Abuse Me and You’ll See!!   A presentation by Group # 1 of III- St.   Charles   Aaron Bernardo                       LOADI...
A Friendly Reminder Humans were given stewardship over the world and we  are doing a horrible job on it. We aim for prog...
Friendly Reminder The past generation has done their part  and fought their battles.This is our turn.
Choose your Element Al    N     S        Fl   NeRa    Pb     Mn       As   Hg
Aluminium CharacteristicsClassification:   Aluminum is an ‘other metal’Color:            silveryAtomic weight:    26.9815...
Aluminium Characteristics Aluminum is a silvery-white metal. It does not stick to  magnets (it is paramagnetic and so it...
Aluminium•   Usefulness•   At Home    Used for window frames, door knobs and to make utensils in the    kitchen. It is use...
Aluminium Harmful Effects to the Environment May accumulate in plants and cause health problems for  animals that consum...
Aluminium Harmful Effects to Humans Harmful effects to human body and animals  Long lasting uptakes of significant conce...
Aluminium How is it Abused Industries use Aluminium to make their products. The  global production of Aluminium was 32 m...
Aluminium How to Avoid Abusing It Aluminium content in must be restrained by managing  the packaging methods. Workers i...
Nitrogen CharacteristicsClassification:      Nitrogen is a gas and a nonmetalColor:                colorlessAtomic weight...
Nitrogen Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic and  generally inert gas at standard temperature and  pre...
Nitrogen Usefulness It is used in food preservation, fertilizers, explosives, in  many electrical parts such as transist...
Nitrogen Harmful Effects to the Environment Largely contributes in climate change, and biodiversity  loss. Contributes ...
Nitrogen Harmful Effects to Humans Nitrous oxide displaces oxygen which will result to  suffocations, and as it was said...
Nitrogen How it is Abused Like in most things we can abuse it by overusing it. By  overusing it in many fertilizers whic...
Nitrogen How to Avoid Abusing it Human should be careful in handling nitrogen because  when handling large amount of nit...
Sulfur CharacteristicsClassification:   Sulfur is a chalcogen and a nonmetalColor:            yellowAtomic weight:    32....
Sulfur Characteristics Sulfur is a soft, pale yellow, odorless, brittle solid. It is  insoluble in water, but soluble in...
Sulfur Usefulness Used in black gunpowder, matches, and fireworks, in the  vulcanization of rubber, as a fungicide, inse...
Sulfur Harmful Effects to the Environment Largely contributes on forming acid rain, which will  acidified soils, lakes a...
Sulfur Harmful Effects to Humans If there is a high concentration of sulfur dioxide, it can  result to the breathing pro...
Sulfur How it is Abused Manufacturers allow sulfur to escape into the  atmosphere allowing it to oxidize and contribute ...
Sulfur How to Avoid Abusing It Since it is dangerous to get sulfur escape in its  manufacturing, it should always be tak...
Fluorine CharacteristicsClassification: Fluorine is a halogen and a nonmetalColor:             pale yellowAtomic weight: ...
Fluorine Characteristics Fluorine is the most reactive and the most  electronegative of all the elements. Fluorine is a...
Fluorine Usefulness Used in rocket fuels, in production of polymers and  plastics, and a common ingredient in toothpaste...
Fluorine Harmful Effects to the Environment Too much fluoride, whether taken in form the soil by  roots, or absorbed fro...
Fluorine Harmful Effects to Humans Humans are exposed to fluorine through food and  drinking water and by breathing air....
Fluorine How the it is Abused Fluorine is a pale yellow, diatomic, highly  corrosive, flammable gas, with a pungent odor...
Fluorine How to Avoid Abusing It People must be careful in using it because Fluorine is  highly toxic and corrosive. Whe...
Neon CharacteristicsClassification: Neon is a noble gas and a nonmetalColor:            colorlessAtomic weight:     20.18...
Neon Characteristics Neon is a light, very inert gas. Colorless under normal conditions, it glows a reddish-  orange in...
Neon Usefulness It is used in glow lamps, electron tubes, neon light  signs, fluorescent tubes, gas lasers, television t...
Neon Harmful Effects to the Environment No threat to the environment It is chemically not reactive and doesn’t form  co...
Neon Harmful Effects to Humans Through inhalation humans may experience suffocation,  dizziness, vomiting, nausea, uncon...
Neon How It is Abused Too much use of neon lights lead to pollution and the  use of electricity increases which has nega...
Neon How to Avoid Abusing It The use of neon lights must be reduced and it should be  used with other elements.         ...
Radium CharacteristicsClassification: Radium is an alkali earth metalColor:       silvery whiteAtomic weight:           (...
Radium Characteristics Radium is a silvery-white metal. It is highly radioactive  and its decay product, radon gas, is a...
Raduim Usefulness It is used in self-luminous paints, aircraft switches,  clocks, nuclear panels, instrument dials, sour...
Raduim Harmful Effects to the Environment It causes a higher risk of deforestation                                      ...
Raduim Harmful Effects to Humans With longer exposure, it can result to anemia, leukemia,  cataracts, fractured teeth, r...
Raduim How it is Abused Humans allow too much exposure of the element in the  environment causing an increase in radiati...
Raduim How to Avoid Abusing It Safety precaution must always be used and exposure to  radiation must be minimized.      ...
Lead CharacteristicsClassification:     Lead is an ‘other metal’Color:      bluish grayAtomic weight:      207.2State:   ...
Lead Characteristics Lead is a bluish-gray, soft, dense metal that has a bright  luster when freshly cut. It tarnishes ...
Lead Usefulness Lead is used in lead-acid batteries, bullets and shots,  weights, as part of solders, pewters, fusible a...
Lead Harmful Effects to the Environment Deteriorating lead-based paint in older houses, and  mining and smelting communi...
Lead Harmful Effects to Humans Lead is a highly poisonous metalaffecting almost every  organ and system in the body. The...
Lead How it is Abused It is abused when used as paint on children’s toys and  when handled irresponsibly allowing it to ...
Lead How to Avoid Abusing It It should be handled with care and avoid skin contact. Dont try to inhale it. The use of ...
Manganese Characteristics   Manganese is a transition metal   Color: gray-white   Atomic weight:      54.9380   State...
Manganese Characteristics Manganese is a gray-white, hard, brittle, metal that can  take a high polish. It is not magnet...
Manganese Usefulness Manganese is essential to iron and steel production. The  second large application for manganese is...
Manganese Harmful Effects to the Environment There are higher levels of manganese in natural bodies  of water and it is ...
Manganese Harmful Effects to Humans   Manganese overexposure is most frequently associated   with manganism, a rare neuro...
Manganese How it is Abused Chronic manganese toxicity would harm us if we abuse  the use of manganese. Manganese compoun...
Manganese How to Avoid Abusing It For the workers who work with manganese, Avoid being  over exposed so not to have mang...
Arsenic CharacteristicsClassification:     Arsenic is a metalloidColor:      grayAtomic weight:      74.9216State:      s...
Arsenic Characteristics Arsenic occurs in three distinct solid forms. Gray arsenic is the most common. It has a metalli...
Arsenic Usefulness It is used in combination with other materials in  pigments, poison gases and insecticides (such as P...
Arsenic Harmful Effects to the Environment Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is normally  present throughout...
Arsenic Harmful Effects to Humans Swallowing relatively large amounts of arsenic (even just  one time) can cause mild sy...
Arsenic How it is Abused Arsenic was before released into the environment  without care and precautions in the form of p...
Arsenic How to Avoid Abusing It The use of astatine in the open environment should be  avoided if not exterminated compl...
Mercury CharacteristicsClassification: Mercury is a transition metalColor:       silvery-whiteAtomic weight:        200.5...
Mercury Characteristics Mercury is a dense, silvery-white, poisonous metal with  a mirror-like appearance. It is the on...
Mercury Usefulness Used in thermometers and teeth fillings for its unique  properties.                                  ...
Mercury Harmful Effects to the Environment Organic mercury tends to increase up the food chain,  particularly in lakes. ...
Mercury How it is Abused It still used in household and commercial products, as  well as industrial processes. Coal-fire...
Mercury Harmful Effects to Humans Common symptoms of mercury poisoning  include peripheral neuropathy (itching, burning ...
Mercury How to Avoid Abusing It When in use, mercury must not come in contact with the  skin or be ingested in anyway. P...
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Abuse me and you’ll see - Group 1 - St. Charles

  1. 1. Abuse Me and You’ll See!! A presentation by Group # 1 of III- St. Charles Aaron Bernardo LOADING Albert Alegre Ivan Atinaja LOADING Aaron Alsol COMPLETE Jeyo Artuz
  2. 2. A Friendly Reminder Humans were given stewardship over the world and we are doing a horrible job on it. We aim for progress yet we do the exact opposite by biting the hand that feeds us and cutting off our food supply. Everything can be achieved by discipline and the change has to start with people like you.
  3. 3. Friendly Reminder The past generation has done their part and fought their battles.This is our turn.
  4. 4. Choose your Element Al N S Fl NeRa Pb Mn As Hg
  5. 5. Aluminium CharacteristicsClassification: Aluminum is an ‘other metal’Color: silveryAtomic weight: 26.98154 g/molState: solidMelting point: 660.32 oC, 933.57 KBoiling point: 2466.85 oC, 2740.00 KShells: 2,8,3Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1Density @ 20oC: 2.702 g/cm3Atomic volume: 9.98 cm3/molStructure: fcc: face-centered cubicHardness: 2.8 mohs HOME
  6. 6. Aluminium Characteristics Aluminum is a silvery-white metal. It does not stick to magnets (it is paramagnetic and so its magnetism under normal conditions is very, very weak). It is an excellent electrical conductor. It is of low density and high ductility. It is too reactive to be commonly found as the metal although, very rarely, the native metal can be found. (8) HOME
  7. 7. Aluminium• Usefulness• At Home Used for window frames, door knobs and to make utensils in the kitchen. It is used in making golf clubs, indoor and outdoor furniture, tennis bats, refrigerators, toasters, saucepans, kettles.• Transportation Used in parts of aircraft carriers boats, ship construction and automobile parts.• Packaging Used in drink cans, bottle caps, foils, trays, etc. are all made out of it. Other uses for packaging are storage boxes, utensil lids, thermos, etc.• Construction Widely used for construction. HOME
  8. 8. Aluminium Harmful Effects to the Environment May accumulate in plants and cause health problems for animals that consume these plants. In acidified lakes the number of fish and amphibians is declining due to reactions of Aluminium ions with proteins in the gills of fish and the embryos of frogs. High Aluminium concentrations do not only cause effects upon fish, but also upon birds and other animals that consume contaminated fish and insects and upon animals that breathe in Aluminium through air. HOME
  9. 9. Aluminium Harmful Effects to Humans Harmful effects to human body and animals Long lasting uptakes of significant concentrations of Aluminium can lead to serious health effects, such as: - Damage to the central nervous system - Dementia - Loss of memory - Listlessness - Severe trembling Can cause problems for kidney patients when it enters the body during kidney dialyses. Inhalation of finely divided aluminium and aluminium oxide powder has been reported as a cause of lung damage. HOME
  10. 10. Aluminium How is it Abused Industries use Aluminium to make their products. The global production of Aluminium was 32 million tons. High levels of Aluminium could cause serious health problems. In addition, people with diminished kidney function and older people, who were exposed to high levels of Aluminium from the air or have stored high levels of Aluminium in their bodies, are more likely to develop Aluminium toxicity. HOME
  11. 11. Aluminium How to Avoid Abusing It Aluminium content in must be restrained by managing the packaging methods. Workers in the industries that use Aluminium in making their products must avoid being exposed to Aluminium too much. They should limit their selves in being exposed to high levels of Aluminium HOME
  12. 12. Nitrogen CharacteristicsClassification: Nitrogen is a gas and a nonmetalColor: colorlessAtomic weight: 14.0067State: gasMelting point: -210.1 oC, 63.05 KBoiling point: -195.8 oC, 77.4 KShells: 2,5Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p3Density @ 20oC: 0.0012506 g/cm3Atomic volume: 17.3 cm3/molStructure: hcp: hexagonal close-packed HOME
  13. 13. Nitrogen Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic and generally inert gas at standard temperature and pressure. HOME
  14. 14. Nitrogen Usefulness It is used in food preservation, fertilizers, explosives, in many electrical parts such as transistors, in high voltage equipment, to manufacture stainless steel, military fuel, Liquid nitrogen Used to preserve blood, sperm and egg and other biological samples. HOME
  15. 15. Nitrogen Harmful Effects to the Environment Largely contributes in climate change, and biodiversity loss. Contributes in the process of acid rain in the form of nitrogen oxides because nitrogen reacts with water. Nitrogen oxides pollutes in wet depositions, it turns the atmospheric water vapor to acid and dry by affecting those which are close to the source. HOME
  16. 16. Nitrogen Harmful Effects to Humans Nitrous oxide displaces oxygen which will result to suffocations, and as it was said that nitrogen contributes in acid rain by reacting to water it makes it very dangerous to every human health. HOME
  17. 17. Nitrogen How it is Abused Like in most things we can abuse it by overusing it. By overusing it in many fertilizers which would lead to nitrogen pollution in land and pollute those plants which is planted on the place where it is polluted. HOME
  18. 18. Nitrogen How to Avoid Abusing it Human should be careful in handling nitrogen because when handling large amount of nitrogen and inhaling it they would lack the oxygen they need. Using oxygen tanks may be required. HOME
  19. 19. Sulfur CharacteristicsClassification: Sulfur is a chalcogen and a nonmetalColor: yellowAtomic weight: 32.06State: solidMelting point: 115.2 oC, 388.4 KBoiling point: 444.7 oC, 717.9 KShells: 2,8,6Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4Density @ 20oC: 2.07 g/cm3Atomic volume: 15.5 cm3/molStructure: S8 ringsHardness: 2 mohs HOME
  20. 20. Sulfur Characteristics Sulfur is a soft, pale yellow, odorless, brittle solid. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulfide. It burns with a blue flame, oxidizing to sulfur dioxide. HOME
  21. 21. Sulfur Usefulness Used in black gunpowder, matches, and fireworks, in the vulcanization of rubber, as a fungicide, insecticide, and fumigant; in the manufacture of fertilizers; and in the treatment of certain skin diseases. HOME
  22. 22. Sulfur Harmful Effects to the Environment Largely contributes on forming acid rain, which will acidified soils, lakes and streams, it also accelerates corrosions of buildings and reduced visibility HOME
  23. 23. Sulfur Harmful Effects to Humans If there is a high concentration of sulfur dioxide, it can result to the breathing problems of asthmatic children and adults. Exposure would lead to chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing. With a longer exposure it would result to respiratory illness, weakening of lung’s defence and worsening of a cardio vascular disease. HOME
  24. 24. Sulfur How it is Abused Manufacturers allow sulfur to escape into the atmosphere allowing it to oxidize and contribute to acid rain. HOME
  25. 25. Sulfur How to Avoid Abusing It Since it is dangerous to get sulfur escape in its manufacturing, it should always be taken with precautions because sulfur is dangerous if one inhales it or if one is exposed to it. HOME
  26. 26. Fluorine CharacteristicsClassification: Fluorine is a halogen and a nonmetalColor: pale yellowAtomic weight: 18.998403State: gasMelting point: -219.6 oC, 53.6 KBoiling point: -188.1 oC, 85.1 KShells: 2,7Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p5Density @ 20oC: 0.001696 g/cm3Atomic volume: 17.1 cm3/molStructure: cubic crystals in solid phase HOME
  27. 27. Fluorine Characteristics Fluorine is the most reactive and the most electronegative of all the elements. Fluorine is a pale yellow, diatomic, highly corrosive, flammable gas, with a pungent odor. It is the lightest halogen. It reacts violently with water to produce oxygen and the extremely corrosive hydrofluoric acid. HOME
  28. 28. Fluorine Usefulness Used in rocket fuels, in production of polymers and plastics, and a common ingredient in toothpastes. Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay and thus added to toothpastes and mouth washes. Used in the purification of public water supplies. This has shown to reduce the incidence of dental carries and other dental problems greatly. HOME
  29. 29. Fluorine Harmful Effects to the Environment Too much fluoride, whether taken in form the soil by roots, or absorbed from the atmosphere by the leaves, retards the growth of plants and reduces crop yields. Those more affected are corns and apricots. In the environment fluorine cannot be destroyed; it can only change form. Animals that are exposed to high concentrations of fluorine suffer from dental decay and bone degradation. HOME
  30. 30. Fluorine Harmful Effects to Humans Humans are exposed to fluorine through food and drinking water and by breathing air. Fluorine is essential for the maintenance of solidity of our bones. Fluorine can also protect us from dental decay, if it is applied through toothpaste twice a day. If fluorine is absorbed too frequently, it can cause teeth decay, osteoporosis and harm to kidneys, bones, nerves and muscles. Fluorine gas is released in the industries. This gas is very dangerous, as it can cause death at very high concentrations. HOME
  31. 31. Fluorine How the it is Abused Fluorine is a pale yellow, diatomic, highly corrosive, flammable gas, with a pungent odor. It is the lightest halogen. It reacts violently with water to produce oxygen and the extremely corrosive hydrofluoric acid. Manufacturers release fluorine accidentally to the environment in some instances. HOME
  32. 32. Fluorine How to Avoid Abusing It People must be careful in using it because Fluorine is highly toxic and corrosive. When Fluorine gas contacts other chemicals, it results in flames and fluorine gas is so reactive that when it flows onto a brick, the brick ignites. HOME
  33. 33. Neon CharacteristicsClassification: Neon is a noble gas and a nonmetalColor: colorlessAtomic weight: 20.180State: gasMelting point: -248.57 oC, 24.53 KBoiling point: -246.0 oC, 27.1 KShells: 2,8Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6Density @ 20oC: 0.0009 g/cm3Atomic volume: 16.7 cm3/molStructure: fcc: face-centered cubic HOME
  34. 34. Neon Characteristics Neon is a light, very inert gas. Colorless under normal conditions, it glows a reddish- orange in a vacuum discharge tube. Neon forms no known stable compounds. HOME
  35. 35. Neon Usefulness It is used in glow lamps, electron tubes, neon light signs, fluorescent tubes, gas lasers, television tubes, vacuum tubes HOME
  36. 36. Neon Harmful Effects to the Environment No threat to the environment It is chemically not reactive and doesn’t form compounds HOME
  37. 37. Neon Harmful Effects to Humans Through inhalation humans may experience suffocation, dizziness, vomiting, nausea, unconsciousness, death HOME
  38. 38. Neon How It is Abused Too much use of neon lights lead to pollution and the use of electricity increases which has negative effects in the long run. HOME
  39. 39. Neon How to Avoid Abusing It The use of neon lights must be reduced and it should be used with other elements. HOME
  40. 40. Radium CharacteristicsClassification: Radium is an alkali earth metalColor: silvery whiteAtomic weight: (226), no stable isotopesState: solidMelting point: 700 oC, 973 KBoiling point: 1500 oC, 1773 KShells: 2,8,18,32,18,8,2Electron configuration: [Rn] 7s2Density @ 20oC: 5.5 g/cm3Atomic volume: 45.20 cm3/molStructure: bcc: body-centered cubic HOME
  41. 41. Radium Characteristics Radium is a silvery-white metal. It is highly radioactive and its decay product, radon gas, is also radioactive. One result of radium’s intense radioactivity is that the metal and its compounds glow in the dark. HOME
  42. 42. Raduim Usefulness It is used in self-luminous paints, aircraft switches, clocks, nuclear panels, instrument dials, source of radiation to treat cancer and the production of radon gas HOME
  43. 43. Raduim Harmful Effects to the Environment It causes a higher risk of deforestation HOME
  44. 44. Raduim Harmful Effects to Humans With longer exposure, it can result to anemia, leukemia, cataracts, fractured teeth, replacement of calcium in bones, death, higher risk of cancer to all tissues and organs HOME
  45. 45. Raduim How it is Abused Humans allow too much exposure of the element in the environment causing an increase in radiation. HOME
  46. 46. Raduim How to Avoid Abusing It Safety precaution must always be used and exposure to radiation must be minimized. HOME
  47. 47. Lead CharacteristicsClassification: Lead is an ‘other metal’Color: bluish grayAtomic weight: 207.2State: solidMelting point: 327.46 oC, 600.61 KBoiling point: 1750 oC, 2023 KShells: 2,8,18,32,18,4Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2Density @ 20oC: 11.34 g/cm3Atomic volume: 18.17 cm3/molStructure: fcc: face-centered cubicHardness: 1.5 mohs HOME
  48. 48. Lead Characteristics Lead is a bluish-gray, soft, dense metal that has a bright luster when freshly cut. It tarnishes slowly in moist air to form a dull gray coating. The metal is highly ductile and malleable. Lead is extremely resistant to corrosion and is a poor conductor of electricity. HOME
  49. 49. Lead Usefulness Lead is used in lead-acid batteries, bullets and shots, weights, as part of solders, pewters, fusible alloys, and as a radiation shield. Lead is added to brass to reduce machine tool wear. In the form of strips, or tape, lead is used for the customization of tennis rackets. Tennis rackets of the past sometimes had lead added to them by the manufacturer to increase weight. Lead has many uses in the construction industry. HOME
  50. 50. Lead Harmful Effects to the Environment Deteriorating lead-based paint in older houses, and mining and smelting communities leave high concentrations of lead in air, water and soil. Lead has only harmful effects on our health, and each time we are exposed to lead some of it is stored in our bodies for the rest of our lives. Even small amounts of lead in our environment can be harmful if we are continually exposed. HOME
  51. 51. Lead Harmful Effects to Humans Lead is a highly poisonous metalaffecting almost every organ and system in the body. The main target for lead toxicity is the nervous system, both in adults and children. Long-term exposure of adults can result in decreased performance in some tests that measure functions of the nervous system. It is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and is believed to have adverse effects on the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, kidneys, and the immune system. HOME
  52. 52. Lead How it is Abused It is abused when used as paint on children’s toys and when handled irresponsibly allowing it to be released in the environment. HOME
  53. 53. Lead How to Avoid Abusing It It should be handled with care and avoid skin contact. Dont try to inhale it. The use of it should be lessened in order to lessen lead poisoning. HOME
  54. 54. Manganese Characteristics Manganese is a transition metal Color: gray-white Atomic weight: 54.9380 State: solid Melting point: 1250 oC, 1523 K Boiling point: 2060 oC, 2333 K Shells: 2,8,13,2 Electron configuration: [Ar] 3d5 4s2 Density @ 20oC: 7.43 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 7.4 cm3/mol Structure: complex (cubic) Hardness: 6.0 mohs
  55. 55. Manganese Characteristics Manganese is a gray-white, hard, brittle, metal that can take a high polish. It is not magnetic. The metal tarnishes on exposure to air and, when heated, oxidizes to manganese(II, III) oxide (Mn3O4).
  56. 56. Manganese Usefulness Manganese is essential to iron and steel production. The second large application for manganese is as alloying agent for aluminium. A compound of manganese is used as an additive in unleaded gasoline to boost octane rating and reduce engine knocking. HOME
  57. 57. Manganese Harmful Effects to the Environment There are higher levels of manganese in natural bodies of water and it is known to cause cognitive impairment ad reduced intellectual capacity. The same may be to animals. HOME
  58. 58. Manganese Harmful Effects to Humans Manganese overexposure is most frequently associated with manganism, a rare neurological disorder associated with excessive manganese ingestion or inhalation. Manganism is a biphasic disorder. Symptoms include weakness, monotone and slowed speech, an expressionless face, tremor, forward-leaning gait, inability to walk backwards without falling, rigidity, and general problems with dexterity, gait and balance. It becomes more severe over time even if the source of exposure is removed and brain manganese levels return to normal. HOME
  59. 59. Manganese How it is Abused Chronic manganese toxicity would harm us if we abuse the use of manganese. Manganese compounds are less toxic than those of other widespread metals, such as nickel and copper. Manganese poisoning has been linked to impaired motor skills and cognitive disorders. HOME
  60. 60. Manganese How to Avoid Abusing It For the workers who work with manganese, Avoid being over exposed so not to have manganism. it should be used as little amounts only so not to absorb all its harmful effects. HOME
  61. 61. Arsenic CharacteristicsClassification: Arsenic is a metalloidColor: grayAtomic weight: 74.9216State: solidMelting point: 817 oC, 1090 KBoiling point: 614 oC, 887 KShells: 2,8,18,5Electron configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3Density @ 20oC: 5.776 g/cm3Atomic volume: 12.97 cm3/molStructure: rhombohedral; layers of 6-member ringsHardness: 3.5 mohs HOME
  62. 62. Arsenic Characteristics Arsenic occurs in three distinct solid forms. Gray arsenic is the most common. It has a metallic sheen and conducts electricity. Yellow arsenic is metastable, is a poor electrical conductor and does not have a metallic sheen. It is prepared by cooling gray arsenic vapor in liquid air. It reverts to gray arsenic at room temperature. Black arsenic can be prepared by cooling arsenic vapor at 100oC – 200 oC. It is glassy, brittle and a poor electrical conductor. HOME
  63. 63. Arsenic Usefulness It is used in combination with other materials in pigments, poison gases and insecticides (such as Paris Green, calcium arsenate and lead arsenate) and is well known from former use as a rat poison. Used in ammunition manufacturing because it helps to create harder and rounder bullets. Used in small quantities in semi-conductor manufacturing. HOME
  64. 64. Arsenic Harmful Effects to the Environment Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is normally present throughout our environment in water, soil, dust, air, and food. Emissions from metal-refining smelters have contaminated soil with arsenic. The arsenic from farming and smelting tends to bind strongly to soil and is expected to remain near the surface of the land for hundreds of years as a long-term source of exposure. Some underground aquifers are located in rock or soil that has naturally high arsenic content. Well water pumped from these aquifers can have arsenic levels that exceed public health safety standards. HOME
  65. 65. Arsenic Harmful Effects to Humans Swallowing relatively large amounts of arsenic (even just one time) can cause mild symptoms, serious illness, or death. Milder effects may include swelling of the face, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, or diarrhea. Serious effects may include coma, internal bleeding, or nerve damage causing weakness or loss of sensation in the hands, arms, feet, or legs. HOME
  66. 66. Arsenic How it is Abused Arsenic was before released into the environment without care and precautions in the form of pesticides and now some farmlands are contaminated and will be contaminated for a very very long time. HOME
  67. 67. Arsenic How to Avoid Abusing It The use of astatine in the open environment should be avoided if not exterminated completely. It has a lot of harmful effects and should be phased out. HOME
  68. 68. Mercury CharacteristicsClassification: Mercury is a transition metalColor: silvery-whiteAtomic weight: 200.59State: liquidMelting point: -38.83 oC, 234.32 KBoiling point: 356.73 oC, 629.88 KShells: 2,8,18,32,18,2Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2Density @ 20oC: 13.546 g/cm3Atomic volume: 14.82 cm3/molStructure: solid is rhombohedral HOME
  69. 69. Mercury Characteristics Mercury is a dense, silvery-white, poisonous metal with a mirror-like appearance. It is the only common metal that is liquid at room temperature. Mercury evaporates slowly at room temperature. HOME
  70. 70. Mercury Usefulness Used in thermometers and teeth fillings for its unique properties. HOME
  71. 71. Mercury Harmful Effects to the Environment Organic mercury tends to increase up the food chain, particularly in lakes. Worms and insects in the mud extract and concentrate the organic mercury. Small fish that eat these critters further concentrate the mercury in their bodies. This concentration process, known as "bioaccumulation", continues as larger fish eat smaller fish until the top predator fish. HOME
  72. 72. Mercury How it is Abused It still used in household and commercial products, as well as industrial processes. Coal-fired power plants, incinerators, some manufacturing plants, hospitals, dental offices, schools and even homes have all been found to release mercury. In the home, mercury can be found in fluorescent lights, thermostats, thermometers, and even some childrens toys. At school, mercury may be in science and chemistry classrooms, the nurses office and electrical systems. HOME
  73. 73. Mercury Harmful Effects to Humans Common symptoms of mercury poisoning include peripheral neuropathy (itching, burning or pain), skin discoloration (pink cheeks, fingertips and toes), swelling, and desquamation (shedding of skin). HOME
  74. 74. Mercury How to Avoid Abusing It When in use, mercury must not come in contact with the skin or be ingested in anyway. Professionals must be called to handle mercury spills. HOME
  75. 75. So are you ready?
  76. 76. Abuse Me and You’ll See!!

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