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Different religions

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  1. 1. *RELIGION Religare- “relationship” - to “bind back” * is an organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, practices, and worship that centers on a supreme God or a deity. * Generally, people who follow some form of religion believes that a divine power created the world and influences their lives. * is a way of life of a particular group of people. * sum total of belief and practices.
  2. 2. *REASONwhy peoplepracticereligion? * It is a part of heritage or their culture, tribe, or family. * It gives many people a feeling of security because they believe that a divine power watches over them. * For help or protection. * It promises them salvation and either happiness or the chance to improve themselves in a life after death. * Brings a sense of individual fulfillment and gives meaning to life. * It provides answers to questions of life such as: [a] What is the purpose of life? [b] What is the final destiny of man? [c] What is the difference between right and wrong? * They enjoy a sense of kinship with their fellow believers (fellowship).
  3. 3. Eight Major Religions of the World Islam TaoismJudaism Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Buddhism Jainism Confucianism Shinto
  4. 4. *CHIEFCHARACTERISTICS of religion [I.] BELIEF IN THE EXISTENCE OF A GOD OR A DEITY Most religions are theistic. They teach that deities govern or greatly influence the actions of human beings as well as events in nature. A. Forms of Beliefs [1] THEISM- generally believes in the existence of a God. [2] ATHEISM- believes that there is no God that exists. [3] AGNOSTICISM- say that the existence of a deity cannot be proven or disproved.
  5. 5. *CHIEFCHARACTERISTICS of religion B. Forms of Theism [1] PANTHEISM- believes that everything is God, everything is a divine manifestation of God, and finally that nothing really exists that is not God. [2] PANENTHEISM-believes that God is everywhere. God’s presence can be felt anywhere if only we open our eyes to this reality. God is present in His creation but Creation is not God. [3] POLYTHEISM- those who believe in two or more Gods. The ancient Greeks and Romans have Polytheistic religions. Examples: Aphrodite- Goddess of Love; Mars- Roman God of War [4] HENOTHEISM- worships a supreme God but does not deny the existence and power of the other Gods. [5] MONOTHEISM- teaches that there is only one God.
  6. 6. *CHIEFCHARACTERISTICS of religion [II.] DOCTRINE OF SALVATION Most religions stress that salvation is the highest goal of the faithful and that all followers should try to achieve. A doctrine of salvation is based on the belief that individual are in some form of danger from which they must be saved. [III.] CODE OF CONDUCT Code of conduct is a set of moral teachings and values that all religions have in some form. It tells believers how to conduct their lives. It teaches them how to act toward the deity and towards one another.
  7. 7. *CHIEFCHARACTERISTICS of religion [IV.] THE USE OF SACRED STORIES CONTAINED IN THE SACRED BOOKS Sacred stories or myths are often used by religious leaders to dramatize the teaching of their faith. [V.] RELIGIOUS RITUALS Rituals include the acts and ceremonies by which believers appeal to and serve God, deities, and other sacred powers. The performance of a ritual is often called “service”, the most common form of ritual is prayer. Through prayer, a believer addresses worship and thoughts to an object of worship. Prayer includes request, expressions of thanksgivings, confession of sins, and praise.
  8. 8. BUD - The “Dharma wheel”, symbolizes Buddhist law, endless cycles of birthD and rebirth. Eight spokes represent the “Eightfold path” to enlightenmentH - 6%- estimated followers, Buddhist - It teaches a way by which men and women, in a devout and confidentI spirit, maybe able either to acquire that state or perfect liberation, orS attain, by their own efforts or through higher helpM
  9. 9. BUDDH - Siddhartha Gautama, Hindu around 563 BCE, in Lumbini (now Nepal);I 16- married; 29- after the birth of his son, left his family; 35- realisedS ‘Enlightenment’ and became a Buddha (The “Awakened One” or “Enlightened One”); 80- diedM
  10. 10. BUD - Buddhism offers clear rules for its followersD - Four Noble TruthsH - [1] Life involves suffering (dukkha); [2] The cause of suffering is cravingI and desire (tanha); [3] To cease suffering is to renounce craving andS desire; [4] Desire can be eliminated by following the Eightfold PathM
  11. 11. BUDD - The Eightfold Path to liberation involves:H [1] Right viewpoint, [2] Right aspiration, [3] Right speech,I [4] Right behavior, [5] Right occupation, [6] Right effort,S [7] Right mindfulness, [8] Right meditationM
  12. 12. BUD -CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITYD [1] Interrelatedness rather the Individualism - Greed and self-centeredness is the cause of much suffering inH our world. Not happy- compete against each other. Ergo, live and act andI be together, in a relationships of care and concern.S - A nation that is not based on competition, but based onM compassion (being with).
  13. 13. BUD -CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITYD [2] The Need for Possibility of Personal Transformation - “Your efforts and plans are very important. But, you will not beH able to bring about peace in the world, unless you bring about peaceI within yourself. And to do that, you have to meditate.S - Meditation is the key to mind cleansing and thought clarity.M
  14. 14. [FOUNDER] Gautama Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama (Real Name)B [PLACE OF ORIGIN] IndiaU [BOOKS/SACRED TEXTS]Tripitaka- known as the Three Baskets dividedD into three parts namely:D The Book of Discipline (VinayaPitaka) The Discourses of Lord Buddha (SutthaPitaka)H The Book of Psychological Analysis & SynthesisI (AdhidhammaPitaka)S [GOD/S] DharmaM [BRANCHES]Hinayana (Lesser Vehicle; Conservative), Mahayana (Greater
  15. 15. GOD Buddhism denies the existence of a personal God. JESUS CHRIST He was a good teacher, less important than Buddha. SINSin is anything which hinders human beings’ progress. Man or woman is responsible for his or her own sin. SALVATION Man and woman is saved by self-effort only.
  16. 16. HI - The “OM”, symbolizes the sound of the universeN - 15%- estimated followers, HinduD - It contemplates the divine mystery and expresses it through anU inexhaustible abundance of myths and through searching philosophicalI inquiry - They seek freedom from the anguish of our human condition eitherS through ascetical practices or profound meditation or a flight to God withM love and trust
  17. 17. HIN - Oldest living religion in the world; traceable to the Indus Valley c. 4000-D 2200 BCU - In Hinduism, the Divine manifests itself in countless Gods that we areI the reflections, emanations of absoluteness, “Brahman”S - The divine trinity or Trimutri brings together these aspects of Brahman-M Brahma, the Creator, Vishnu, the Sustainer and Shiva, the Destroyer
  18. 18. HIN - Each believer will undergo the process and series of re-incarnations orD rebirths. These rebirths are as follows: - A person’s Atman (soul) may begin as a worm, then through death &U rebirth it goes high and higher in the order of things until it becomes aI human being. Once the atman becomes a real human body, it mustS progress by attaining higher social classes. The human being attainsM higher social calls by following dharma
  19. 19. HIN -CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITYD [1] The Sacredness of Creation - The world is a sacred reality. They see the world as God’s body.U [2] The Value of DiversityI - Diversity is as essential as unity. The one Divine is expressed inS millions ways. Variety is not only the spice of life; it is also the source ofM life.
  20. 20. HIN -CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITYD [3] The Challenge of Nonviolence - Nonviolence comes from Hinduism through Mahatma Gandhi.U Our shared oneness with the divine forbids us to be violent to others orI to one another.SM
  21. 21. HI [FOUNDER] No [PLACE OF ORIGIN] Indus Valley, IndiaN [BOOKS/SACRED TEXTS] Vedas (Eternal Truth), Sama Veda (Verses forD Chanting) Yajur Veda (Ritual Instructions), Atharva Veda (Mystical VerseU on Healing Matters), Epics (Mahabharata, BhagavadGita)I [GOD/S] Brahma (The Creator), Vishnu (The Sustainer/Preserver), ShivaS (The Destroyer) [BRANCHES] Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Hari KrishnaM
  22. 22. GOD Brahman is formless, abstract, eternal being, and withoutattributes; takes form in a trinity as well as millions of lesser gods. JESUS CHRIST Christ is just one of many incarnations or sons of God. SIN Good and evil are relative terms. Whatever helps is good, whatever hinders is vice. SALVATION Man is justified through devotion, meditation, good works, and self-control.
  23. 23. I - The “HILAL” (Crescent moon), symbolically guides people andS illuminates their livesL - 22%- estimated followers, Moslem/Muslim-“those who submit”A - The word “Islam” means “submission” to AllahM -Muhammed (570-632), founder - To be a muslim is to submit to Allah, to be Allah’s representative or Khalifa
  24. 24. IS - Their basic beliefs are contain in the Five (5) PillarsL [1] There is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his prophet (Shahadah)A [2] Pray five times a day (Salat) [3] Almsgiving (Zakat)M [4] Fasting during the day of Ramadan (Sawm) [5] Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
  25. 25. -CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITY [1] Realistic OptimismI - In the face of global poverty, violence, and injustice, Islam offersS the world a message of what we might call R.O.L [2] Religion and PoliticsA - Religion must influence politics. Religion has something to sayM to the state. According to Qur’an, it is meant not just to change one’ heart but also to change one’s society. “Religion is “something between God and the government.”
  26. 26. I [FOUNDER] MohammedS [PLACE OF ORIGIN] Mecca,Saudi ArabiaL [BOOKS/SACRED TEXTS]Qu’ran (The Words of Allah), Hadith (A CollectionA of the Sayings of Mohammed)M [GOD/S] Allah [BRANCHES] Sunni Muslims (Mainstream)- Traditionalists, Shi’ite Muslims (dispute over the succession)
  27. 27. GOD There is no God but Allah. JESUS CHRIST Jesus Christ was only a man, a prophet equal to Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses, all of whom are below Muhammed in importance. SINSin is a failure to do one’s religious duties as outlined in the Five Pillars of faith. SALVATIONMan or woman earns his or her own salvation; pays for his or her own sins.
  28. 28. JUD - Symbolizes the Shield of David, “Menorah” the seven branchedA candlestick which originally stood in the temple of Jerusalem - 4%- estimated followers, JewI - Jews were first called HebrewsS - They believed that God made a contract (Covenant) with Abraham-M important ancestor - Jews see themselves as God’s “Chosen People”
  29. 29. JU - Christians acknowledge that the beginnings of faith are found alreadyD among the ancestors of Israel, Moses, and the prophetsA -The church should not forget that she received the OT from the JewishI people; she must also recall that the early disciples who proclaimed JesusS were Jews - They were held responsible for the death of ChristM - The 10 Commandments outlines the behavior of Jews that all their rules come directly from a sense of obeying God’s will
  30. 30. JUDA - The “Six (6) Rights”: *1+ Right to life; *2+ Right to possessions; *3+ Right toI clothing; [4] Right to shelter; [5] Right to work; [6] Right to liberty -The Old Testament Bible is their official book specially the Torah or theS “five books of Moses”- Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy and theM book of Numbers
  31. 31. J -CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITYU [1] HopeD - Judaism keeps a message of optimism and hope alive. NoA matter the suffering maybe, things can be solved.I [2] Human Responsibility - Jews remind us that we can rely on the presence of God, it alsoS reminds us that God is relying on us. The Torah constantly calls Jews toM act responsibly as coworkers of God in bringing creation to even greater beauty.
  32. 32. JUD -CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITYA [3] Centrality of Justice - Yahweh is not only a God who created the world but also a GodI who calls for justice within this world. Humanity will never attain shalomS (peace) without humans who act for justice.M
  33. 33. JUD [FOUNDER] AbrahamA [PLACE OF ORIGIN] Palestine, IsraelI [BOOKS/SACRED TEXTS] Bible (OT), Torah (5 Books of Moses), Mishnah (Ethical and Ritual teachings), Talmud (Collection of Traditions)S [GOD/S] YHWH (Too holy to be spoken)M [BRANCHES] Conservative Judaism, Humanistic Judaism, Orthodox Judaism, Reform Judaism, Mystical Judaism, Zionism
  34. 34. GOD There is only one God. They called their God Yahweh or Elohim. JESUS CHRIST While some Jews may accept Jesus as a good teacher of ethics, they do not accept Him as Messiah. SIN Man or woman is not born in original sin nor is he or she born good. Human beings are born free, with the capacity to choosebetween evil and good. Each is accountable for himself or herself. SALVATIONAnyone, Jew or not, may gain salvation through commitment to the one God and moral living.
  35. 35. CHRIST - The “Cross”, is a symbol of the Crucifixion of Jesus, suffering, and theI deliverance from sufferingA - 33%- estimated followers, ChristianN - Christianity maybe likened to a tree with many branches - Christianity comprises 1/3 of the world population (33%).I - Within Christianity, the following churches are: Roman Catholics-T 50%, Protestants- 21%, Orthodox- 11%, Anglicans- 4%, others- 14% of theY world population
  36. 36. CHRISTI - How this division within Christianity happened?A - Disagreements on issues mostly about interpretation of theN Bible and on the basis of faith - The 10 Commandments spell out Christian ethicsI - The emphasis is salvationT - Christians believe that God is actively interested in them and that byY worship they can receive guidance and release from their sins
  37. 37. CHRIST -CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITYI [1] Jesus’ Ethic of LoveA - Jesus radically focused on “love of neighbors” as the centralN concern not only to Christianity but to all religions. The whole law isI summed up in a single commandment: “You shall love your neighbors asT yourself”. Jesus teaches us to care and to share, to be able to forgive and to repent, to practice mercy and renunciation, and to give help.Y
  38. 38. CHRIS -CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITYT [2] A House of all NationsI - The Roman Catholic and the Protestant Churches are united inA witnessing how the world can become one home for all nations.N - Hopefully, his example will continue to inspire us, as we create a home where all are welcomed because we can share with one anotherI the light we all received from the one who received many names, likeT God, Allah, Brahman, and so many others.Y
  39. 39. CHRISTIAN [PLACE OF ORIGIN] Israel [BOOKS/SACRED TEXTS] Bible & TraditionI [GOD/S] Trinity (God the Father, Son J.C., Holy Spirit)T [BRANCHES] Catholic, Protestant, Lutheran, Anglican, Methodist, andY Baptist
  40. 40. ROMAN CATHOLIC GODBelieve in One God, revealed Himself in Three personages (Trinity). JESUS CHRIST Jesus Christ is both God and man (Jn 1:14). SINAll men and women are born in sin and naturally separated from God. SALVATION Salvation is secured by faith plus good works.
  41. 41. ORTHODOX GOD Accepts the mystery of the Holy Trinity. JESUS CHRIST Christ is God that He died for humanity’s sins. SINBy nature man or woman is sinful, spiritually dead, and that his or her only hope of salvation is faith in Christ’s death and resurrection. SALVATION When Christ died on the cross, he rendered satisfaction to theHoly standard of God and paid the penalty for the sins of all men and women.
  42. 42. PROTESTANT GOD Accepts the doctrine of the Trinity. JESUS CHRIST They believe the virginal birth and divinity of Jesus.However, devotion to the Virgin Mary is not part of their liturgical services. SINAgrees with Catholics that all men and women are born in sin and naturally separated from God. SALVATION God gives eternal life when the believer has faith in Jesus