Mycology - all about fungi

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This is a series of lectures on microbiology, useful for undergraduate medical and paramedical students..

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Mycology - all about fungi

  1. 1. MYCOLOGY Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar M.D.
  2. 2. Warning!!!!!!
  3. 3. Mycology Greek – mukes – fungus  Candida was described early as 1839  But fungi were not studied till recently because most infections are mild  After bacterial infection control developed, fungal infections became more common  Fungi cause serious infections in immunosupressed and those on steroid treatment 
  4. 4. BASICS Fungi are eukaryotes  Have multilayered cell wall  Bilayered cell membrane 
  5. 5. Types  Depending on cell morphology Yeasts  Molds  Dimorphic 
  6. 6. Yeast  Unicellular, reproduce by budding
  7. 7. Examples of yeasts Candida  Cryptococcus neoformans  malassezia 
  8. 8. Molds
  9. 9. Examples of molds  dermatophytes
  10. 10. Classification according to type of infection Superficial infections  Subcutaneous infections  Systemic infections 
  11. 11. Superficial mycoses Affect skin, hair, nails and mucous membranes  Include  Candidosis  Pityriasis versicolor  Tinea  Pedra  dermatophytosis 
  12. 12. Candidosis Usually superficial – infect skin, nails and mucous membranes  Systemic infection in immunosupressed  Yeast and hyphae – dimorphic fungus 
  13. 13. Lab diagnosis Wet films  Gram stain – budding gram positive cells  Sabourand’s dextrose agar 
  14. 14. Pityriasis versicolor Areas of depigmentation or hyperpigmentation on skin of trunk, abdomen and upper limbs  Diagnosis by skin scrapings – yeasts seen 
  15. 15. Tinea nigra Infection of palms  Black or brownish lesions  Hyphae and budding yeasts on smear  Cultured on SDA, green to black colonies 
  16. 16. Piedra Infection of hair  Irregular nodules on hair shaft 
  17. 17. Dermatophytosis Skin, hair and nails  a/k/a tinea or ring worm  About 40 of them are known  Classified on the basis of type of colony on SDA and spores they produce 
  18. 18. spores
  19. 19. Classification Trichophyton – only micro  microsporum – both micro and macro  Epidermophyton – only macro   Colonies Trichophyton – powdery  Microsporum – cotton like – with pigmentation  Epidermophyton – greenish yellow color 
  20. 20. Ringworm
  21. 21. Epidemiology  Classified into three types accd to source Anthrophilic – human beings eg tinea rubrum  Zoophilic – animals – M canis  Geophilic - soil 
  22. 22. diagnosis  ectothrix KOH mount endothrix
  23. 23. Lab diagnosis  SDA trichophyton
  24. 24.  epidermophyton
  25. 25.  microsporum
  26. 26. SUBCUTANEOUS MYCOSES
  27. 27. Mycetoma Infection of subcutaneous tissue of foot  Reported from Madurai – a/k/a madura foot  Multiple sinuses are seen in foot discharging pus onto surface  Pus contains ‘sulfur granules’ which are colonies of fungi 
  28. 28. Chromoblastomycosis Cauliflower like lesions on lower limb  Fungi are in soil, enter at site of trauma  Seen in bare foot agricultural workers 
  29. 29.  Diagnosis by demostration of sclerotic bodies on histology or KOH mount
  30. 30. SPOROTRICHOSIS Fungus found on thorns  Infection seen in gardeners  Nodules are seen in skin, along lymphatics and lymphnodes  Upper limb  Caused by fungus Sporothrix schenckii 
  31. 31.  Diagnosis by demostration of asteroid bodies
  32. 32. RHINOSPOROIDOSIS Polyps around nose, mouth or eye  Majority cases from Sri lanka  Agent Rhinosporoidium Seeberi 
  33. 33. SYSTEMIC MYCOSES
  34. 34. Systemic mycoses   Affect multiple body systems, usually spread through blood stream Two groups  True pathogens – cause disease in healthy • Histoplasma • Blastomyces • P. marneffei  Oppurtunistic pathogens – cause disease in immunosupressed • Candida • Aspergillus • Zygomycetes  Other • Cryptococcus neoformans
  35. 35. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS Yeast  Found in feces of pigeons/birds  Most often seen in patients with HIV 
  36. 36. Fungus is inhaled  Can cause pneumonia, meningitis, skin ulcers etc.  Diagnosis by demonstration of capsulated budding yeast in CSF/sample  India ink is used to demostrate capsule 
  37. 37. Negative staining – India ink
  38. 38. Histoplasma Grows as mold in nature, yeast in tissues  Most common in USA  In India found in west bengal  Found in bird feces  Inhaled – lung infection, may spread 
  39. 39. Oppurtunistic systemic mycoses
  40. 40. Candidosis Common in immunosupressed  Can affect kidneys, liver, spleen  Diagnosis by blood culture, tissue biopsies 
  41. 41. Aspergillosis
  42. 42. Enough of negativity……..

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