Air Pollution Reduction Methods

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Air Pollution Reduction Methods

  1. 1. METHODS USED TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION
  2. 2. HAHAHA I HAVE NO IDEA!!!!! How’d you get up there?!?!
  3. 3. Catalytic Converter <ul><li>Installed into vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a catalyst: platinum, rhodium or palladium ∴ expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidises CO to CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces NO to N 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidise Hydrocarbons  CO 2 and H 2 O </li></ul>
  4. 4. Thermal Exhaust Reactor <ul><li>Unburnt Hydrocarbon gases and CO </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed with excess O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2CO (g) + O 2 (g)  2CO 2 (g) </li></ul><ul><li>Unburnt Hydrocarbons are also combusted </li></ul><ul><li>Forming CO 2 and H 2 O </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lean Burn Engines <ul><li>Modifies air : fuel ratio to 18 : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizes production of pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Low concentrations of CO 2 , C x H Y , NO x </li></ul><ul><li>High ratio: Low CO 2 and C x H y conc., but High NO x conc. </li></ul><ul><li>Low ratio: High CO 2 and C x H y conc., but Low NO x conc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Limestone Fluidized Beds <ul><li>Removes Sulfur Dioxide gas produced in combustion before release into atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone is heated to form Calcium Oxide (CaCO 3 + heat  CaO + CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>SO 2 is removed: </li></ul><ul><li>CaO + SO 2  CaSO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>2CaO + 2SO 2 + O 2  2CaSO 4 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Wet alkaline scrubber <ul><li>Uses an alkaline liquid (e.g. Ca(OH) 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ca(OH) 2 + SO 2  CaSO 3 + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone converts SO 2 to CaSO 3 and CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 + SO 2  CaSO 3 + CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: large amounts of CaCO 3 required, CaSO 3 deposits on scrubber, CO 2 (greenhouse gas) is produced instead </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reducing SO x <ul><li>High sulfur coal  Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) </li></ul><ul><li>Use low sulfur, cleaner coal such as anthracite </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of sulfur from petroleum by reacting with hydrogen gas in presence of catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Desulfurize high sulfur coal </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reducing Particulates <ul><li>Electrostatic precipitator </li></ul><ul><li>Removes tiny particles in the air </li></ul><ul><li>High voltage is applied </li></ul><ul><li>Plates are +vely charged </li></ul><ul><li>Ionize gas molecules </li></ul><ul><li>G  G + + e - </li></ul><ul><li>Gas molecules collected on plates </li></ul><ul><li>Removes more than 98% of all matter in air </li></ul>

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