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Alternatives to Copyright


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Published in: Technology, Education
  • Three issues must be addressed:
    1. Software.
    2. Code formulae and routing systems for certain hardware and microsystems.
    3. Live vocal.

    FOSS in its two forms (a)Open Source and (b)GPL can cover software and other 'written' work. The Creative Commons (CC) for Wiki seems more specific. I have only seen one example of 'Public Domain' and it is Paul Stookey's song 'The Wedding Song'. It seems to me that GPL is the best coverage and that the (CC) is redundant. Bruce Perens' concept of FOSS alludes to originators being able to capitalize on their works without defiling the GPL while GPL asserts that all software is free without being 'free beer'. Its major advocate, Richard Stallman, is adamant that such works remain accessible to anyone without cost and that it may be freely distributed- with most of the attributes of (CC).
    The third, 'Live Vocal' would be performance or recitation. I've no one address this except those protective agencies such as ASCAP. BMI may be considered. They protect copyrighted works in performance. But there must be an avenue for such works 'in vivo' in the FOSS realm. there must be some way to, if not regulate, then make clear that abuse of a creation not copyrighted be stated. and I certainly would not want 'The Wedding Song' turned into something blatantly seditious or psychopathic.
    I wonder if these can be addressed? Or am I simply being picayune about it all? I hope not.
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Alternatives to Copyright

  1. 1. Alternatives to Copyright: Creative Commons, Copyleft and the Public Domain Creative Commons, Copyleft and the Public Domain <ul><li>Aaron Tyo-Dickerson </li></ul><ul><li>The American School of The Hague </li></ul>
  2. 2. Our Agenda <ul><li>Definitions and examples: copyright, fair use </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions and examples: public domain, copyleft, Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clip art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>software </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Copyright © and Fair Use
  4. 4. Definition: Copyright <ul><li>Asserts moral rights of the author* to a fixed expression of an idea for minimum of life-plus-fifty years </li></ul><ul><li>Established, recognized and enforced by governments around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions to author rights: “work for hire” (US) or “contract for service” (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Text: books, articles, research papers (published and unpublished, library resources and web resources, out of print) </li></ul><ul><li>Sound recordings, video recordings (analog and digital, broadcasts and web resources) </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings, paintings, maps, logos (analog and digital, web resources) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples: Copyright <ul><li>text: books, articles, research papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>published and unpublished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>library resources and web resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>out of print </li></ul></ul><ul><li>sound recordings, video recordings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analog and digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broadcasts and web resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>drawings, paintings, maps, logos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analog and digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>web resources </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Definition: Fair Use <ul><li>Limited, free usage of copyrighted work: “Fair Use” (US), “Fair Dealing” (UK), or “Fair Practice” (Berne Convention) </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: quotation (review, criticism, parody), illustration (educational usage), and citation (sources and author) </li></ul><ul><li>US guidelines for Fair Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>purpose of usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nature of copyrighted work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amount and substantiality of work used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effect upon market or value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Text: limited copying for educational purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Audio/visual content: limited performance for educational purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical content: limited display for educational purposes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Is This Fair Use?
  8. 8. The Alternatives
  9. 9. Definition: Public Domain <ul><li>“Creative materials that are not protected by intellectual property laws such as copyright, trademark or patent laws.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>old: the copyright has expired. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wrong: the owner failed to follow copyright renewal rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deliberate: the owner deliberately places it in the public domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obvious: copyright law does not protect this type of work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Welcome to the public domain. (2004). Copyright and Fair Use. Retrieved March 18, 2007, from The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University Web site: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Definition: Copyleft <ul><li>An author-granted license for copyrighted work to be used with some restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes seen as “Some rights reserved” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Definition: Creative Commons <ul><li>“Reasonable, flexible copyright” at </li></ul><ul><li>Copyleft-like licenses for creative work </li></ul><ul><li>Four variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noncommercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Derivative Works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share Alike </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>“Wanna Work Together?” from the Creative Commons website at </li></ul><ul><li>www, </li></ul>
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  21. 22. - texts
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  27. 28. <ul><li>“If you should accidentally tear a speaker off” (1960) </li></ul><ul><li>from the Ephemeral Films collection at </li></ul>
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  29. 30. Questions?
  30. 31. What about copyright? Creative Commons, Copyleft and the Public Domain Creative Commons, Copyleft and the Public Domain Aaron Tyo-Dickerson The American School of The Hague
  31. 32. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 543 Howard Street, 5th Floor, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  32. 33. <ul><li>Berne Convention </li></ul><ul><li>US copyright Law </li></ul><ul><li>UK copyright Law </li></ul>“governments around the world”
  33. 34. “US guidelines for Fair Use” <ul><li>purpose of usage </li></ul><ul><li>nature of copyrighted work </li></ul><ul><li>amount and substantiality of work used </li></ul><ul><li>effect upon market or value </li></ul>