“Today’s reality must not limit tomorrow’s possibilities”                  “You could learn well in it [a colourful, funky...
1Introduction >                                     There are many factors that drive change within education in today’s r...
1                                            2Learning >What is it?Scientific observation has             Learning        ...
1                                                      2                                              3Schools today >Old ...
Many classrooms feature a                                                                                                 ...
1                            2                                             3                      4New models >Creative le...
OPPORTUNITY:                                                                                                              ...
1] Wiluna Remote Community School, WA2] Sandover Group, Homeland School, NT                                               ...
1                                                                                                           2Personality >...
1] College “L’Esplanade”, Begnins, SwitzerlandArchitect: Pascal de Benoit & Martin WagnerArchitectes SA | Photo: Pascal de...
1As you grow in size and get a              Lingering Perceptions About Relocatable Classrooms                            ...
1] El Porvenir Kindergarten, Bogota |Architect & Photographer: Mazzanti Arquitectos2] & 4] College “L’Esplanade”, Begnins,...
CURRENT SHORTCOMINGS*Poor acoustics                                                                                       ...
1                          2                              3                                    4User experience >A typical...
1                              2                                   3                                 4References >Further ...
FACULTY OF                                                                                                        ARCHITEC...
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21st Century Learning


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21st Century Learning

  1. 1. “Today’s reality must not limit tomorrow’s possibilities” “You could learn well in it [a colourful, funky, modern classroom], cos the main reason for kids coming to school is cos it’s comfy and warm and fun, and most kids don’t want to come to school cos they think it’s boring.” [Primary School Student, focus group in WA] 1. 21st century learningContents > Introduction 2 Indoor outdoor connections 7 Learning 3 Diversity & difference 8 Designing today’s schools for tomorrow’s world 4 Furniture & fittings 9 Building the Education Revolution 4 The classroom of the future: technology & learning 10 Basic needs 5 Supporting technology rich learning spaces 10 Creativity & the new learning models 5 Lingering perceptions about relocatable classrooms 11 Integration & connectedness 6 What educators & students want: research themes 12 Multi-unit configurations: hubs & learning communities 7 User experience: a typical day 14 References & further reading 15 21st century learning | Future Proofing Schools 1
  2. 2. 1Introduction > There are many factors that drive change within education in today’s rapidly changing and increasingly complex world. These include the combined effect of government policy, This brochure outlines the context and key concepts economic imperatives and social trends along with new technology, sustainability issues and changing pedagogies. of 21st century learning as they apply to the design Since the late 18th century we have moved from a production-based, through a service- of learning spaces and in based, to a knowledge-based economy. The implication of this is that businesses now require agility, creativity, ingenuity and collaboration of their workforce. Educational policy particular, relocatable around the world is reflecting these new market demands. learning spaces. Learning spaces that support the development of these skill sets need to be agile, inspiring, supportive of effective teaching and learning and inclusive of the broader 1] Student art, Buranda Primary School, Qld community and other cultural and educational organisations. 2] Primary school classroom 22 Future Proofing Schools | 21st century learning
  3. 3. 1 2Learning >What is it?Scientific observation has Learning OLD ASSUMPTIONS NEW ASSUMPTIONSestablished that education Young people learn in various Learning only happens in classrooms Learning happens everywhereis not what the teacher environments and physical locations - in Learning happens at fixed times Learning happens anytime the neighbourhood and in classrooms.gives; education is a They learn when they play, when Learning is an individual activity Learning is very much influenced by the socialnatural process spontaneously competing at sport, and through environment experiencing curriculum materials. What happens in classrooms is fairly Differences in course goals & teaching methodscarried out by the human Learning experiences are shaped by much the same from class to class & from day to day & course to course requireindividual, and is acquired adults, peers, and access to books, day to day purposeful spaces television and the internet. It is also thenot by listening to words A classroom always has a front The activity determines classroom configuration result of the complex interplay betweenbut by experiences upon the the child’s body, diet, family life, and Learning demands privacy & removal Openness & stimuli aid learning: windowsenvironment. degree of security. of distractions eg windows provide light & a sense of openness Flexibility can be enhanced by filling Movable furniture/equipment is a key factor in[Maria Montessori 1947] Today’s emphasis on collaborative, rooms with as many chairs as will fit adapting spaces to activities & teaching modes interdisciplinary and self-directed, One teacher per class Collaborative teams & team teaching personalised learning reflects a much broader and subtler view of learning Separate single classrooms Multiple, reconfigurable, linked learning spaces than the ‘chalk and talk’ alternative. [Source: Paraphrased from J.Martin 2005] As globalisation and societal changes transform the world we live in, the Research on learning styles, formative assessment, multiple and demands placed on learners and our education system are changing to reflect emotional intelligences, constructivism and so on have combined1] McKinnon Primary School, Victoria this. At the same time, our understanding with the rapid development of technology-enabled, peer-to-peer2] Marymede College P-12, Victoria of learning itself is changing. self-directed learning to facilitate very different approaches to the 20 students in rows model. [Higgins et al. 2005] 21st century learning | Future Proofing Schools 3
  4. 4. 1 2 3Schools today >Old and newOPPORTUNITY: Designing Today’s Schools For Tomorrow’s World Building the EducationTo design innovative Many existing schools are still based on the 18th and 19th century factory model. These Revolution [BER]1relocatable learning spaces schools embody the concepts of conformity, formal teacher-centred, explicit teaching and a The Federal Government’s BER funding hierarchy of subjects. From a physical perspective, the traditional classroom was arranged focussed on the provision of permanentthat integrate complex and like an egg crate. This historical model has been associated with an emphasis on control buildings - many being ‘templates’.conflicting briefs into of students and on teacher-centred, lecture-format learning. Today, we look beyond this However, many schools chose to spend traditional template of learning to a more interactive, collaborative and inquisitive student- their funding on relocatable classroomsfinely resolved behavioural centred approach to learning. However, while pedagogical changes are taking place within as they were in great need of additionalsettings, which support new the classroom, the design of new learning spaces is only now beginning to catch up. learning spaces and could not affordmodes of learning. permanent buildings. During the past decade, the academic community has seen a strong emphasis on learning[Clare Newton 2011] rather than teaching, and new learning spaces must allow for interactive, formal and There is a vast array of vintages and informal, and peer-to-peer learning experiences. The traditional ‘lesson’ has not been done models of relocatable classrooms away with, but is only one of the numerous ways that students will engage in learning. currently in use. Older models are The new learning paradigm necessitates that the entire school be a learning environment gradually being phased out, but this rather than a set of rectangular enclaves with a specified number of seats for focussed and will take time to complete. One issue approved activities. this raises is that different models and vintages cannot be easily co-located to Many education departments and school leaders are now promoting new pedagogical create multi-unit learning centres or hubs. practices and require facilities that will enable the new collaborative and experience-based learning approaches to occur. There are many variables around the1] Boys School, Victoria, circa 1920 provision of relocatable classrooms2] McKinnon Primary School, Victoria 1. In February 2009 the Australian education and design industries began an intense period of activity and discussion when the Federal Government announced the $42b Nation Building – Economic across Australia. These include:3] Wooranna High School, Victoria | MaryFeatherston Design Stimulus Plan. A major component of the plan was a $16.2b Building the Education Revolution (BER) climate-related issues; site conditions; but the media statements focused on the need to create jobs in response to the Global Financial Crisis. Funds needed to be spent (and workers employed) quickly. There was little time for State locations in suburban, rural and remote education departments to work with architects and schools to design spaces suitable for the rapidly communities; transportation; and the changing education environment. Instead, education departments around Australia were required to offer schools a limited choice of Template designs or ‘shovel ready’ projects which could start on- availability of skilled labour. site within six months of the funding announcement.4 Future Proofing Schools | 21st century learning
  5. 5. Many classrooms feature a speech intelligibility rating of 75% or less. That means listeners with normal hearing can understand only 75% of the words read from a list.Examples of existing double relocatable classroom furniture layouts which accommodate individual, small group and large group activities [Mark Waldecker 2006-08]Basic Needs Creativity & The New Learning ModelsChildren are ready to learn only when 21st century learning spaces must be agile, able to be easily reconfigured to engage • The Respectful Mind: awarenessbasic needs such as food, water, warmth, different kinds of learners and teachers, and able to accommodate individual, small group of and appreciation for differencestoilets and security are met. In addition and large group activities. among human beings and humanto these basic needs, other qualities groupsare important in an ideal learning Current and future economies depend on innovation and creativity, skills that need to be • The Ethical Mind: fulfilment of one’senvironment. These include natural light, encouraged. For true innovation and creativity to occur, learning spaces should facilitate responsibilities as a worker and as athermal comfort, indoor air quality and people working collaboratively across disciplines. Spaces should allow teachers and citizen.non-toxic materials.2 students to group and regroup and classes to be easily reconfigured (Robinson 2009).A major consideration and concern for Gardner’s theoretical work in the 1980s was important in that it broadened teachers’ I believe that the schoolboth educators and students is acoustics. concepts of students’ cognitive abilities to include spatial, linguistic, logical-mathematical,Many children, notably indigenous bodily-kinaesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic skills. His ‘frames is primarily a socialchildren, have both temporary and of mind’ or ‘multiple intelligences’ helped educators understand that people have preferred institution... I believechronic hearing issues. A child who ways of learning, and a variety of skills and talents. Traditionally, schools had mainlycannot hear in class will lose interest focussed on fostering mathematical and literary skills. that education, therefore,very quickly. is a process of living and In 2007 Gardner outlined five cognitive abilities he believed would need to be cultivated, not a preparation for futureGood acoustics reduce teacher lead to useable knowledge and be sought by leaders in the future. They are usefulabsenteeism due to vocal fatigue and guidelines for thinking about education in the 21st century: living.repeat instruction whilst at the same • The Disciplinary Mind: the mastery of major schools of thought, including science, [John Dewey 1897]time, improving attention spans and mathematics, and history, and at least one professional crafteducational outcomes. • The Synthesizing Mind: the ability to integrate ideas from different disciplines or spheres into a coherent whole and to communicate that integration to others • The Creating Mind: the capacity to uncover and clarify new problems, questions and2. See ‘Sustainable school environments’ phenomena 21st century learning | Future Proofing Schools 5
  6. 6. 1 2 3 4New models >Creative learningOPPORTUNITY: Creativity and The New Learning Models [cont’d] • On campus: the boundaries around classrooms are being blurred asTo integrate adjustable Changes in society and the unknown future challenges and technologies facing learners learning opportunities on the entiredisplay space into have led to the need for what can be described as anywhere, anytime, ubiquitous learning school campus are being discovered. (Cope & Kalantzis, 1999) and problem solving approaches. Twenty-first century learning Learning spaces now extend ontorelocatables. This includes theories emphasise the importance of authentic learning and providing students with decks adjacent to classrooms, andwall space along with hanging opportunities and spaces to develop their creative and critical thinking skills (Newton & to covered outdoor learning areas, Fisher, 2009; McGuinness, 1999 & 2010). Learners will need to develop skills to analyse wetlands and kitchen gardens.ceiling display options. and respond to authentic situations through inquiry, imagination and innovation. Fluid movement between indoorsPrimary schools require more and outdoors facilitates the use ofdisplay space. New pedagogies, including problem and inquiry-based learning approaches, require these spaces for social, formal and students to plan and organise their learning activities with their peers, to tackle big ideas, informal learning. become technologically literate and develop cultural awareness. • With the community: the boundariesOPPORTUNITY: around schools are also becoming A learning environment aided by learning technologies and rich in evocative images and blurred and there is much greaterTo design the building as a objects, triggers active learning by allowing students to engage with what appeals to interaction with the communityteaching tool with monitors them. The community, the landscape and faraway places can be brought to the classroom both through the involvement ofand technologies visible. enabling a rich cultural diversity to be explored. The acknowledgement and visual stimulus parents and proactive initiatives on provided by the display of student work in this digital era is important, and display space is the part of teachers. Much of whatStudents today take a great a high priority with educators, particularly those working in primary schools. is important with regard to learninginterest in sustainability happens outside the school – in the home and community.which is now integrated into Integration & Connectedness • Into the landscape: whole schoolcurricula across Australia. Today there is a general trend towards integration and ‘connectedness’ in schools: campuses are now being carefully • Of subject areas: teachers now teach in teams, and subject areas are integrated into planned to create cohesive, workable project-based activities. Integrated curricula are designed for greater engagement and environments that meet the needs1] Glamorgan Primary School, Victoria relevance to the external world. For young people to learn, they must first be engaged of current and future cohorts.2] Wiluna Remote Community School, WA and this means putting the ‘fun’ and challenge back into learning. New buildings, both permanent3] Hen, Buranda Primary School, Qld and temporary, are integrated into4] Markers, Currumbine Primary School, WA • Within classrooms: new collaborative, shared, interconnected spaces that allow team the existing school landscape. teaching are being created with operable walls. Visual connection also provides a Relocatables are no longer just3. See ‘Landscape integrations & connections’ sense of connection within a space. ‘stuck out the back’.36 Future Proofing Schools | 21st century learning
  7. 7. OPPORTUNITY: OPPORTUNITY:To design relocatables that Examples of existing multi-unit hubs To facilitate the use of deepcan be integrated into verandas, covered decks ormultiple school landscapes, walkways as extra classroomand different site and space, break-out zones,climate conditions as they sheltered bag storage andare moved from one location undercover social spaces into another. harsh weather conditions.One of the reasons I want Multi-unit Configurations: Hubs & Learning environmental health, underpin the importance of indoor outdoor connectionsto go to the new school is communities in schools.because I heard there was In many cases, such as in remote areas or following a natural disaster, relocatables willgoing to be a wetlands with be clustered or co-located to create entire schools. In other cases, they will be used to create ‘Learning Communities’ or hubs for large student cohorts and their teaching team. OPPORTUNITY:lots of frogs. A Year 9 home centre for 250 students and staff, for example, might comprise five double To design relocatables that[Primary School Student, Regional Victoria] classroom units an associated covered outdoor learning area, a shared learning space, a withdrawal space, toilets, and a shared resource area. are readily co-locatable.We require spaces better Learning communities or neighbourhoods should be holistic, democratic and convivial environments comprised of multiple, purposefully designed learning settings. A balance ...and ease of connectionsuited to different types of must be attained between purposeful design and flexibility with special facilities such as with the exterior so youactivities - even within a wet areas, performance space and ICT integrated (Featherston 2010). could easily run activitiessingle period there might be outside, or inside anda 10 minute lecture then you Indoor Outdoor Connections4 outside concurrently. I teachmight group them or send some Educators around Australia are asking for better connections between indoor and outdoor spaces. As children learn through their senses, they need to interact with their environment a variety of subjects andto reading nooks. It would through exploration and experimentation on a physical, social and cultural level. I’ve often run activitiesbe great to have a space outside, but it’s a majorwhere you could divide the A primary school in metropolitan Queensland uses a kitchen garden adjacent to classrooms to teach students about food plants and how to grow them, nutrition, the exercise to get everyone alltime into different types of seasons and natural cycles. Students also run a small kitchen garden shop where parents packed up and moved outsideactivities to suit different can buy fresh produce and the students apply maths, accounting and commerce. in a traditional space. On alearning, kids and cohorts. David Suzuki says that the biggest thing children need today is to reconnect with nature stinking hot day, you may as[Educator, Secondary School, Victoria] (2009). This is especially important in a world where the vast majority of people live in well be outside because there cities. A growing body of research links mental, physical and spiritual health directly to our association with nature (Louv 2008). Concerns around childhood obesity, nature is a bit of air circulation.4. See ‘Landscape integrations & connections’ deficit disorder, awareness of the relationship between wellbeing, the ability to learn and [Educator, Metropolitan Victoria] 21st century learning | Future Proofing Schools 7
  8. 8. 1] Wiluna Remote Community School, WA2] Sandover Group, Homeland School, NT 1 2 33] Soapy Bore, Homeland School, NT4] Flags representing the language groups atArlparra Middle School, NTDiversity >Embrace & includeSchools in northern Australia Diversity & Difference Teacher Observations From a Remote Indigenoushave an indigenous cohort Australia has a multi-cultural population. Schools Middle School and a Metropolitan Schoolof between 7-100% with an can have up to 80 different nationalities and Our school is composed of prefabricated learning spaces recycled from elsewhere. associated language groups on one site. Some The students all speak two languages along with variably functional English. Mostaverage of 40-60%. The Australian states and territories also have a high of them have chronic, or acute ear infections, so acoustics are critical. If they can’tindigenous cohort is the indigenous population for whom English is a hear, they get distracted and distract others. second or third language.largest growing cohort in NTschools due to increasing Some students live in prefabricated houses, but many others live in camps with Learning environments must accommodate no electricity or running water, which means that homework can be problematic.lifespan and attendance at children from different cultures and language Teaching in the Middle School has specific issues. We decided to separate the groups, different learning styles and with genders to moderate ‘avoidance’ issues - who can or can’t be in the same roomschool. [Educator, NT] disabilities. Making a learning environment truly with whom according to kinship group. It also helps with shyness in front of the inclusive means designing to accommodate opposite gender at that age. 4 multiple developmental perspectives. These might include environments that are physically accessible, activity-based, sensory rich and Indigenous children tend to be more restless than other students; they can’t sit developmentally appropriate and adaptable. still for long periods, especially not in chairs, so we have created a curriculum with lots of movement, activities and mat time. They don’t like the air-conditioning and get cold very quickly as their metabolism is different to ours. We’ve found that they Learning spaces must also cater for different have strengths in art, music, sport and multimedia. age and size cohorts. The size of furniture will alter according to the cohort using the space and this will affect the space available for Our indigenous students find interactive multi-media highly engaging and are very circulation within a classroom. Older children creative with it. They are also naturally collaborative and will help each other learn, are also heavier and as they move about, floors so we do a lot of group work. in the older relocatables tend to vibrate. This is both disturbing and affects the calibration of the [Educator, Remote Indigenous Middle School & Principal, Metropolitan Primary School, NT] interactive white boards.8 Future Proofing Schools | 21st century learning
  9. 9. 1 2Personality >The loose layerOn delivery, portables will Furniture & Fittingsbe refurbished but afterwards 3 Furniture is part of what Mary Featherston calls the ‘loose layer’ and can create anit’s up to us to maintain environment that is at once inviting, stimulating, safe, spacious, interactive, comfortable and healthy (2010). It is the layer that determines the personality and emotionalthem. If we do work on them, attachment to the environment and affects its functionality. Furniture choice and layoutwe make sure that whatever is also critical in the design of purposeful spaces that support different types of learning (Featherston 2010).we put in can be removed whenthey go. Equipping learning spaces with soft floor coverings and domestic features such as[Educator, growth corridor Victoria] kitchens, pantries and cupboards, can help make a school feel like a home. Wet areas are also important for science, art and nutrition/health. In northern Australia, refrigerators in classrooms are essential for school lunches in the heat of summer.We can take our laptopsoutside and everywhere. We Children and adolescents are restless by nature, and studies have found that fidgetingcan work on the floor or on and rocking on a chair are ways of stimulating brain activity and promoting concentration. Furniture that accommodates sitting needs, while not restricting or suppressing movement 4couches or at tables. is essential. This is particularly relevant to highly active and indigenous children who find[Secondary student, Metropolitan Victoria] both chairs and long periods of inactivity extremely uncomfortable. 1] Kindergarten Kekec, Lubljana, Slovenia | Architect: Arhitektura Jure Kotnik | Photo: Miray Kambic 2] University of Queensland | Wilson Architects 3] Student art, Currumbine Primary School WA 4] Wooranna Resource Centre, Victoria | Mary Featherston Design 21st century learning | Future Proofing Schools 9
  10. 10. 1] College “L’Esplanade”, Begnins, SwitzerlandArchitect: Pascal de Benoit & Martin WagnerArchitectes SA | Photo: Pascal de Benoit 1 2 32] Geelong Grammar School, Victoria | MaryFeatherston Design3] Lilley Centre, Brisbane | Wilson ArchitectsThe future >Quality & classToday 8-18 year olds spend The Classroom of the Future: Technology & Learning Learning in the digital age has become an entirely different proposition to learningon average 6 hours and 15 To anticipate what will happen in a building with a lifespan of many decades in this in the machine age. A child startingminutes per day in front of changing academic and technological environment is almost impossible. To discuss how to kindergarten now may not know how to incorporate as much technological flexibility as possible in its design is a must. The degree spell their name, but will probably knowscreen media, and only 43 of flexibility of the entire internal design of each learning space is critical. how to surf the web. We must now createminutes in front of print learning environments as adaptablemedia. [Roberts, Foehr & Rideout, 2005] The building technology should be a physical representation of a multi-level learning and fluid as today’s technologically system that encourages creative thinking, reinforces intellectual and practical skill sophisticated learners. And, we must do development, and supports multi-level communal discourse. this without knowing what sort of worldOur staff is currently these learners will face.skilling up to use the new Supporting Technology-Rich Learning Spaces A 21st century classroom must have thepedagogies in the new BER capacity to link into learning opportunities Physical needs have been identified for technology-rich learning spaces that supportspaces and we’d like to collaborative, multidisciplinary and project-based teaching and learning. These needs beyond its four walls. One of the include adequate space, adaptability, appropriate furniture, climate control, networking characteristics of the new technologieshave that reflected in the and electrical service, and adequate display and storage space. is their ability to link people across theportables. globe. Many classes are doing just that. For example, one indigenous class in[Educator, Metropolitan Victoria] Considerations: remote NT is communicating with a class • The needs for comfort and climate control (heating, ventilation and lighting) are in Mexico.OPPORTUNITY: heightened with the introduction of technologyTo integrate technology into • Technology should be thought of as a tool for learning. Therefore the physical New technology brings new teaching and environment should be designed to be adaptable for multiple activities learning opportunities, so new learninglearning spaces so that it environments must allow teachers to • The technology rich environment for learning is an active and social one. Students modify their methods and environmentsis seamless and not just an work together to assist one another with technical problems as they embrace the opportunities‘add-on’. provided. Today’s reality must not limit • The physical setting needs to be agile enough to support different kinds of activities of short and long duration, planned and spontaneous, and group and individual. tomorrow’s possibilities.10 Future Proofing Schools | 21st century learning
  11. 11. 1As you grow in size and get a Lingering Perceptions About Relocatable Classrooms OPPORTUNITY:lot of portables, you cannot There are still a lot of misconceptions around relocatable classrooms that hark back to To dispel those lingeringuse the new pedagogies in our own childhood experiences of these often unsophisticated, utilitarian spaces. Many of perceptions with quality, these older models have been replaced under the BER scheme; however enough of themthem and it has an impact on are still in use for the associated stigma to persist. functional and inspirationalteaching, and kids learning relocatable learning spaces.culture as well. It’s a In my early years of teaching in country Victoria, it wasmajor issue for growth regularly five degrees first period in a portable, so we’d run If they’re going to continuecorridor schools. Around 50% up the side road and back again just to warm up otherwise you to be an integral part ofof our school is made up of couldn’t do anything. [Educator, Rural Victoria] the system, then they shouldportables. be designed to suit the new[Principal, Metropolitan Victoria] We can’t deny the stigma that is attached to portables. We need pedagogies like the new to work towards systems that mean that portables don’t look permanent buildings.All of their curriculum like portables, be it through form, materials or rooflines – [Principal, Metropolitan Queensland]is built around the new design in general. [Infrastructure Manager, Victoria]pedagogies and the portables Visually they’re not great todon’t accommodate them, so As a teacher, if you’re timetabled into a portable, then you look at and they’re not greatfor part of the time, they sigh and wish that you were going to be somewhere else. They’re spaces to teach in becausehave to put their students perceived as second rate. [Educator, Metropolitan Victoria] they tend to be smallerinto spaces that don’t work spaces than a standardfor their pedagogies. Portables are an accepted part of the school landscape but classroom, so you’ve got the[Principal, Metropolitan Victoria] they are seen as second rate. The kids know this and are less kids crammed in. respectful of the space. [Educator, Rural Victoria] [Educator, Metropolitan Northern Territory]1] Decommissioned relocatables, Victoria 21st century learning | Future Proofing Schools 11
  12. 12. 1] El Porvenir Kindergarten, Bogota |Architect & Photographer: Mazzanti Arquitectos2] & 4] College “L’Esplanade”, Begnins, 1 2 3Switzerland | Architect: Pascal de Benoit &Martin Wagner Architectes SA | Photo: Pascalde Benoit3] Kita Taka-Tuka-Land Kindergarten, Berlin,Germany | Architect: Susanne HofmannArchitects/Baupiloten | Photo: Jan BitterBlue sky >What we’d like Perceptions [cont’d] 4 Fortunately the situation has changed for The new relocatables have a smart roof system, double glazing, the better. New models have been better automatic lights with a timer, louvre panels, night purging received with reservation: systems and aircon and heating programmed to go on only outside People like them on the the 19-27 degree band – a whole range of initiatives that try whole. Acoustically they’re to reduce the reliance on air-conditioning. [Infrastructure Manager, Victoria] good and they’re comfortable to teach in. They have air- conditioning, heating, good The negative feedback you’re getting from educators suggests display walls and interactive they’re probably talking about the older styles, and if I had white boards. The spaces are enough money I would remove and replace them. [Infrastructure Manager, Victoria] a good size and they’re wired for ICT. They can be arranged for new or old pedagogies. What Educators & Students Want: Research Themes The acoustics affect the When surveyed about priorities, educators around Australia chose good acoustics as the [internal] configuration. How overall top priority out of 40 variables. Other high priorities were thermal comfort, natural light, glare control, air quality and internal display and storage space. portables are connected can The following diagram summarises key themes from research conducted in both primary be badly done. and secondary schools in five states and territories around Australia. A mix of metropolitan, [Educator, Metropolitan Victoria] regional and remote schools were surveyed.12 Future Proofing Schools | 21st century learning
  13. 13. CURRENT SHORTCOMINGS*Poor acoustics Lots of display space for student workDifferent models, shapes & sizesNot easy to co-locate relocatables into Well-designed quality looklearning communities or hubs Homey, comfortable place Views of the trees & garden Fresh airThermal discomfort: too hot or cold Beanbags Bright colours Natural light Operable windowsNot enough space to easily rearrangefurniture for group & individual work &still circulate easilyNot enough display space Minimal glare Wet area for art, Movable storage Not too hot,Not enough storage space science & kitchen space for equipment not too coldLimited or no bag storage Easy access toFloors vibrate covered outdoorLittle or no easy access to outdoors learning areas Operable acoustic wallsGlare affects projectors and interactivewhite boards Minimal Easily Secure disruption Good acoustics co-locatableNot easy to reconfigure internal layouts More laptops to siteFixed front of classroom Low maintenance Low operating costVariable integration of ICT Double Quiet so youAccess to powerpoints is limiting storey for can concentrate small sitesNot enough powerpointsRectangular or awkward shapes reduce Comfortable chairs WHAT WE’D REALLY LIKEadaptability Fast installation Principal Educator StudentMany have no wet areasSecurity - easier to break into & often Sustainablehidden at the back of the school All studentsInstitutional feel to classrooms must be visible: Good for team teaching duty of care!Poor ventilation and stuffiness Bright, clean coloursCovered walkways or verandas too Easily movednarrow for weather protection and ease furniture Non-institutional look & feel ICT integratedof circulationOperable walls are not acoustically Single powersound & often not easy to use switch for all Low maintenance surfaces More powerpoints services* These comments apply to a vast arrayof vintages and models in very differentsituations around Australia 21st century learning | Future Proofing Schools 13
  14. 14. 1 2 3 4User experience >A typical day1] Class, Wiluna Remote Community School, WA2] McKinnon Primary School, Victoria A Typical Secondary Class From a Teacher’s3] Covered walkway/deck, Greenslopes Primary Perspective Might run Like This...*School, Qld4] Student art, Currumbine Primary School, WA It’s the last class for the day. As the previous class spilled noisily out into the corridor, I volume quite high. The walls between the5] Gymnasium Wall, Wiluna, WA walked into the classroom and started loading up my data. On winter days like today, the double classrooms are not acoustically6] Mural, Larrakeyah Primary School, NT rooms can get stuffy by the end of the day, and this one was very stuffy and chilly due insulated so it was very disturbing. to lack of insulation. I teach geography and climate change and we talk about opening windows or turning off lights and the kids try to do that, but they can’t because the At the end of the class and day, the windows have all been screwed shut for security reasons. students raced out of the door. I was the last teacher in the Year 9 Home Centre My students were starting to drift in, so it was noisy and I’d just realised that a previous that day, so I dutifully went around to all teacher had changed all the settings on the data projector. It took me another five minutes six classrooms, the planning room and to readjust them by which time the full class had arrived and were milling around restlessly staff room to make sure that the heating, complaining about the stuffy room. The class had been set up in lecture mode and I was equipment and lights had been switched going to start with a group activity, so I asked the students to reorganise the furniture to off. Oh for a single power switch! suit groups of five. Fortunately the furniture is light and easy to move around. While they were doing this, I wheeled the storage cupboard and interactive white board out of the * Compiled from interviews with three teachers way. Sometimes managing the environment (physical and technological) can become a in a learning hub composed entirely of older dominant issue at the start of a class and it takes up valuable time. style relocatables in metropolitan Victoria 5 We finally managed to get comfortable and I started the class. I’d planned an activity that 6 had a component of outdoor work, but that was impossible with the rainy weather and lack of outdoor covered space, so I switched to Plan B. And of course we had issues with a number of computers being down - meaning that I had to assign the ‘computer work’ as homework instead of doing it collaboratively in class. It can get frustrating having to redesign lessons at the drop of a hat due to conditions in the classroom. I like to move around during my classes, so I was annoyed at having been scheduled in an old relocatable classroom which is smaller and doesn’t have enough space to move comfortably amongst the groups of desks and students. They must have been designed with primary school aged students in mind. Many of my Year 9s are quite ‘big boys’. Just as we settled into a quiet period of reflection on a particular issue, the class next door started a video with the14 Future Proofing Schools | 21st century learning
  15. 15. 1 2 3 4References >Further readingCommonwealth Department of Education, Dewey, J. (1897) My Pedagogic Creed. McGuinness, C. (1999) From Thinking Skills to Thinking Classrooms. http://www.Science and Training (DEST). The impact of School Journal 54 (January) pp 77-80 sustainablethinkingclassrooms.qub.ac.ukDFEE_Brief_115.pdfschool infrastructure on student outcomes Featherston, M. (2010) Talking Spaces 2 McGuinness, C. (2010) Thinking and Metacognition video. The Journey to Excellence series HMle.and behaviour. Rubida Research Pty Ltd. Symposium Collation. Melbourne, October Improving Scottish Education. http://www.journeytoexcellence.org.uk/videos/expertspeakers/http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/school_ 2010. The University of Melbourne: http:// metacognitioncarolmcguinness.aspeducation/publications_resources/ www.abp.unimelb.edu.au/research/funded/schooling_issues_digest/schooling_issues_ Montessori, M. (1914) Spontaneous Activity in Education. New York: Schocken Books dissolving-barriers/digest_building Montessori, M. (1947) A New World and Education. A. Gnana Prakasam (Ed), AMI Ceylon Gardner, H. (1993) Frames of mind: theCope, W. & Kalantzis, M. (1999) Melbourne: theory of multiple intelligences. New York. Moore, Gary T. & Lackney, Jeffery A. (1994) Educational Facilities for the Twenty-First Century:Victorian Schools Innovation Commission Basic Books Research Analysis and Design Patterns. Publications in Architecture and Urban Planning.Department of Education and Early Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Gardner, H. (2007) Five Minds for theChildhood Development publications: Future. Harvard Business School Press. Newton, C. (2011) Innovative learning spaces. Artichoke 35. Design for Learning, pp 48-49 A] Principles of Learning and Teaching Cambridge, MA. Newton, C. & Fisher, K. (Eds) (2009) Take 8 Learning Spaces. Australian Institute of Architects, http://www.education.vic.gov.au/ Hill, P. & Russell, J. (1999) Systematic, Australian Capital Territory studentlearning/teachingprinciples/ whole-school reform in the middle years. principles/default.htm OWP/P Architects, VS Furniture, Bruce Mau Design (2009) The Third Teacher. Canada National Middle Years of Schooling B] Research and Innovation http://www. Conference, March 1999. Melbourne Roberts, Foehr & Rideout (2005) Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 year olds. www.kff. education.vic.gov.au/researchinnovation/ University, Centre for Applied Educational org/entmedia/upload/Generation-M-Media-in-the-Lives-of-8-18-Year-olds-Report.pdf lpd/resources.htm Research, University of Melbourne Robinson, K. Sir (2009) The Creativity Challenge (Interview). The Third Teacher. OWP/P Architects, C] Pedagogy and Space & Transforming Louv, R. (2008) Last Child in the Woods. VS Furniture, Bruce Mau Design. Canada the Learning Experience. http:// Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, North Suzuki, D. (2009) Reconnecting Schools and Nature (Interview). The Third Teacher. OWP/P www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/ Carolina Architects, VS Furniture, Bruce Mau Design. Canada public/teachlearn/innovation/lpd/ Martin, J. (2005) in Learning Environments spacesbrochure.pdf Waldecker, M. (2006-2008) American School & University: Creating Positive, High Performance in Tertiary Education. A report on the Learning Environments. KI Education. http://www.kieducation.com/issues.aspx?ar=86Designshare: Design for the Future of proceedings of two seminars. Kenn Fisher,Learning. | Recent publications. http:// (Ed), Brisbane & Christchurch. Tertiary 1] Play equipment, Wiluna Remote Community School, WAwww.designshare.com/index.php/articles/ Educational Facility Manager’s Association 2] Kitchen garden beds, Comet Bay Primary School, WAlist-only of Australia (TEFMA). http://www.tefma. 3] Bite-tables, Marymede College, Victoria com/publications/publications-overview 4] Classroom, Buranda Primary School, Qld 21st century learning | Future Proofing Schools 15
  16. 16. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND PLANNING www.abp.unimelb.edu.auFuture Proofing Schools:Brochure 1. 21st century learningAuthored & produced by Future Proofing Schools | An ARC Linkage Grant Project 2010 - 2012Faculty of Architecture, Building and PlanningThe University of Melbourne | Melbourne July 2011 | IBSN: 978 0 7340 4431 0CopyrightCopyright in this publication is owned by the University and no part of it may be reproduced without the permission of the University.The University has used its best endeavours to ensure that material contained in this publication was correct at the time of printing. The Universitygives no warranty and accepts no responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of information and the University reserves the right to make changeswithout notice at any time in its absolute discretion. Users of this publication are advised to reconcile the accuracy and currency of the informationprovided with the relevant faculty or department of the University before acting upon or in consideration of the information.General informative statement on privacy policyWhen dealing with personal or health information about individuals, the University of Melbourne is obliged to comply with the Information Privacy Act2000 and the Health Records Act 2001. The University has a Privacy Policy which can be viewed at: www.unimelb.edu.au/unisec/privacyIntellectual PropertyFor further information refer to: www.unimelb.edu.au/Statutes16 Future Proofing Schools | 21st century learning