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Identity - Past Solutions & Current Blockchain Landscape

Identity - Past Solutions & Current Blockchain Landscape. Intro and profile of ENS (Ethereum Naming Service) & uPort identity solution. Silicon Valley Ethereum meetup @ Goodwin Law, May 7, 2017.

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Identity - Past Solutions & Current Blockchain Landscape

  1. 1. Identity: Past Solutions & Current Blockchain Landscape SiliconValley Ethereum Meetup: May 7, 2017 Andy Atkin (andrew.atkin@gmail.com)
  2. 2. What is Identity? (Dictionary) 1. The fact of being who or what a person or thing is. 2. A close similarity or affinity • People • Organizations (e.g. companies) • Things (e.g. IoT devices, servers)
  3. 3. Identity: Control & Ownership (B. Golden, email conversation 3/2017) •Who “owns” it? •Who controls it? •Who has the ability to change it?
  4. 4. Personal Identity (wikipedia) • Composed of multiple overlapping attributes many of which change over time: • Age • Race • Clan/Family • Ethnicity • Nationality • Gender • Profession etc. • A philosophical and social construct.
  5. 5. Digital Identity – Related Concepts (wikipedia) •Subject & Entity •Attributes, Preferences &Traits •Trust, Authentication & Authorization •IdentityTaxonomies •Identity Networks
  6. 6. Digital Identity – Some Legal Intersections Compliance Census/National ID Digital Notaries Travel Crime KYC/AML – US Financial Sector India - Aadhaar Notarize.com Passports – TSA ”Pre” Identity Theft HIPAA – US Healthcare Citizenship Services - Estonia DocuSign Immigration & Visas Fraud Right to be Forgotten - EU Access to Medical Care Blockchain Solutions – e.g. Blocknotary Refugees and plight of the undocumented Illicit Purchase
  7. 7. Current Electronic Identifier Examples (all have limits, often combined in 2FA & MFA) 1. Username/Password 2.Biometrics 3. “Hard” tokens 4. PKI – Client Certificates 5.PGPWeb of Trust / Keybase 6.EmailAddress
  8. 8. Current Identity Landscape 225 companies, 13 segments (oneworldidentity.com)
  9. 9. Startup Identity Landscape 187 companies, 7 segments (oneworldidentity.com)
  10. 10. ”Traditional” Blockchain Identity (Excerpt from Sabadello on github) • Wallet Address is an abstract term for the entirety of addresses owner by a single user (stackexchange) • Namecoin is a blockchain that has been conceived from the start to be used for registering domain names. It is the first fork of the Bitcoin software • Contract Address (ethereum), the original Eris project was an early attempt a DAO contract registry written in LLL (DOUG). • Simple Registries (e.g. namereg on ethereum), e.g. wallet address -> 20 byte name or email lookup
  11. 11. Hierarchically Deterministic (HD)Wallets (Mastering Bitcoin/BIP32, 39, 44) An approach for multiple identities from a common seed
  12. 12. Self-Sovereign Identity (Allan) 1. Existence: Users must have an independent existence. 2. Control: Users must control their identities. 3. Access: Users must have access to their own data. 4. Transparency: Systems and algorithms must be transparent. 5. Persistence: Identities must be long-lived. 6. Portability: The user remains in control of his identity no matter what. 7. Interoperability: IDs are of little value if they work only in little niches. 8. Consent: Users must agree to the use of their identity. 9. Minimization: Disclosure of claims must be minimized. 10.Protection: Freedoms and rights of the individuals over the needs of the network.
  13. 13. uPort - Overview (uPort.me) • Uses mobile devices, the ethereum blockchain and off-chain BLOB store (e.g. IPFS, AWS, Dropbox) • Built on self-sovereign identity principles • Key recovery/revocation possible using a quorum of delegates • Allows for creation of attestations, credentials and reputation on an immutable identity
  14. 14. uPort Credentials & Attestations (uPort whitepaper)
  15. 15. uPort – Current Status (from uPort.me) • Incubated by ConsenSys • Currently in Alpha • iOS & Android* client currently available (keys stored in secure enclaves) • Partnered with Gnosis, others to follow • Future Enhancements (whitepaper): 1. Multiple identities 2. Swappable enhanced controller with spending limits and other features 3. Recovery delegate list to be hidden from public view 4. End-to-End encryption for messaging server (Chasqui) 5. Better user subsidy logic for onboarding users (Sensui) • * Just updated slide
  16. 16. What Makes a Good Name Service? (Johnson) 1. Separation of concerns • Don’t conflate registration & resolution a la GoDaddy etc. 2. Distributed authority & implementation • Keep in decentralized to avoid single points of failure 3. Forward-compatibility • There will be unforeseen applications of a naming service as there were with DNS 4. Efficient on-chain resolution (must be fast!)
  17. 17. Ethereum Naming Service –Version 0.1 (ENS Documentation, EIP 137, 162) • Performs a similar functional as DNS but implementation details differ significantly • Resolve human readable names for ethereum addresses, Swarm & IPFS content hashes as well as metadata (e.g. whois, contract ABIs) • Composed of: 1. Registry 2. Resolvers 3. Registrars
  18. 18. Components of ENS (Johnson) Registrar/Owners of a Domain Registry Resolver • Set the resolver andTTL for domain • Records owner of the domain • Translates names into addresses • Transfer ownership of domain to another address • Records resolver of the domain • Supports an optional number of different record types • Change ownership of subdomains • RecordsTTL for all records under domain
  19. 19. Registering a Name (ENS Documentation, EIP 162) 1. .eth Registrar is FIFS (first in first served) 2. Interim “McDonalds” solution until permanent registry is finalized 3. Restricted to .ethTLD with subdomains being a minimum of 7 characters in length 4. Uses aVickrey auction: Sealed bid, 2nd price 5. Initial deeds last for 1 year
  20. 20. ENS – Current Status 1. Supported by • Metamask supports sending funds to ENS names. • Mist is working on ENS support • LEth is working on ENS support • Status is working on ENS support 2. No firm date for permanent registry (?) 3. Not directly affiliated with ConsenSys
  21. 21. Questions/Comments? • Feel free to get in touch with me:  andrew.atkin@gmail.com • SpecialThanks to:  Grant Fondo (speaker and host @ Goodwin Law)  Bernard Golden (speaker & topic idea)  Christian Peel (SV Meetup organzizer)  Daniel Buchner (speaker)  SteveWaldman (moderator)
  22. 22. References 1. Antonopoulos, A. (2014). Mastering Bitcoin Unlocking Digital Cryptocurrencies. Chapter 4. San Francisco, CA: O’Reilly Media. 2. Allan, C. (2015, April 25). The Path to Self-Sovereign Identity [Web log post]. Retrieved May 7, 2017, from http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2016/04/the-path-to-self-soverereign-identity.html. 3. D’Ambrosi, C. (2017, January). The Identity Industry Landscape: 225+ Companies . Retrieved May 7, 2017 from from https://oneworldidentity.com/identity-industry-landscape/. 4. Digital Identity. (2017, May). Retrieved May 7, 2017 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_identity. 5. Johnson, Nick. (Presented at DEVCON2, September 19-21, 2016). ENS: Ethereum Naming Service. Retrieved May 7, 2017, from https://arachnid.github.io/devcon2/#/title 6. Lundkvist, Heck,Torstensson et al. (DraftVersion February 21, 2017). uPort: A Platform for Self-Sovereign Identity. Retrieved May 7, 2017, from https://whitepaper.uport.me/uPort_whitepaper_DRAFT20170221.pdf. 7. Personal Identity. (2017, May). Retrieved May 7, 2017 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_identity 8. Sabadello, M. (2017, April). Blockchain and Identity. Retrieved May 7, 2017, from https://github.com/peacekeeper/blockchain-identity. 9. The Identity Startup Landscape: 187 Companies. (2017, February). Retrieved from https://oneworldidentity.com/identity-startup-landscape. 10. Welcome to ENS’s documentation!. (2017, May). Retrieved May 7, 2017 from http://docs.ens.domains/en/latest/ 11. uPort. (2017, May). Retrieved May 7, 2017 from https://www.uport.me/.

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