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Technology As A Source Of Change


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Technology As A Source Of Change

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Technology As A Source Of Change

  1. 1. External Influences Technology and Changing Social Attitudes
  2. 2. External Influences <ul><li>New Technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New business opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of substitutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening up of new markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical progress in foreign countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways of working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of investment versus return </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. External Influences <ul><li>New business opportunities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the same industry? (Core business) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Totally new markets/opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of investment needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market research – do consumers need the product? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. External Influences <ul><li>e.g. Canon – core business, optical technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cameras, photocopiers, scanners, projectors, calculators, binoculars, digital cameras, printers, projectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New markets – Discmans? DVD players? Flat Screen TVs? Plasma TVs? </li></ul><ul><li>Risk versus gain </li></ul>
  5. 5. External Influences <ul><li>Threats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper alternatives from abroad – CFC technology, bio-technology, computer and micro-processor technology (especially China?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivals producing substitutes – PS2, X-Box and Game Cube </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to react? </li></ul>
  6. 6. External Influences <ul><li>Working practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology and productivity – impact on workers, morale, motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for ‘old’ plants (e.g. Longbridge versus Sunderland? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible working – working from home, hot desking, mobile computing (wireless networks) video-conferencing </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. External Influences <ul><li>Communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient? – if so why have some firms banned the use of e-mail at work for any purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on motivation, morale and worker attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent does the message get through? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. External Influences <ul><li>Changing Social Attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social ‘class’ – changing socio–economic groupings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links with behaviour and demand (e.g. growing number of pensioners; those who smoke or drink certain types of alcohol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing tastes – concern for ‘green’ production, attitudes to fur, wine versus beer, vegetarians (long term or short term?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing lifestyles – convenience and fast foods, use of freezers, use of cars, amount of leisure time and how it is used, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. External Influences <ul><li>Changing income structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional distribution of income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of government taxation on disposable incomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative income elasticity of demand for different goods and services </li></ul></ul>