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Sociology: culture


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give a brief about culture and how it will be helpful to nursing students to provide care to patients from various types of culture

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Sociology: culture

  1. 1. Aashish Parihar Nursing Tutor College of Nursing, AIIMS Jodhpur
  2. 2. Content- Culture- Meaning & its Nature  Components of Culture  Evolution of culture  Diversity and uniformity of culture  Culture and socialization  Trans cultural society  Influence on health and disease
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Culture is derived from the English word ‘Kulthra’ and Sanskrit word ‘Samskar’ which denotes social channel and intellectual excellence. Culture is a way of life.
  4. 4. DEFINITION EB Taylor- Culture is a complex whole, which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by the man as a member of society. Leglic AY White- Culture is a symbolic continuous, cumulative and progressive process. Malinowski B- The cumulative creation of man; the handwork of man and the medium through which he achieves is ends.
  5. 5. DEFINITION Graham wallas- An accumulation of thoughts, values and objects; it is the social heritage acquired by us from preceding generations through learning as distinguished from the biological heritage which is passed on to us automatically through genes. CC North- The instruments constituted by man to assist him in a satisfying his wants. Redfield- Culture is an organization of phenomenon of acts, objects, ideas attitudes, values and use of the symbols. Culture is an organized body of conventional understanding manifested in arts and artifacts which persisting through tradition, characterizes the group.
  6. 6. NATURE OF CULTURE Culture is a learned behavior not inherited. It is learned through experience, imitation, communication, concept, thinking and socialization process. Culture is transmitted by vertically or horizontally thus it is communicative. Vertical transmission is from one generation to another whereas horizontal transmission is from one group to another group within the same period Culture is social not individual the pattern of thinking, feeling & acting can be shared by the members of the group and kept relatively uniform through group pressures.
  7. 7. NATURE OF CULTURE Culture provides opportunities and provides means for the satisfaction of our needs and desires to fulfill group functions. Culture is adaptive. It may institute changes in the environment as a means of adopting, instead of altering themselves to the changing environments.
  8. 8. NATURE OF CULTURE Culture is dynamic. Couture is subjected to slow but constant change. Couture respond to the changing condition of the world. Every society has its own culture. Culture is continuous and cumulative Culture is integrative.
  9. 9. TYPES OF CULTURE There are two types of culture i.e. material culture and non-material culture Material culture- Material culture concerned with the external, mechanical and utilitarian objects. It can be easily communicated and makes our life more comfortable, luxurious and meaningful. Thus material culture has the extrinsic value like housing, fashion, diet etc. material culture represent the whole apparatus of life or civilization.
  10. 10. TYPES OF CULTURE There are two types of culture i.e. material culture and non-material culture Non-material culture- It includes the concepts, values, mores and ideas e.g. monogamy, democracy, worship etc.
  11. 11. FUNCTIONS OF CULTURE It makes man as a human being. To regulate the conduct and prepares the human being for group life through the process of socialization. It defines the meaning of situation. Provides solutions for difficult situations. Defines values, attitudes and goals.
  12. 12. FUNCTIONS OF CULTURE Broaden the vision of individuals. Provide behavior patterns and relationship with others. Keep the individual behavior intact. Moulds national character. Define myths, legends, supernatural believes. Creates new needs and interests.
  13. 13. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Components of culture are as follows- Symbols Language Values Folkways Mores Laws Customs
  14. 14. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Symbols Anything that carries particular meaning recognized by people who share the same culture. It can be either material object like flag a cross or word or it can be a non material object like sound gesture. Symbolic meaning is obvious uniform in culture and powerful.
  15. 15. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Language A major symbolic system in use in all human societies is languages. Human languages are learned and variable, flexible and generative. Without language there is no culture. It is language through which we are able to create share, preserve and transmit cultural meanings such as complex patterns of emotions, thought, knowledge and beliefs. Language is essential to give members of society a sense of identity.
  16. 16. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Values Values are general abstract moral principles defining what is right or wrong, good or bad, desirable or undesirable. In other words values often come in pairs of positive and negative terms. Values define general moral qualities of behavior expected from members of society such as honesty, patriotism or commitment to freedom
  17. 17. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Folkways Folkways are accepted ways of behavior. According to Gillin and Gillin folkways are the behavior pattern of every day life which unconsciously arises within a group. According to AW Green folkways are the ways of acting that are common to a society or a group that are handed down from generation to the next. According to Merill folkways are social habits or group expectations that have arised in the daily life of the group. Folkways are social in nature, repetitive in character, unplanned in origin, informal enforcement, varied in nature and subjected to change. Example of folkways are eating pattern, habits, communication, dressing walking, working and greeting.
  18. 18. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Mores Standard of behavior that influences the moral conduct of people conformity to mass is called as mores. According to MacIver & CH Page when folkways have added to group welfare and high standards that are converted into mores. mores determine our conception of right or wrong and proper and improper. Mores differ from group to group and from society to society. Mores are dynamic, they keep on changing according to changing need of society.
  19. 19. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Customs Customs are formed on the basis of habits. Customs are social habits which through repetition become the basis of an order of social behavior. According to MacIver custom is a group procedure that has gradually emerged without express enactment without any constituted authority to declare it, apply it, to safe guard it.
  20. 20. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Laws Laws are enacted by the state or centre to have control over individual. According to Green law is more or less systematic body of generalized rules, balanced between the fiction of performance and fact of change governing specifically defined relationship and situations and employing force or the threat of force in defined and limited ways. Laws applies equally to all Laws are definite, clear and precise.
  21. 21. EVOLUTION OF CULTURE Evolution of specific culture is difficult to identify . But from the discoveries and inventions cultural development can be identified. But one thing is clear that culture is as old as man. Though the material aspects does not us about the culture but reveals the evolution of culture.
  22. 22. DIVERSITY AND UNIFORMITY OF CULTURE Culture is a set of behavior of a group. Therefore there are many culture as there are many groups. Culture of one group may differ completely or in certain aspects from other. These variations are known as cultural diversity. Factors responsible for diverse culture are as follows-
  23. 23. DIVERSITY AND UNIFORMITY OF CULTURE Geographical location Unconscious behavior imitated and later on become a custom which is the part of culture Flexibility in behavior Technological advancement Religious belief Life style Language
  24. 24. UNIFORMITY OF CULTURE Uniformity of culture is meant by sharing the same type of cultural pattern by the different group of people. Uniformity of culture is far more complex than it seems. Uniformity is based on the belief of God’s superiority.
  25. 25. CULTURE AND SOCIALIZATION Culture is defined as the belief, values, behavior and material objects shared by a particular group of people. Socialization is the process which shapes and defines our thoughts, feelings and also provides us with a model for our behavior. This process of socialization teaches the human being the cultural values and norms which provide the guidelines for our everyday life.
  26. 26. CULTURE AND SOCIALIZATION Human infants are born without any culture. They must be transformed by agents of socialization such as family, parents, teachers, peers and mass media into culturally adapt human beings. This general process of acquiring culture is referred to as socialization. Successful socialization can result in uniformity within society.
  27. 27. CULTURE AND SOCIALIZATION Through the socialization personality develops. Socialization helps us to perform specific role in society which is culturally bound.
  28. 28. TRANS CULTURAL SOCIETY Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself in the other". Transcultural is in turn described as "extending through all human culture" or "involving, encompassing, or combining elements of more than one culture".
  29. 29. TRANS CULTURAL SOCIETY Transculturalism is characterized by the following: Transculturalism emphasizes on the problematic of contemporary culture in terms of relationships, meaning-making, and power formation; and the transitory nature of culture as well as its power to transform. Transculturalism is interested in dissonance, tension, and instability as it is with the stabilizing effects of social conjunction, communalism, and organization; and in the destabilizing effects of non-meaning or meaning atrophy. It is interested in the disintegration of groups, cultures, and power.
  30. 30. TRANS CULTURAL SOCIETY Transculturalism is characterized by the following: Transculturalism does not seek to privilege the semiotic over the material conditions of life, nor vice versa. Transculturalism accepts that language and materiality continually interact within an unstable locus of specific historical conditions.[5] Transculturalism locates relationships of power in terms of language and history.[5]
  31. 31. TRANS CULTURAL SOCIETY Transculturalism is characterized by the following: Transculturalism is deeply suspicious of itself and of all utterances. Its claim to knowledge is always redoubtable, self-reflexive, and self-critical. Transculturalism can never eschew the force of its own precepts and the dynamic that is culture. Transculturalism never sides with one moral perspective over another but endeavors to examine them without ruling out moral relativism or meta- ethical confluence.
  32. 32. TRANS CULTURAL SOCIETY Transculturalism is characterized by the following: Transculturalism seeks to illuminate the various gradients of culture and the ways in which social groups create and distribute their meanings; and the ways in which social groups interact and experience tension. Transculturalism looks toward the ways in which language wars are historically shaped and conducted.