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WordPress Accessibility
Presented by Adrian Roselli for WordCamp Buffalo 2016
#WCBuf
Slides from this talk will be available at rosel.li/WCBuf
What We’ll Cover
• Intro
• WordPress Goes WCAG
• Techniques
• Key Takeaways
Work with me, people.
Intro
1 of 4 sections.
About Adrian Roselli
• Co-written four books.
• Technical editor
for two books.
• Written over fifty
articles, most recently
for .net Magazine and
Web Standards Sherpa.
Great bedtime reading!
About Adrian Roselli
• Member of W3C HTML Working Group*, W3C
Accessibility Task Force, five W3C Community
Groups.
• Building for the web since 1994.
• Business owner / founder, ~20 years.
• Now independent / unemployed.
• Learn more at AdrianRoselli.com.
• Avoid on Twitter @aardrian.
I warned you.
What is a11y?
• A numeronym for “accessibility”:
• The first and last letter,
• The number of characters omitted.
• Prominent on Twitter (character restrictions):
• #a11y
• Examples:
• l10n → localization
• i18n → internationalization
Ain’t language funsies?
Accessibility Gets No Respect
In fairness, Sherwin Williams needs to come up with a lot of color names...
“Cyberspace” (gray)
“Online” (blue)
“Lime Rickey” (green)
Accessibility Gets No Respect
…however I think the team could have done better than this.
WordPress Goes WCAG
2 of 4 sections
<irony>No transcripts nor captions, but go here and
search (ctrl + F) for “It's Martin.” to jump to the point in
the in-progress slightly inaccurate transcript.</irony>
“All new or updated code
released into WordPress
core and bundled themes
must conform with the
WCAG 2.0 guidelines at
level AA.” — Rian Rietveld
March 21, 2016
Notes
• Leans on WP Core Accessibility Coding Standards
• https://make.wordpress.org/core/handbook/best-
practices/coding-standards/accessibility-coding-
standards/
• Itself informed by WCAG (Web Content
Accessibility Guidelines) 2.0 (a W3C
recommendation)
• https://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag
• Get involved
• https://make.wordpress.org/accessibility/get-
involved/
More Notes
• To get accessibility-ready tag for your theme,
must follow specific guidelines
• https://make.wordpress.org/themes/handbook/r
eview/accessibility/required/
• “The accessibility of plugins is the
responsibility of each plugin author.”
Yet More Notes
• Accessibility wish list for 4.6+, posted April 27
• https://make.wordpress.org/core/2016/04/27/acc
essibility-wish-list-for-4-6-and-beyond/
• Rian Rietveld won Heroes of Accessibility
Award, Individual Achievement category
• http://wptavern.com/wordpress-contributor-rian-
rietveld-wins-heroes-of-accessibility-award
Accessibility Ready Themes
https://wordpress.org/themes/tags/accessibility-ready/
Techniques
3 of 4 sections.
Use @alt Text on Images
Use @alt Text on Images
Use @alt Text on Images
• Can you still make sense of the page?
• Is content missing?
• Can you still use the site?
• Is your alt text useful?
http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
Use @alt Text on Images
http://www.4syllables.com.au/2010/12/text-alternatives-decision-tree/
http://dev.w3.org/html5/alt-techniques/#tree
1. What role
does image
play?
2. Does it
present
new info?
3. What
type of
info?
Informative Yes
alt=""
or
<a href="foo"><img alt="">Link</a>
alt=""
or
Use CSS
alt="descriptive identification"
or
alt="short label" + caption
PurelyDecorative
Sensory
No
alt="label for link"
alt=“short alternative"
or
alt="short label" + caption
alt="short label + location of long alternative"
or
long text alternative on same or linked page
Long/Complex
Short/Simple
Use On-Page Descriptions
http://adrianroselli.com/2014/04/we-need-to-raise-stink-about-net.html
Use On-Page Descriptions
• Not just for longdesc or aria-describedat,
but any long description technique,
• Use an in-page anchor,
• Don’t link to another page without reason:
• Consider burden of loading a new page,
• Consider burden of re-loading original page.
• Based on results of latest WebAIM screen
reader survey results.
http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/use-on-page-image-descriptions.html
Hyperlinks!
http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
Hyperlinks!
• Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”?
http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
Hyperlinks!
• Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”?
• Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons?
http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
Hyperlinks!
• Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”?
• Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons?
• Do you warn before opening new windows?
http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
Hyperlinks!
• Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”?
• Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons?
• Do you warn before opening new windows?
• Do links to downloads provide helpful info?
http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
Hyperlinks!
• Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”?
• Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons?
• Do you warn before opening new windows?
• Do links to downloads provide helpful info?
• Are you using pagination links?
http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
Hyperlinks!
• Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”?
• Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons?
• Do you warn before opening new windows?
• Do links to downloads provide helpful info?
• Are you using pagination links?
• Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)?
http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
Hyperlinks!
• Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”?
• Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons?
• Do you warn before opening new windows?
• Do links to downloads provide helpful info?
• Are you using pagination links?
• Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)?
• Is there alt text for image links?
http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
Hyperlinks!
• Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”?
• Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons?
• Do you warn before opening new windows?
• Do links to downloads provide helpful info?
• Are you using pagination links?
• Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)?
• Is there alt text for image links?
• Is the link text consistent?
http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
Use Link Underlines
http://www.theverge.com/2014/3/13/5503894/google-removes-underlined-links-site-redesign
Use Link Underlines
• You are not Google:
• Users know Google’s layout,
• Users probably don’t visit your site daily.
• Relying on color alone will not suffice (WCAG
1.4.1 [A], 1.4.3 [AA]),
• Necessary contrast values:
• 4.5:1 between text and its background for copy,
• 3:1 between text and its background for larger text,
• 3:1 between surrounding text and a hyperlink, plus an
additional visual cue (G183).
http://adrianroselli.com/2014/03/i-dont-care-what-google-did-just-keep.html
Use :focus Styles
https://www.virginamerica.com/
Use :focus Styles
• Particularly if you removed link underlines,
• Everywhere you have :hover, add :focus,
• Look for :focus{outline:none;} in libraries:
• If you find it, remove it.
• Easy to test with the tab key.
http://adrianroselli.com/2014/06/keep-focus-outline.html
Tritanopia
Color Contrast
Protanopia
Color Contrast
Deuteranopia
Color Contrast
Color Contrast
• Is there enough contrast?
• Are hyperlinks, menus, etc. still visible?
• WCAG 2.0:
• 4.5:1 for normal text
• 3:1 for large text (14+pt & bold, or 18+pt)
• Tools:
• Chrome Color Contrast Analyzer
• Lea Verou’s Contrast Ratio
• WebAIM Color Contrast Checker
• CheckMyColours.com
http://www.inpixelitrust.fr/blog/en/tips-create-accessible-color-palette/
http://alistapart.com/blog/post/easy-color-contrast-testing
Use <label> (properly)
Use <label> (properly)
• Match the for attribute to the field’s id
attribute.
• When you click label text next to a text box,
does the cursor appear in the field?
• When you click label text next to a radio /
checkbox, does it get toggled?
• When you click label text next to a select
menu, does it get focus?
http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
Use HTML5
Use HTML5
<header role="banner">
<nav role="navigation">
<aside role="complementary">
<form role="search">
<footer role="contentinfo">
<main role="main">
Use HTML5
“Mobile” often means narrow screen
in RWD, as well as this context.
Use HTML5
<header role="banner">
<nav role="navigation">
<aside role="complementary">
<form role="search">
<footer role="contentinfo">
<main role="main">
“Mobile” often means narrow screen
in RWD, as well as this context.
Use HTML5
• Sectioning elements already have accessibility
built in. Use them.
• <header>
• <nav>
• <main> (one per page)
• <aside>
• <footer>
• <form> (a search form)
This stuff is baked in!
Use Only One <main> per Page
Modified version of Hixie’s image at https://github.com/whatwg/html/issues/100#issuecomment-138620240
Use Only One <main> per Page
• <main> maps directly to role="main",
• AT users expect one main content block, may
miss subsequent <main>s,
• AT doesn’t expose that there are multiples,
• Can erode trust in landmark navigation.
http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/use-only-one-main-on-a-page.html
Use <h#> Wisely
Use <h#> Wisely
• Use only one <h1> per page,
• Don’t skip heading levels,
• Use appropriate nesting,
• There is no Document Outline Algorithm:
• Don’t use <h1> within every new <section> nor
<article>,
• This will not affect your SEO.
http://adrianroselli.com/2013/12/the-truth-about-truth-about-multiple-h1.html
<button>, <input>, or <a>
http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
<button>, <input>, or <a>
http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
<button>, <input>, or <a>
• Don’t use a <div> nor <span>.
• Does the control take me to another URL?
• Use an <a href> .
• Note: does not fire on space-bar.
• Does the control change something on the
current page?
• Use a <button>.
• Does the control submit form fields?
• Use a <input type="submit"> or <button
type="submit">.
http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
Don’t Use tabindex > 0
https://www.digitalgov.gov/2014/11/17/user-experience-impossible-the-line-between-accessibility-and-usability/
Don’t Use tabindex > 0
• tabindex="-1"
• Use to set focus with script,
• Does not put it in tab order of page.
• tabindex="0"
• Allows user to set focus (eg: via keyboard),
• Puts in tab order of page (based on DOM).
• tabindex="1" (or greater)
• Do not do this,
• Messes with natural tab order.
http://adrianroselli.com/2014/11/dont-use-tabindex-greater-than-0.html
Maybe Use tabindex = 0
http://adrianroselli.com/2016/02/keyboard-and-overflow.html
Maybe Use tabindex = 0
• Do you have scrolling content boxes?
• Keyboard users cannot access it.
• Do you have content that displays on hover?
• Keyboard users probably cannot access it.
• A technique:
• <div role="region" aria-label="[if
appropriate]" tabindex="0">
http://adrianroselli.com/2016/02/keyboard-and-overflow.html
Set lang attribute on <html>
http://codepen.io/aardrian/pen/rOGYNL
Set lang attribute on <html>
http://codepen.io/aardrian/pen/rOGYNL
Set lang attribute on <html>
• VoiceOver uses to auto-switch voices,
• VoiceOver uses appropriate accenting,
• JAWS loads correct phonetic engine /
phonologic dictionary,
• NVDA matches VoiceOver and JAWS,
• Use the correct lang value:
• Sub-tags are ok,
• Avoid private-use: en-GB-x-hixie
http://adrianroselli.com/2015/01/on-use-of-lang-attribute.html
Source Order Matters
http://codepen.io/aardrian/full/MavVeb/
Firefox
Chrome
Source Order Matters
• CSS techniques allow visual order to break
from DOM order:
• Floats,
• Absolute positioning,
• Flexbox (see 5.4.1 of ED for a11y note),
• Grid (read Rachel Andrew on subgrid).
• WCAG 1.3.2 and 2.4.3 describe meaningful
sequence and tab order matching visual flow,
• Different behavior among different browsers.
http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/source-order-matters.html
http://200ok.nl/a11y-flexbox/
Don’t Disable Zoom
http://codepen.io/aardrian/full/dYNJOV
http://codepen.io/aardrian/full/ojBpjw
Don’t Disable Zoom
• Allow users on mobile to zoom in,
• Look in <meta name="viewport"> for this:
• minimum-scale=1.0
• maximum-scale=1.0
• user-scalable=no
• Look in @-ms-viewport {} for this:
• zoom:1.0
• Enhance!
• (Google AMP HTML is getting fixed)
http://adrianroselli.com/2015/10/dont-disable-zoom.html
Avoid Infinite Scroll
http://www.pewresearch.org/category/publications/
Avoid Infinite Scroll
• Makes it impossible to access some content:
• Footer,
• Sidebar links.
• Destroys the back button,
• Makes it impossible to share a URL to specific
“page” of results,
• Makes it impossible to jump ahead several
“pages” of results,
• Can overwhelm AT users, less powerful devices.
http://adrianroselli.com/2014/05/so-you-think-you-built-good-infinite.html
http://adrianroselli.com/2015/05/for-infinite-scroll-bounce-rate-is.html
Reconsider Typefaces for Dyslexia
http://opendyslexic.org/try-it/
Reconsider Typefaces for Dyslexia
• Use good typography rules:
• Avoid justified text,
• Use generous line spacing / leading,
• Use generous letter spacing,
• Avoid italics,
• Generally use sans serif faces,
• Use larger text,
• Use good contrast,
• Use clear, concise writing.
http://adrianroselli.com/2015/03/typefaces-for-dyslexia.html
Test in Windows High Contrast Mode
Test in Windows High Contrast Mode
• It removes CSS background images,
• This is changing in a coming Edge release.
• Colors defined in your CSS are overridden,
• To activate:
• Left ALT + left SHIFT + PRINT SCREEN
• Media queries:
• -ms-high-contrast: active
• -ms-high-contrast: black-on-white
• -ms-high-contrast: white-on-black
http://adrianroselli.com/2012/08/css-background-images-high-contrast-mode.html
Use Captions/Subtitles
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V592VMJeXc8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zCqN_cCLnnk
Use Captions/Subtitles
Use Captions/Subtitles
• Everybody uses them:
• Working in public, in bed, at home,
• Surfing in public, in bed, at work.
• Should include audio descriptions,
• Should include speaker identification,
• Review auto-captions (“craptions”):
• NoMoreCraptions.com
http://adrianroselli.com/2013/11/captions-in-everyday-use.html
Use Captions/Subtitles
• Do video/audio clips have text alternatives?
• Are links to closed-captions or transcripts built
into the player or separate text links?
• Is there an audio description available?
• Tools:
• Media Access Australia YouTube captioning tutorial,
Vimeo captioning tutorial,
• Tiffany Brown’s WebVTT tutorial,
• DIY Resources for Closed Captioning and Transcription
from 3 Play Media.
http://webaim.org/techniques/captions/
Share a11y Experiences
http://blog.podio.com/2015/07/08/hard-truths-helped-us-start-improving-podio-experience-visually-impaired/
https://medium.com/medium-eng/five-goofy-things-medium-did-that-break-accessibility-3bc804ae818d
Share a11y Experiences
• We’re all trying to do what we can,
• Don’t attack someone who doesn’t know what
they don’t know,
• Someone may find something you never
considered,
• You may get feedback on something you never
considered,
• a11ywins.tumblr.com FTW:
• Thanks to Marcy Sutton.
http://adrianroselli.com/2015/07/lets-share-more-accessibility-experiences.html
Key Takeaways
4 of 4 sections.
Stairamp
Dean Bouchard on Flickrhttp://incl.ca/the-problems-with-ramps-blended-into-stairs/
≠ Checklist
• Accessibility is not a checklist.
No matter how pretty that checklist looks nor how many items you get to check.
Snowtreeramp
“Wheelchair ramp at
pharmacy not only
hasn’t been cleared of
snow but has 2 potted
trees to ensure nobody
can pass.”
Nicolas Steenhouthttps://twitter.com/vavroom/status/571092086365261824
= Process
• Accessibility is not a checklist.
• Accessibility is an ongoing process.
You know, kinda like all software.
WordPress Accessibility
Presented by Adrian Roselli for WordCamp Buffalo 2016
My thanks and apologies.
Slides from this talk will be available at rosel.li/WCBuf

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WordPress Accessibility - WordCamp Buffalo 2016

  • 1. WordPress Accessibility Presented by Adrian Roselli for WordCamp Buffalo 2016 #WCBuf Slides from this talk will be available at rosel.li/WCBuf
  • 2. What We’ll Cover • Intro • WordPress Goes WCAG • Techniques • Key Takeaways Work with me, people.
  • 3. Intro 1 of 4 sections.
  • 4. About Adrian Roselli • Co-written four books. • Technical editor for two books. • Written over fifty articles, most recently for .net Magazine and Web Standards Sherpa. Great bedtime reading!
  • 5. About Adrian Roselli • Member of W3C HTML Working Group*, W3C Accessibility Task Force, five W3C Community Groups. • Building for the web since 1994. • Business owner / founder, ~20 years. • Now independent / unemployed. • Learn more at AdrianRoselli.com. • Avoid on Twitter @aardrian. I warned you.
  • 6. What is a11y? • A numeronym for “accessibility”: • The first and last letter, • The number of characters omitted. • Prominent on Twitter (character restrictions): • #a11y • Examples: • l10n → localization • i18n → internationalization Ain’t language funsies?
  • 7. Accessibility Gets No Respect In fairness, Sherwin Williams needs to come up with a lot of color names... “Cyberspace” (gray) “Online” (blue) “Lime Rickey” (green)
  • 8. Accessibility Gets No Respect …however I think the team could have done better than this.
  • 9. WordPress Goes WCAG 2 of 4 sections
  • 10. <irony>No transcripts nor captions, but go here and search (ctrl + F) for “It's Martin.” to jump to the point in the in-progress slightly inaccurate transcript.</irony>
  • 11. “All new or updated code released into WordPress core and bundled themes must conform with the WCAG 2.0 guidelines at level AA.” — Rian Rietveld March 21, 2016
  • 12. Notes • Leans on WP Core Accessibility Coding Standards • https://make.wordpress.org/core/handbook/best- practices/coding-standards/accessibility-coding- standards/ • Itself informed by WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) 2.0 (a W3C recommendation) • https://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag • Get involved • https://make.wordpress.org/accessibility/get- involved/
  • 13. More Notes • To get accessibility-ready tag for your theme, must follow specific guidelines • https://make.wordpress.org/themes/handbook/r eview/accessibility/required/ • “The accessibility of plugins is the responsibility of each plugin author.”
  • 14. Yet More Notes • Accessibility wish list for 4.6+, posted April 27 • https://make.wordpress.org/core/2016/04/27/acc essibility-wish-list-for-4-6-and-beyond/ • Rian Rietveld won Heroes of Accessibility Award, Individual Achievement category • http://wptavern.com/wordpress-contributor-rian- rietveld-wins-heroes-of-accessibility-award
  • 16. Techniques 3 of 4 sections.
  • 17. Use @alt Text on Images
  • 18. Use @alt Text on Images
  • 19. Use @alt Text on Images • Can you still make sense of the page? • Is content missing? • Can you still use the site? • Is your alt text useful? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
  • 20. Use @alt Text on Images http://www.4syllables.com.au/2010/12/text-alternatives-decision-tree/ http://dev.w3.org/html5/alt-techniques/#tree 1. What role does image play? 2. Does it present new info? 3. What type of info? Informative Yes alt="" or <a href="foo"><img alt="">Link</a> alt="" or Use CSS alt="descriptive identification" or alt="short label" + caption PurelyDecorative Sensory No alt="label for link" alt=“short alternative" or alt="short label" + caption alt="short label + location of long alternative" or long text alternative on same or linked page Long/Complex Short/Simple
  • 22. Use On-Page Descriptions • Not just for longdesc or aria-describedat, but any long description technique, • Use an in-page anchor, • Don’t link to another page without reason: • Consider burden of loading a new page, • Consider burden of re-loading original page. • Based on results of latest WebAIM screen reader survey results. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/use-on-page-image-descriptions.html
  • 24. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  • 25. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  • 26. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  • 27. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  • 28. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  • 29. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  • 30. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? • Is there alt text for image links? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  • 31. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? • Is there alt text for image links? • Is the link text consistent? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  • 33. Use Link Underlines • You are not Google: • Users know Google’s layout, • Users probably don’t visit your site daily. • Relying on color alone will not suffice (WCAG 1.4.1 [A], 1.4.3 [AA]), • Necessary contrast values: • 4.5:1 between text and its background for copy, • 3:1 between text and its background for larger text, • 3:1 between surrounding text and a hyperlink, plus an additional visual cue (G183). http://adrianroselli.com/2014/03/i-dont-care-what-google-did-just-keep.html
  • 35. Use :focus Styles • Particularly if you removed link underlines, • Everywhere you have :hover, add :focus, • Look for :focus{outline:none;} in libraries: • If you find it, remove it. • Easy to test with the tab key. http://adrianroselli.com/2014/06/keep-focus-outline.html
  • 39. Color Contrast • Is there enough contrast? • Are hyperlinks, menus, etc. still visible? • WCAG 2.0: • 4.5:1 for normal text • 3:1 for large text (14+pt & bold, or 18+pt) • Tools: • Chrome Color Contrast Analyzer • Lea Verou’s Contrast Ratio • WebAIM Color Contrast Checker • CheckMyColours.com http://www.inpixelitrust.fr/blog/en/tips-create-accessible-color-palette/ http://alistapart.com/blog/post/easy-color-contrast-testing
  • 41. Use <label> (properly) • Match the for attribute to the field’s id attribute. • When you click label text next to a text box, does the cursor appear in the field? • When you click label text next to a radio / checkbox, does it get toggled? • When you click label text next to a select menu, does it get focus? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
  • 43. Use HTML5 <header role="banner"> <nav role="navigation"> <aside role="complementary"> <form role="search"> <footer role="contentinfo"> <main role="main">
  • 44. Use HTML5 “Mobile” often means narrow screen in RWD, as well as this context.
  • 45. Use HTML5 <header role="banner"> <nav role="navigation"> <aside role="complementary"> <form role="search"> <footer role="contentinfo"> <main role="main"> “Mobile” often means narrow screen in RWD, as well as this context.
  • 46. Use HTML5 • Sectioning elements already have accessibility built in. Use them. • <header> • <nav> • <main> (one per page) • <aside> • <footer> • <form> (a search form) This stuff is baked in!
  • 47. Use Only One <main> per Page Modified version of Hixie’s image at https://github.com/whatwg/html/issues/100#issuecomment-138620240
  • 48. Use Only One <main> per Page • <main> maps directly to role="main", • AT users expect one main content block, may miss subsequent <main>s, • AT doesn’t expose that there are multiples, • Can erode trust in landmark navigation. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/use-only-one-main-on-a-page.html
  • 50. Use <h#> Wisely • Use only one <h1> per page, • Don’t skip heading levels, • Use appropriate nesting, • There is no Document Outline Algorithm: • Don’t use <h1> within every new <section> nor <article>, • This will not affect your SEO. http://adrianroselli.com/2013/12/the-truth-about-truth-about-multiple-h1.html
  • 51. <button>, <input>, or <a> http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
  • 52. <button>, <input>, or <a> http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
  • 53. <button>, <input>, or <a> • Don’t use a <div> nor <span>. • Does the control take me to another URL? • Use an <a href> . • Note: does not fire on space-bar. • Does the control change something on the current page? • Use a <button>. • Does the control submit form fields? • Use a <input type="submit"> or <button type="submit">. http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
  • 54. Don’t Use tabindex > 0 https://www.digitalgov.gov/2014/11/17/user-experience-impossible-the-line-between-accessibility-and-usability/
  • 55. Don’t Use tabindex > 0 • tabindex="-1" • Use to set focus with script, • Does not put it in tab order of page. • tabindex="0" • Allows user to set focus (eg: via keyboard), • Puts in tab order of page (based on DOM). • tabindex="1" (or greater) • Do not do this, • Messes with natural tab order. http://adrianroselli.com/2014/11/dont-use-tabindex-greater-than-0.html
  • 56. Maybe Use tabindex = 0 http://adrianroselli.com/2016/02/keyboard-and-overflow.html
  • 57. Maybe Use tabindex = 0 • Do you have scrolling content boxes? • Keyboard users cannot access it. • Do you have content that displays on hover? • Keyboard users probably cannot access it. • A technique: • <div role="region" aria-label="[if appropriate]" tabindex="0"> http://adrianroselli.com/2016/02/keyboard-and-overflow.html
  • 58. Set lang attribute on <html> http://codepen.io/aardrian/pen/rOGYNL
  • 59. Set lang attribute on <html> http://codepen.io/aardrian/pen/rOGYNL
  • 60. Set lang attribute on <html> • VoiceOver uses to auto-switch voices, • VoiceOver uses appropriate accenting, • JAWS loads correct phonetic engine / phonologic dictionary, • NVDA matches VoiceOver and JAWS, • Use the correct lang value: • Sub-tags are ok, • Avoid private-use: en-GB-x-hixie http://adrianroselli.com/2015/01/on-use-of-lang-attribute.html
  • 62. Source Order Matters • CSS techniques allow visual order to break from DOM order: • Floats, • Absolute positioning, • Flexbox (see 5.4.1 of ED for a11y note), • Grid (read Rachel Andrew on subgrid). • WCAG 1.3.2 and 2.4.3 describe meaningful sequence and tab order matching visual flow, • Different behavior among different browsers. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/source-order-matters.html http://200ok.nl/a11y-flexbox/
  • 64. Don’t Disable Zoom • Allow users on mobile to zoom in, • Look in <meta name="viewport"> for this: • minimum-scale=1.0 • maximum-scale=1.0 • user-scalable=no • Look in @-ms-viewport {} for this: • zoom:1.0 • Enhance! • (Google AMP HTML is getting fixed) http://adrianroselli.com/2015/10/dont-disable-zoom.html
  • 66. Avoid Infinite Scroll • Makes it impossible to access some content: • Footer, • Sidebar links. • Destroys the back button, • Makes it impossible to share a URL to specific “page” of results, • Makes it impossible to jump ahead several “pages” of results, • Can overwhelm AT users, less powerful devices. http://adrianroselli.com/2014/05/so-you-think-you-built-good-infinite.html http://adrianroselli.com/2015/05/for-infinite-scroll-bounce-rate-is.html
  • 67. Reconsider Typefaces for Dyslexia http://opendyslexic.org/try-it/
  • 68. Reconsider Typefaces for Dyslexia • Use good typography rules: • Avoid justified text, • Use generous line spacing / leading, • Use generous letter spacing, • Avoid italics, • Generally use sans serif faces, • Use larger text, • Use good contrast, • Use clear, concise writing. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/03/typefaces-for-dyslexia.html
  • 69. Test in Windows High Contrast Mode
  • 70. Test in Windows High Contrast Mode • It removes CSS background images, • This is changing in a coming Edge release. • Colors defined in your CSS are overridden, • To activate: • Left ALT + left SHIFT + PRINT SCREEN • Media queries: • -ms-high-contrast: active • -ms-high-contrast: black-on-white • -ms-high-contrast: white-on-black http://adrianroselli.com/2012/08/css-background-images-high-contrast-mode.html
  • 73. Use Captions/Subtitles • Everybody uses them: • Working in public, in bed, at home, • Surfing in public, in bed, at work. • Should include audio descriptions, • Should include speaker identification, • Review auto-captions (“craptions”): • NoMoreCraptions.com http://adrianroselli.com/2013/11/captions-in-everyday-use.html
  • 74. Use Captions/Subtitles • Do video/audio clips have text alternatives? • Are links to closed-captions or transcripts built into the player or separate text links? • Is there an audio description available? • Tools: • Media Access Australia YouTube captioning tutorial, Vimeo captioning tutorial, • Tiffany Brown’s WebVTT tutorial, • DIY Resources for Closed Captioning and Transcription from 3 Play Media. http://webaim.org/techniques/captions/
  • 76. Share a11y Experiences • We’re all trying to do what we can, • Don’t attack someone who doesn’t know what they don’t know, • Someone may find something you never considered, • You may get feedback on something you never considered, • a11ywins.tumblr.com FTW: • Thanks to Marcy Sutton. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/07/lets-share-more-accessibility-experiences.html
  • 77. Key Takeaways 4 of 4 sections.
  • 78. Stairamp Dean Bouchard on Flickrhttp://incl.ca/the-problems-with-ramps-blended-into-stairs/
  • 79. ≠ Checklist • Accessibility is not a checklist. No matter how pretty that checklist looks nor how many items you get to check.
  • 80. Snowtreeramp “Wheelchair ramp at pharmacy not only hasn’t been cleared of snow but has 2 potted trees to ensure nobody can pass.” Nicolas Steenhouthttps://twitter.com/vavroom/status/571092086365261824
  • 81. = Process • Accessibility is not a checklist. • Accessibility is an ongoing process. You know, kinda like all software.
  • 82. WordPress Accessibility Presented by Adrian Roselli for WordCamp Buffalo 2016 My thanks and apologies. Slides from this talk will be available at rosel.li/WCBuf