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Constructivism…an Educational Theory Fadra Hepner Education 310
Constructivism <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it have to tell us? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we apply it t...
During the 1930’s and 40’s, Constructivism was the leading view of Public school educators in the U.S . <ul><li>Nothing te...
Constructivism..What is it? <ul><li>An educational theory that places emphasis on the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s ...
But what does this mean? <ul><li>In order to understand something, we  MUST be able to relate it to something else </li></...
Instead, Constructivism views knowledge as “assimilated” into existing schema <ul><li>Idea largely based on Swiss Biologis...
4 Developmental stages according to Piaget <ul><li>1.  Sensory motor stage (birth-2 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>-through physic...
2. Preoperational stage (2-7) <ul><li>Child needs concrete physical situations and is unable to conceptualize in the abstr...
3. Concrete operations (7-11) <ul><li>Child begins to conceptualize based on physical experiences </li></ul><ul><li>-creat...
4.  Formal operations (12+) <ul><li>Cognitive structures are like an adult and include conceptual reasoning </li></ul><ul>...
Lev Vigotsky <ul><li>Russian psychologist & philosopher in 1930’s usually associated with  Social Constructivism </li></ul...
Modern Constructivism!!! <ul><li>Jerome Bruner  most recent contributor </li></ul><ul><li>1966-1990 Has incorporated socia...
3 Principles of Constructivism: <ul><li>Instruction must be concerned with experiences and contexts that make students wil...
During the math and science conference, a modified lesson plan was developed with Bruner’s assistance <ul><li>The five E’s...
Explore <ul><li>Get the students directly involved in the material </li></ul><ul><li>Have them work in  teams </li></ul><u...
Explain <ul><li>Explanations come from: </li></ul><ul><li>-Students working together </li></ul><ul><li>-Teacher introducin...
Elaborate <ul><li>Students expand on concepts learned </li></ul><ul><li>Make connections </li></ul><ul><li>Apply understan...
Evaluate <ul><li>On-going diagnostic process </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur at all points of the instructional process </li><...
To summarize: <ul><li>Learning is active </li></ul><ul><li>Engage the students on their own cognitive level </li></ul><ul>...
Bibliography!!!!! <ul><li>http://www.miamisci.org/ph/lpintro5e.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.funderstanding.com/piaget...
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  1. 1. Constructivism…an Educational Theory Fadra Hepner Education 310
  2. 2. Constructivism <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it have to tell us? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we apply it to our work? </li></ul>
  3. 3. During the 1930’s and 40’s, Constructivism was the leading view of Public school educators in the U.S . <ul><li>Nothing terribly new about it! </li></ul><ul><li>Many basic beliefs stated by Dewey among others </li></ul><ul><li>Comprised primarily of the research by: </li></ul>Jean Piaget Lev Vigotsky Jerome Bruner But first…...
  4. 4. Constructivism..What is it? <ul><li>An educational theory that places emphasis on the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s role: Act as a facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the idea that All knowledge is CONSTRUCTED based on previous experiences </li></ul>
  5. 5. But what does this mean? <ul><li>In order to understand something, we MUST be able to relate it to something else </li></ul><ul><li>If at all possible, APPLY this knowledge during the lesson to foster concrete connections </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from traditional view; the mind is a blank tablet </li></ul>
  6. 6. Instead, Constructivism views knowledge as “assimilated” into existing schema <ul><li>Idea largely based on Swiss Biologist Jean Piaget ’s research on child development & learning </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s theory states that children learn by creating “mental maps” or schemes </li></ul><ul><li>These maps or schemes are added to and adapted as needed to help them understand their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Structure becomes more complex as child develops </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4 Developmental stages according to Piaget <ul><li>1. Sensory motor stage (birth-2 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>-through physical interaction with environment, child develops set of concepts about reality & how it works </li></ul><ul><li>-stage where child is unaware that if an object is not seen it still exists (object permanence) </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Preoperational stage (2-7) <ul><li>Child needs concrete physical situations and is unable to conceptualize in the abstract </li></ul><ul><li>-needs to see, hear, feel in order to understand something </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Concrete operations (7-11) <ul><li>Child begins to conceptualize based on physical experiences </li></ul><ul><li>-creates logical structures to explain his/her environment </li></ul><ul><li>-abstract problem solving possible </li></ul><ul><li>Example: math with #’s, not objects </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. Formal operations (12+) <ul><li>Cognitive structures are like an adult and include conceptual reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>-Piaget classified as a “cognitive constructivist” focusing on processes of the mind and its effects on learning </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lev Vigotsky <ul><li>Russian psychologist & philosopher in 1930’s usually associated with Social Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Constructivism emphasized the effects of one’s environment (family, friends, culture & background) have on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Today, Co-Constructivism Seems to prevail, incorporating Cognitive and Social aspects </li></ul>
  12. 12. Modern Constructivism!!! <ul><li>Jerome Bruner most recent contributor </li></ul><ul><li>1966-1990 Has incorporated social and cognitive aspects </li></ul><ul><li>These ideas originated from a conference for math and science learning </li></ul>Jerome Bruner               
  13. 13. 3 Principles of Constructivism: <ul><li>Instruction must be concerned with experiences and contexts that make students willing & able to learn (readiness) </li></ul><ul><li>Must be structured so it is easily grasped (spiral organization) </li></ul><ul><li>Should be designed to facilitate extrapolation or “fill in the gaps” (going beyond information given) </li></ul>
  14. 14. During the math and science conference, a modified lesson plan was developed with Bruner’s assistance <ul><li>The five E’s: </li></ul><ul><li>Engage- do this! Engage the students and get them interested in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: ask a question, define a problem, surprise them, use problematic situations </li></ul><ul><li>TWO VOLUNTEERS PLEASE! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Explore <ul><li>Get the students directly involved in the material </li></ul><ul><li>Have them work in teams </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Use their inquiry to drive the process </li></ul>
  16. 16. Explain <ul><li>Explanations come from: </li></ul><ul><li>-Students working together </li></ul><ul><li>-Teacher introducing concepts and vocabulary for experiences Example: magnets-attracting force </li></ul><ul><li>This is also the time for the teacher to determine levels of understanding and clarify misconceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing, writing and video are great tools to help the teacher assess development and growth </li></ul>
  17. 17. Elaborate <ul><li>Students expand on concepts learned </li></ul><ul><li>Make connections </li></ul><ul><li>Apply understandings to own environment & world around them </li></ul><ul><li>These connections lead to further inquiry & new understandings </li></ul>
  18. 18. Evaluate <ul><li>On-going diagnostic process </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur at all points of the instructional process </li></ul><ul><li>-Examples: rubrics, teacher observation, student interviews, portfolios, project & problem based learning products, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to guide teacher in further planning of lessons </li></ul><ul><li>May also be utilized by the students; Ex: Feedback Fridays </li></ul>
  19. 19. To summarize: <ul><li>Learning is active </li></ul><ul><li>Engage the students on their own cognitive level </li></ul><ul><li>Make it interesting! </li></ul><ul><li>Work in groups </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a facilitator, not a record player </li></ul><ul><li>Make learning cyclical. They should have more questions when the lesson is over! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bibliography!!!!! <ul><li>http://www.miamisci.org/ph/lpintro5e.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.funderstanding.com/piaget.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>http://web.psych.ualberta.ca/~mike/Pearl_Street/Dictionary/contents/P/piaget’s_stages.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://pdts.uh.edu/~srmehall/theory/social.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.artsined.com/teachingarts/Pedag/Constructivist.html </li></ul>

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