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microbiology, introduction and history

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this is a series of lectures on microbiology, useful for undergraduate medical and paramedical students

microbiology, introduction and history

  1. 1. MICROBIOLOGY introduction Dr. Ashish Jawarkar M.D. (Pathology) Consultant Pathologist Parul Sevashram Hospital, Vadodara
  2. 2. What is microbiology • The branch of biology that deals with microorganisms that infects humans, the diseases that they cause, their diagnosis, prevention and treatment. • Branches – bacteriology, virulogy, mycology, parasitology, immunology, and serology
  3. 3. Why microbiology • what do nurses do?
  4. 4. • Most people will immediately and correctly answer; "They care for ill and/or disabled people." • To effectively care for ill people, nurses must know how to effectively deal with the microorganism (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc) which is the underlying cause of the condition.
  5. 5. • nurses also must know enough about them to catch the occasional error that a doctor may make in treating a patient and bring the error to his or her attention. For example; Patient X is suffering from disease Z, which is caused by bacteria Y, which is treatable by antibiotic A, but not antibiotic B. Now let's say Doctor prescribes antibiotic B, after briefly speaking to Patient X and glancing at his chart, on hour 47 of a straight 48 hour duty shift.
  6. 6. • It is doctors who order or prescribe medications, but nurses who prepare and administer them. This division of labor is good, since it creates a "double check" system. • Now when the nurse reads the chart and assesses the patient, she or he will see that antibiotic B has been ordered for a disease that it does not effectively treat and will call Doctor Doe to inquire why he prescribed this unusual choice of medication, at which time Doctor Doe will normally thank the nurse for catching the inadvertent oversight and change the order to the correct antibiotic A, which will cause a positive outcome of the case.
  7. 7. • Now what if the nurse never received any training that enabled her or him to recognize that very possible oversight that some overworked, exhausted doctor made? At the very least the healing process would be delayed, or at worst, the patient may have died.
  8. 8. History • Fermentation – cavemen, meat was more tasty after being kept for some days • - alcohol could be made from fruits and grains • - souring of milk • - putrefaction of dead bodies • - dahi • - cheese
  9. 9. History • Disease and death – divine wrath – sacrifices and pleading to gods • Effect of environment, faulty body constitution, faulty diet • Roger bacon – 13th century – invisible creatures • Fracastorius – seeds of disease passed from one person to other
  10. 10. Microscope • Antony van leeuwenhoek – father of microbiology • Draper • Developed interest in lens making from glass and observing things through them • Little animalcules
  11. 11. Louis pasteur (father of bacteriology) • • • • • Only humans reproduce Other organisms could originate from soil Fermentation – beer and wine Now used in dairy industries Rabies vaccine – saliva from dog – rabbit spinal cord – suspension of spinal cord into victim • Anthrax vaccine • Sterilisation – hot air oven, autoclave
  12. 12. Joseph Lister • Antisepsis • Carbolic acid in use of surgery • Earlier no anaesthesia, no antisepsis
  13. 13. Robert Koch (father of modern bacteriology) • Tuberculosis, anthrax, cholera • Staining techniques
  14. 14. Christian Gram • Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria • bacteriology
  15. 15. Culture - Koch
  16. 16. Virus • Body fluids when made free of bacteria when introduced into organisms were able to produce diseases – filterable agents • Iwonowski observed virus from diseased tobacco plant under electron microscope
  17. 17. • Landsteiner and Popper – Poliomyelitis • Viruses could not be seen under light microscope, and couldnot be grown in culture • Viruses can be cultivated only in animal / human cells
  18. 18. Antibiotic – Alexander Fleming • Inhibition of staphylococcal growth on an agar plate, which was kept exposed, due to growth of penicillum mould • Mould is a fungus - mycology • Lead to discovery of penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline
  19. 19. Immunology • People who got small pox once and recovered, did not get the disease again
  20. 20. Vaccination • Milkmaids who had occupational exposure to cow pox did not get small pox • Jenner observed that when extract from cowpox lesion was injected into a person unaffected by small pox, it gave immunity • Vacca-cow
  21. 21. • This factor in blood which protected against small pox is called ANTI-BODY
  22. 22. Serology • Study of these antibodies and antigens in body fluids • Blood grouping
  23. 23. THANK YOU

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