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  1. 1. Communication BY: AARTI GILL
  2. 2. CommunicationCommunication - the evoking of a shared or commonmeaning in another personInterpersonal Communication - communicationbetween two or more people in an organizationCommunicator - the person originating the messageReceiver - the person receiving a messagePerceptual Screen - a window through which weinteract with people that influences the quality,accuracy, and clarity of the communication.
  3. 3. CommunicationMessage - the thoughts and feelings that thecommunicator is attempting to elicit in thereceiver.Feedback Loop - the pathway thatcompletes two-way communication.Language - the words, their pronunciation,and the methods of combining them used& understood by a group of people.
  4. 4. CommunicationData - uninterrupted and unanalyzed facts.Information - data that have been interpreted,analyzed, & have some meaning to user.Richness - the ability of a medium or channelto extract or evoke meaning in the receiver.
  5. 5. Basic InterpersonalCommunication ModelEventXMessage• Context• AffectPerceptual screens////////////////////////////////////Perceptual screensCommunicator ReceiverInfluence message quality, accuracy, clarityInclude age, gender, values, beliefs, culture,experiences, needs
  6. 6. Reflective ListeningReflective Listening - the skill of listening carefully toanother person and repeating back to the speaker theheard message to correct any inaccuracies ormisunderstandingsThis complexprocess needsto be divided tobe understoodWhat I heard yousay was we willunderstand theprocess better if webreak it into steps
  7. 7. Reflective Listening Emphasizes receiver’s role. Helps the receiver & communicator clearly &fully understand the message sent. Useful in problem solving.
  8. 8. Reflective ListeningReflective listening emphasizes the personal elements of the communicationprocess the feelings communicated in the message responding to the communicator, not leading thecommunicator the role or receiver or audience understanding people by reducing perceptualdistortions and interpersonal barriers
  9. 9. Reflective Listening:4 Levels of Verbal ResponseAffirm contactParaphrase the expressedClarify the implicitReflect “core” feelings
  10. 10. One-way vs. Two-wayCommunicationsOne-WayCommunication - aperson sends a messageto another person and noquestions, feedback, orinteraction follow Good for givingsimple directions Fast but often lessaccurate than 2-waycommunicationTwo-WayCommunication - thecommunicator & receiverinteract Good for problemsolving
  11. 11. Five Keys to EffectiveSupervisory Communication Expressive speaking Empathetic listening Persuasive leadership Sensitivity to feelings Informative management
  12. 12. Barriers to Communication Physical separation Status differences Gender differences Cultural diversity LanguageCommunicationBarriers -factors that blockor significantlydistort successfulcommunication
  13. 13. Defensive CommunicationDefensive Communication - communication thatcan be aggressive, attacking & angry, or passive& withdrawing.Leads to injured feelings communication breakdowns alienation retaliatory behaviors nonproductive efforts problem solving failures
  14. 14. Non-defensive CommunicationNondefensive Communication -communication that is assertive, direct,& powerful.Provides basis for defense when attacked restores order, balance, andeffectiveness
  15. 15. Two Defensiveness PatternsDominant Defensiveness -characterized by active,aggressive, attacking behaviorSubordinate Defensiveness -characterized by passive,submissive, withdrawingbehavior
  16. 16. Defensive TacticsDefensive Tactic Speaker ExamplePower Play Boss “Finish this report by month’send or lose your promotion.”Put-Down Boss “A capable manager wouldalready be done with this report.”Labeling Boss “You must be a slow learner.Your report is still not done?”Raising Doubts Boss “How can I trust you, Chris, ifyou can’t finish an easy report?”
  17. 17. Defensive TacticsDefensive Tactic Speaker ExampleMisleadingInformationEmployee “Morgan has not gone over withme the information I need forthe report.” [Morgan left Chriswith a copy of the report.]Scapegoating Employee “Morgan did not give me inputuntil just today.”Hostile Jokes Employee “You can’t be serious! Thereport isn’t that important.”Deception Employee “I gave it to the secretary. Didshe lose it?”
  18. 18. Nondefensive Communication:A Powerful Tool Speaker seen as centered, assertive, controlled,informative, realistic, and honest Speaker exhibits self-control & self possession Listener feels accepted rather than rejected Catherine Crier’s rules to non-defensivecommunication:-1. Define the situation2. Clarify the person’s position3. Acknowledge the person’s feelings4. Bring the focus back to the facts
  19. 19. Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbal Communication - all elements of communicationthat do not involve wordsFour basic types Proxemics - an individual’s perception & use of space Kinesics - study of body movements, including posture Facial & Eye Behavior - movements that add cues for thereceiver Paralanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch,loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying
  20. 20. cc = social 4-12’bb = personal 1.5-4’Proxemics: Territorial SpaceTerritorial Space - bands of space extendingoutward from the body; territorial space differsfrom culture to cultureaa = intimate <1.5’dd = public >12’
  21. 21. Proxemics: Seating DynamicsSeating Dynamics - seating people in certainpositions according to the person’s purpose incommunicationCooperationX ONon-CommunicationO X OCompetitionXOXCommunicationO
  22. 22. Examples ofDecoding Nonverbal CuesBoss fails to acknowledgeemployee’s greetingNo eye contactwhilecommunicatingManager sighs deeplyBoss breathesheavily &waves armsHe’sunapproachable!My opiniondoesn’t countI wonder whathe’s hiding?He’s angry! I’llstay out ofhis way!SOURCE: Adapted from “Steps to Better Listening” by C. Hamilton and B. H. Kleiner. Copyright © February 1987. Reprinted with permission, Personnel Journal, all rights reserved.
  23. 23. New Technologiesfor Communication Informational databases Electronic mail systems Voice mail systems Fax machine systems Cellular phone systems
  24. 24. How Do New TechnologiesAffect Behavior? Fast, immediate access to information Immediate access to people in power Instant information exchange across distance Makes schedules & office hours irrelevant May equalize group power May equalize group participation
  25. 25.  Communication can become more impersonal—interaction with a machine Interpersonal skills may diminish—less tact, lessgraciousness Non-verbal cues lacking Alters social context Easy to become overwhelmed with information Encourages polyphasic activityHow Do New TechnologiesAffect Behavior?
  26. 26. Strive formessagecompletenessTips for Effective Use of NewCommunication TechnologiesBuild infeedbackopportunitiesProvidesocialinteractionopportunitiesDon’tassumeimmediateresponseIs themessagereallynecessary?Regularlydisconnectfrom thetechnologyProvidesocialinteractionopportunities
  27. 27. THANKS