Testicles (testes)and spermatozoon/-zoaWhat are the male gonads and gametes called?
Vas deferens (sing)or vasa deferentia (pl)/væs ˈdef ə renz/Both tubes transport sperm from theepididymis into the urethra
Cowpers glandsA pair of pea-sized organs located just inferior to theprostate. They secrete mucus to lubricate the urethraduring the intercourse
AcrosomeA vesicle at the tip of a sperm cell that helps the spermpenetrate the egg by breaking down the corona radiata thatsourrounds the ovum. Male sterility can be due to the fact thatits digestive enzymes dont work properly
Seminiferous tubulesWhat are the highly coiled tubes in the testis inwhich sperm are produced? Their whole length isaround 500 m
Male reproductive ductsSeminiferous tubules > epididymis > vasa deferentia> urethra all together are called...
UrethraDuct thet serves the dual purpose of conveying urinefrom the bladder and carrying the reproductive cellswith their accompanying secretions to the outside
MidpieceLocated between spermatozoon tail and head, thisarea contains mitochonddria to provide the flagellumwith the energy requiered
Scrotum/ˈskrəʊt əm/The testicles make sperm best at a few degrees coolerthan normal body temperature.The testicles hang outside the body in this fold of skin tokeep the sperm cool
Secretions byseminal vesicles,prostateand Cowpers glandsSemen is made of 10% sperm and the restconsists of...
Two corpora cavernosa-dorsal side-and a corpus spongiosum-ventral side around the urethra-Spongy tissues containing many blood spaces thatare relatively empty when the penis is flaccid but fillwith blood when the organ is erect /ɪ ˈrekt/
Epididymis/ˌep ɪ ˈdɪd əm ɪs /A coiled tubule located adjacent to the testes wheresperm finish maturing and are stored. It connectsthe seminiferous tubules with the vas deferens
Prostate/ˈprɒst eɪt/Gland that lies under the urinary bladder andsurrounds the first part of the urethra. It secretes intothe urethra a fluid that helps neutralize the acidity ofthe vaginal tract
Foreskin(prepuce)/ˈpriːp juːs/A fold of skin that covers the penis glans*. It is removed in acircumcision, a surgery frequently performed on male babies forreligious or cultural reasons. Experts disagree because itimproves cleanliness and disease prevention.*glans (glande) / lænz/ɡ
Meiosis/maɪ ˈəʊs ɪs/The most important event in gemetogenesis becausethis is the stage when the number of chromosomes ishalved
SpermatogenesisThe process by which spermatozoa(sperm) is produced inside theseminiferous tubules
Seminal vesicles/ˈsem ɪn əl …/Two 7.5 cm long glands, behind the urinary bladder,that produces a secretion containing large quantitiesof fructose and other substances that providenourishment for the sperm.
Ejaculation/i ˌdʒæk ju ˈleɪʃ ən/The forceful expulsion of semen throughthe urethra to the outside
5 daysHow long are spermatozoa alive after ejeculation andinside the female body?
Ovaries andova (sing. ovum)What are the female gonads and gametes called?
1,2Ovarian follicleA small fluid-filled chamber of cells. An ovum maturesinside each of them. The ovaries of a newborn femalecontain a large number of these chambers
1,3Fallopian tubeor oviducts/fə ˈləʊp iən //ˈəʊv i dʌkt/A tube where fertilisation takes place andthrough which the zygote/embryo makes itsway to the uterus.
1,4Uterus or womb/wuːm/An organ about 7.5 cm long and 5 cm wide in which afoetus can develop. Its muscular wall is calledmyometrium and the lining known as endometrium.
2,1Endometrium/ˌend əʊ ˈmiːtr iəm/The lining of the uterus. This inner layer changes duringthe menstrual cycle, first preparing to nourish a fertilizedegg, then breaking down if no fertilization occurs to bereleased as the menstrual flow
2,2Vagina/və ˈdʒaɪn/Its muscular tube about 7.5 cm long connecting theuterine cavity with the outside.
2,3Vulva/ˈvʌlv ə/The external parts of the female reproductivesystem, which includes two pairs of lips or labia andthe clitoris, which is a small erectile organ of greatsensitivity
2,4Bartolins glandsThe vaginal opening is surrounded by these twomucus-producing glands. Like the Cowper glands inmales, these glands provide lubrication duringintercourse.
3,1Oestrogen/ˈiːs trədʒ ən/Hormone secreted by the ovarian follicle. The effectof that hormone is rebuilding the uterineendometrium (making its cells divide)
3,2Graafian follicleThis is the stage of the follicle at its biggest sizeand containing a mature ovum about to bereleased
3,3Ovulation/ˌɒv ju ˈleɪʃ ən/This is the process by which a ripened ovum isdischarged from its ovarian follicle to the ovary’ssurface and collected by the oviduct
3,4Corona radiata/kə ,rəʊn ə .../This is the layer of cells surrounding the ovum andsupplying it with food to be stored
4,1Corpus luteum/,kɔːp əs ˈluːt iəm/After the ovum has been expelled, the remainingfollicle is transformed into this glandular mass. Thisstructure secretes progesterone. If pregnancy doesntoccur, it shrinks and is replaced by scar tissue.
4,2Progesterone/prəʊ ˈdʒest ə rəʊn/Hormone released by the ovarys corpus luteum.Because of this hormone, the uterine lining thickensand also produces great number of blood vessels
4,3PeriodApproximately 14 days after ovulation, the corpusluteum shrinks and gives up producing progesterone-it pregnancy has not occurred. The highlyvascularised endometrium is shed and expelled fromthe body via vagina. The process lasts around 4 days
4,4Proliferative phaseThe phase in the uterine cycle in which the lining ofthe uterus is rebuilt thanks to the oestrogenssecreted by the maturing ovarian follicle
5,1Luteal phase/,luːt i əl feɪz/The phase in the uterine cycle in which the lining ofthe uterus reaches its maximun thickness andvascularisation and gets ready to receive and feedthe embryo
5,2Placenta/plə ˈsent ə/A disc on the uterine wall made of the mothers uterineblood vessels and embryo blood vessels. This organprovides nurishment and oxygen to the embryo andtakes away its cellular waste products.
5,3Umbilical cord/ʌm ˈbɪl ɪk əl .../Rope-like structure which contains the foetus bloodvessels going to the placenta. The scar that it leavesafter birth is called navel or belly button
5,4Tubal ligationAND vasectomy/və ˈsekt əm i/Surgical methods of contraceptionfor females and males