.
  • 19. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 19 Paying for References On Success: – vb obtains $100 from the loan and buys the 3rd shirt On failure: – vb sells the two shirts for $25 each – gets $100 from the loan. – She obtains a total of $150 Thus, vb can insure herself for $30.
  • 20. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 20 Outline • Motivation • The Model – Buying references – Selling references • A Non-Exploitable Strategy • Future Work • Conclusion – Key ideas
  • 21. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 21 Selling References
  • 22. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 22 Selling References Seen as an investment… On Success the ROI is: On failure the ROI is: If repeated many times the insurer may go bankrupt. Assume the insurer has W dollars available to insure this transaction. K C K CK += + 1 K C
  • 23. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 23 Selling References Insurer maximizes the expected value of the growth rate of capital (Kelly Criterion). For given: – probability of failure p, – a desired growth rate of capital R; and, – fraction of the total funds W being risked in a transaction. The insurer can obtain a lower bound on the premium C.                 = n n W W ER 1 0 log
  • 24. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 24 Selling References Insured Value as a fraction of total funds – f Cost/InsuredValue–C/K Minimum Return/Risk Ration for Different Failure Probabilities
  • 25. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 25 Outline • Motivation • The Model – Buying references – Selling references • A Non-Exploitable Strategy • Future Work • Conclusion – Key ideas
  • 26. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 26 A Non-Exploitable Strategy Two Scenarios: • No False Claims - NFC • With False Claims - FC False claims only change the probability p. We can incorporate the cost of verification. Key Idea: Save part of the money obtained in successful transactions in excess of the opportunity cost.
  • 27. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 27 A Non-Exploitable Strategy Example. The buyer, vb, has $190 to spend on 1 of 3 options: 1. Buying 3 shirts from an unknown seller for $50 each and insuring the transaction for $40. She values each shirt at $100. 2. Buying 2 pairs of shoes from a reliable retailer for $70 each. She thinks each pair is worth $90. 3. Buying 1 game console for $150, from a reliable online shop. She values the console at $240.
  • 28. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 28 A Non-Exploitable Strategy vb’s valuation for each of the 3 options is: 1. Shirts: 100 x 3 + 0 (no cash leftover) = $300 2. Pairs of Shoes: 90 x 2 + 50 (cash) = $230 3. Console: 240 x 1 + 40 (cash) = $280 Gains in excess of the opportunity cost are: 300-280=$20. Part of these $20 should be saved to insure future transactions.
  • 29. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 29 A Non-Exploitable Strategy The Strategy: 1. Initially only provide references to known agents or those that leave a security deposit. 2. Insure all trade through references provided by trusted agents. 3. Do not provide more insurance than you can recover. Charge at least the lower bound for providing a reference. 4. Save part of the money received “in excess of the opportunity cost”.
  • 30. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 30 A Non-Exploitable Strategy 150 150 100 50 50 50 OK! $10 saved to provide future insurance 10 Failed! Payment made automatically by v1
  • 31. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 31 Outline • Motivation • The Model – Buying references – Selling references • A Non-Exploitable Strategy • Future Work • Conclusion – Key ideas
  • 32. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 32 Future Work • Simulation – sensitivity to estimates of p – growth rate of capital – dynamic behavior • Price Negotiation – should avoid “double spending” problem – fair distribution among insurers of the premium paid
  • 33. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 33 Outline • Motivation • The Model – Buying references – Selling references • A Non-Exploitable Strategy • Future Work • Conclusion – Key ideas
  • 34. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 34 Conclusion TrustDavis provides: • Accurate Ratings • Non-exploitable strategy for honest agents • Pseudonym change tolerance • Decentralized infrastructure Through the use of References.
  • 35. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 35 Conclusion Key Ideas: • Incentive Compatibility – Incentive to accurately rate – Incentive to insure – No incentive to change pseudonym • Saving gains in excess of the opportunity cost to insure future transactions.
  • 36. TrustDavis: A Non-Exploitable Online Reputation System D. DeFigueiredo and E. T. Barr Computer Science, UCDavis 36 The End Questions? Thank you! {defigueiredo,etbarr}@ucdavis.edu