• Acid gases are produced when fossil fuels
like coal and oil are burned in power
stations, factories and in our own homes.
These gases react with water vapors
present in atmosphere and lowered the PH
of water and making it acidic. when they
converted into clouds it can cause rain &
that rain is known as Acid Rain. Acid rain
can also occur in the form of snow, fog.
Acid fog has 10 times more acid than acid
• Burning of fossil fuels emits sulphur
dioxide. Sulphur dioxide reaches the
atmosphere, it oxidizes to form sulphur tri
• 2 SO2 + O2 2SO3. The sulphur tri oxide
joins with hydrogen atoms in the air and
becomes sulphuric acid. This then falls
back down to earth as "acid rain“.
• SO3 + H2O H2SO4
Causes of Acid Rain
• Coal Oil and natural gas are
used in power stations to
make electricity, which give
off sulphur dioxide gas.
• Burning of fuels in vehicle
engines gives off nitrogen
oxides as gases.
• Acid rain can travel long
• Often it doesn’t fall
where the gas is
produced. Winds blow
them great distances
before they dissolve
and fall to Earth as rain.
• E.g. gases produced in
India and China can
result acid rain in
How Acid Rain Affects The
Acid rain is an extremely destructive
form of pollution, and the
environment suffers from its effects.
Forests, lakes, animals, and
humans suffer from acid rain.
The needles and leaves of the trees
turn brown and fall off.
Trees can also suffer from stunted
growth; and have damaged bark
All of this happens partly
because of direct contact
between trees and acid rain, but
it also happens when trees
absorb water and mineral from
soil that has come into contact
with acid rain.
Normal ph level of soil is between
6.0 to 6.8.
Lakes are also damaged by acid rain. Fish die off, and
that removes the main source of food for birds. Acid rain
can even kill fish before they are born when the eggs are
laid and come into contact with the acid.
Also, birds can die from eating "toxic" fish and insects.
How Does Acid Rain Affect Fish
and Other Aquatic Organisms?
• Acid rain causes harm or kill fish, reduce fish population numbers,
completely eliminate fish species from a water body, and decrease
biodiversity. As acid rain flows through soils in a watershed,
aluminum is released from soils into the lakes and streams located
in that watershed. So, as pH in a lake or stream decreases,
aluminum levels increase. Both low pH and increased aluminum
levels are directly toxic to Aquatic Organisms. In addition, low pH
and increased aluminum levels cause lower body weight and
smaller size and fish lose their ability to reproduce.
Acid rain dissolves the stonework and mortar of buildings
(especially those made out of sandstone or limestone).
It reacts with the minerals in the stone to form a powdery
substance that can be washed away by rain.
Currently, both the railway industry and the aeroplane
industry are having to spend a lot of money to repair the
corrosive damage done by acid rain. Also, bridges have
collapsed in the past due to acid rain corrosion. Repainting
is the only way to fix a car finish disfigured by acid rain
Humans can become seriously ill,
and can even die from the effects of
acid rain. One of the major
problems that acid rain can cause in
a human being is respiratory
Many can find it difficult to breath,
especially people who have
asthma. Asthma, along with dry
coughs, headaches, and throat
irritations can be caused by the
sulphur dioxides and nitrogen
oxides from acid rain.
• Since acid rain can kill aquatic
animals, weaken trees and
dissolve stone, it seems like it
could also burn animals, but it
doesn't affect people in the
same way as it does fish or
plants. Acid rain feels the
same as regular rain -- it's
even safe to swim in an acidic
lake. But the sulfate and
nitrate particulates of dry
deposition can cause asthma
& bronchitis problems.
Acid rain can affect both plants (through soil and/or direct
contact) and animals (from things they eat and/or direct
contact). When humans eat these plants or animals, the
toxins inside of their meals can affect them. Kidney
problems, skin cancer & different diseases have been linked
to people eating "toxic" animals/plants.
According to a Research
Research carried out in North America in
1982, revealed that sulphur pollution killed
51,000 people and about 200,000 people
become ill as a result of the pollution.
In Europe about 20% trees & in Germany
about 60% trees have been damaged by
acid rain. In some places acid rain had a
pH level of 2.3, which was very acidic and
• Use renewable energy like wind power, solar panels ,
geothermal energy & hydro power.
• Limit the number of vehicles on the roads and
increase public transport.
• Plant a tree. These are finally something we don't
seem to have enough of. The tree will absorb some of
the polluted air and put out clean, fresh oxygen.
• Drive less: Try to walk or bike instead.
• Educate other people: Now I have explained about
causes of acid rain to you, you must aware other
peoples who don’t know about this problem.
Responsibility of an individual
• Individuals can also help prevent acid rain by
conserving energy. The less electricity people
use in their homes, the a small number of
chemicals power plants will emit. Vehicles are
also major fossil fuel users, so drivers can
reduce emissions by using public transportation,
carpooling, biking, or simply walking wherever