MEANING Counseling denotes ‘giving of advice’. It is a specialized service of guidance. It is a process designed to help an individual grow to greater maturity through learning and to makes decisions of an individual.
DEFINITION Counseling is a method that helps the client to use a problem solving process to recognize and manage stress and that facilitates interpersonal relationships among client, family and health care team
AIMS OF COUNSELINGIT HELPS STUDENT TO UNDERSTAND:-1) Self in terms of ability, interest, motivation, and potential.2) Gain Insight related to emotional difficulties.3) Alter maladaptive behavior.4) Achieving integration and fulfill their potentials.
ETHICS OF COUNSELINGi. CONFEDENTIALITYii. TOLERANCEiii.VOLUNTARYiv.OBJECTIVITY
PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELING1) PRINCIPLE OF ACCEPTANCE2) PRINCIPLE OF RESPECT FOR AN INDIVIDUAL3) PRINCIPLE OF THINKING WITH AN INDIVIDUAL4) PRINCIPLE OF PERMISIVENESS5) PRINCIPLE OF LEARNING6) PRINCIPLE OF CONSISTENCY
ATTRIBUTES OF A COUNSELLOR1) PRE-TRAINING ATTRIBUTES:- Self awareness and understanding Good psychological health Open-minded Objectivity Trust worthiness Approachability
2) INTER-TRAINING ATTRIBUTES:- Interview setting:- Physical arrangement-chairs should be kept facing each other. closeness of counselor indicates attentiveness and willingness. A warm friendly greeting. Maintaining Eye-contact. Problem focus Identifying an important theme Directing theme towards a goal Managing interaction with an individual
STEPS OF COUNSELING G-GREET THE CLIENT A-ASK CLIENTS ABOUT THEMSELVES T-TELL CLIENTS OR GIVE THE INFORMATION OF STRATEGIES OF COPOING MECHANISMS H-HELP CLIENT TO CHOOSE A METHOD E-EXPLAIN HOW TO USE R-RETURN FOR FOLLOW-UP
TOOLS FOR COLLECTING INFORMATION1. INTERVIEW2. OBSERVATION3. ANECDOTAL RECORDS4. CUMULATIVE RECORDS5. PROBLEM/INTEREST CHECKLIST6. RATING SCALES7. SOCIOMETRY8. PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST
APPROACHES OF COUNSELLING1) DIRECTIVE COUNSELLING:- Also called as counselor-centered Counseling Process of listening to member’s problem, deciding with the member what should be done, and then encouraging and motivating the person to do it. This type of counseling is more useful where the individual wants information and advice for choice of a career. This approach does not focus its attention on personality development
2) NON-DIRECTIVE COUNSELLING:- Counseling in which the counselor is empathetic and does not evaluate or direct (but may clarify) clients remarks, thus assisting them to accept responsibility for their own problem-solving. In this counseling, the client has to be led to a point of realization, self-help. Information may be used to classify a choice and to implement a decision.
SR DIRECTIVE NON DIRECTIVENO.1. Economical Time consuming2. Emphasis on problem Emphasis on Individual3. Explain on intellect Explain on emotional aspect4. Solves immediate Problem Deals with self-analysis and new problems of adjustment5. Uses Psychological assessment May not use psychological data assessment6. Counselor plays active role Counselor plays passive role7. counselor helps in decision Client takes own decision making8. Rapport forming is not significant Rapport forming is essential
3) ECLECTIC COUNSELING:- Eclectic counseling is defined as the synthesis and combination of directive and non-directive counseling. It represents a middle status between the two extremes represented by the ‘non- directive’ technique on one hand and the ‘directive’ technique on the other. The counselor is neither too active as in the directive counseling nor too passive as in the non-directive counseling.