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Maintenace of patent airway


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Maintenace of patent airway

  1. 1. Prepared by: Aashish Parihar m.sC. Nursing Maintenance of patent airway
  2. 2. Maintenance of patent airway Airways must remain free from obstruction to enable effective respiratory function and thus sustain life. Remember, if the client has stopped breathing
  3. 3. Maintenance of patent airway Airway management is the medical process of ensuring there is an open pathway between a patient’s lungs and the outside world, as well as reducing the risk of aspiration. Airway management is a primary consideration in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, anesthe sia, emergency medicine, intensive care medicine and first aid
  4. 4. Maintenance of patent airway Assessment of airway Breathing pattern Dyspnoea Labored breathing Breathing sound Stridor wheezing Chest wall movement Reverse movement of these, i.e. chest sucked in and abdomen protruding indicates an obstruction
  5. 5. Maintenance of patent airway Choking unconsciousness Pan ic
  6. 6. Maintenance of patent airway Causes of airway obstruction Foreign bodies Aspiration of vomitus Tracheolaryngeal trauma Plugging of mucus Diphtheria Obstructive lung diseases Tracheobronchitis
  7. 7. Maintenance of patent airway Management Removal of foreign bodies Removal of vomit and regurgitation Airway maneuvers Invasive airway management
  8. 8. Maintenance of patent airway Removal of foreign bodies If you suspect an obstruction check in the client’s mouth for any obvious obstruction, e.g. vomit, foreign body, etc. and remove same by sweeping the mouth with a finger. Great care should be taken not to push any foreign body further into the air passage
  9. 9. Maintenance of patent airway Removal of vomit and regurgitation In the case of a patient who vomits or has other secretions in the airway, these techniques will not be enough. use suction to clean out the airway, although this may not always be possible. An unconscious patient who is regurgitating stomach contents should be turned into the recovery position when there is no suction equipment available. As this allows (to a certain extent) the drainage of fluids out of the mouth instead of down the trachea. The recovery position refers to one of a series of variations on a lateral recumbent or three-quarters prone position of the body, in to which an unconscious but breathing casualty
  10. 10. Maintenance of patent airway AIRWAY MANEUVERS Head-tilt chin-lift Basic procedure used in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Rescuers one hand tilts head back while other hand is placed under
  11. 11. Maintenance of patent airway AIRWAY MANEUVERS Head-tilt chin-lift  The head-tilt chin-lift is the primary maneuver used in any patient in whom cervical spine injury is not a concern.  The simplest way of ensuring an open airway in an unconscious patient.
  12. 12. Maintenance of patent airway AIRWAY MANEUVERS Jaw-thrust maneuver Index and middle fingers are used to physically push the posterior (back) aspects of the mandible upwards while their thumbs push
  13. 13. Maintenance of patent airway AIRWAY MANEUVERS Jaw-thrust maneuver  The jaw-thrust maneuver is an effective airway technique.  It is used in the patient in whom cervical spine injury is suspected and is used on a supine patient.  It prevents the fall of tongue thereby maintain the patent airway.
  14. 14. Maintenance of patent airway AIRWAY MANEUVERS Cervical spine immobilization Most airway maneuvers are associated with some movement of the cervical spine (c- spine). Even though collars for holding the head in-line can cause problems maintaining an airway and maintaining a blood pressure. However, it is not recommended to remove the collar without adequate personnel to manually hold the head in place.
  15. 15. Maintenance of patent airway Invasive airway management Oropharyngeal airway Oropharyngeal airways (OPA) (also known as Guedel airways) are rigid plastic curved devices used to maintain an open airway. When a person becomes unconscious, the muscles in their jaw relax and allow the tongue to obstruct the airway. An OPA should only be used in a deeply unresponsive patient because in a responsive patient they can cause vomiting and aspiration.
  16. 16. Maintenance of patent airway Invasive airway management Nasopharyngeal airway The nasopharyngeal airway (NPA) (also known as a nasal trumpet) is a soft rubber or plastic hollow tube that is passed through the nose into the posterior pharynx. It is used in the patient with jaw clenched or semiconscious. NPAs are generally not recommended if there is suspicion of a fracture to the base of the skull, due to the possibility of the tube entering
  17. 17. Maintenance of patent airway others