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Selfish Accessibility: Presented at Google

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We can all pretend that we're helping others by making web sites and software accessible, but we are really making them better for our future selves. Learn some fundamentals of accessibility and how it can benefit you (whether future you from aging or you after something else limits your abilities). We'll review simple testing techniques, basic features and enhancements, coming trends, and where to get help. This isn't intended to be a deep dive into ARIA, but more of an overall primer for those who aren't sure where to start nor how it helps them.

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Selfish Accessibility: Presented at Google

  1. 1. Selfish Accessibility Presented by Adrian Roselli for Google Slides from this talk will be available at rosel.li/Googa11y
  2. 2. About Adrian Roselli • Co-written four books. • Technical editor for two books. • Written over fifty articles, most recently for .net Magazine and Web Standards Sherpa. Great bedtime reading!
  3. 3. About Adrian Roselli • Member of W3C HTML Working Group*, W3C Accessibility Task Force, five W3C Community Groups. • Building for the web since 1994. • Founder, owner at Algonquin (aHealthTech.com). • Learn more at AdrianRoselli.com. • Avoid on Twitter @aardrian. I warned you.
  4. 4. What is a11y? • A numeronym for “accessibility”: • The first and last letter (accessibility), • The number of characters omitted (a11y). • Prominent on Twitter (character restrictions): • #a11y • Examples: • l10n → localization • i18n → internationalization Ain’t language funsies?
  5. 5. Accessibility Gets No Respect In fairness, Sherwin Williams needs to come up with a lot of color names... “Cyberspace” (gray) “Online” (blue) “Lime Rickey” (green)
  6. 6. Accessibility Gets No Respect …however I think the team could have done better than this.
  7. 7. What We’ll Cover • Yay Statistics! • Be Selfish • Some Techniques • Basic Tests • Technical Bits • Resources Work with me, people.
  8. 8. Yay Statistics! 1 of 5 sections.
  9. 9. Any Disability • In the United States: • 10.4% aged 21-64 years old, • 25% aged 65-74 years old, • 50% aged 75+. • Includes: • Visual • Hearing • Mobility • Cognitive http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/ http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012
  10. 10. Vision Impairments • 285 million worldwide: • 39 million are blind, • 246 million have low vision, • 82% of people living with blindness are aged 50 and above. • 1.8% of Americans aged 21-64. • 4.0% of Americans aged 65-74. • 9.8% of Americans aged 75+. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/ http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012
  11. 11. Hearing Impairments • 360 million people worldwide have disabling hearing loss. • 17% (36 million) of American adults report some degree of hearing loss: • 18% aged 45-64 years old, • 30% aged 65-74 years old, • 47% aged 75+ years old. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs300/en/ https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/Pages/quick.aspx
  12. 12. Mobility Impairments • In the United States: • 5.5% aged 21-64 years old. • 15.6% aged 65-74 years old. • 32.9% aged 75+. http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012
  13. 13. Cognitive Impairments • Dyslexia, • Dyscalculia, • Memory issues, • Distractions (ADD, ADHD), • In the United States: • 4.3% aged 21-64 years old. • 5.4% aged 65-74 years old. • 14.4% aged 75+. http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012&subButton=Get+HTML
  14. 14. Be Selfish 2 of 5 sections.
  15. 15. WebAIM’s Hierarchy for Motivating Accessibility Change http://webaim.org/blog/motivating-accessibility-change/
  16. 16. My Hierarchy for Motivating Accessibility Change Is better, no?
  17. 17. Getting Older • Affects (nearly) everyone, • Carries risks and side effects, • Is not for the young. I’m still experimenting with it.
  18. 18. Rising Damp on Flickr.
  19. 19. Darren Baldwin on Flickr.
  20. 20. Accidents • Broken limbs, • Eye injuries, • Hearing injuries, • Head trauma. All of these have happened to me, multiple times.
  21. 21. Rev Stan on Flickr.
  22. 22. Let Ideas Compete on Flickr.
  23. 23. Fluffy Steve on Flickr.
  24. 24. Paul Townsend on Flickr.
  25. 25. But I’m Invincible! • Multi-tasking, • Sunlight, • Eating at your desk, • No headphones handy, • Content is not in your native language. The sun is trying to kill me.
  26. 26. Mariëlle on Flickr.
  27. 27. barockschloss on Flickr.
  28. 28. Seb on Flickr.
  29. 29. A.Davy on Flickr.
  30. 30. Steve Rhodes on Flickr.
  31. 31. SuperFantastic on Flickr.
  32. 32. World Bank Photo Collection on Flickr.
  33. 33. Lars Kristian Flem on Flickr.
  34. 34. Tech Support • Think of your family! • Think of your time spent helping them! • Think of the wasted holidays! This is why we hate the holidays.
  35. 35. Robert Simmons on Flickr.
  36. 36. The Message • Supporting accessibility now helps to serve future you. Do or do not.
  37. 37. The Message • Supporting accessibility now helps to serve future you. • Supporting accessibility now helps injured you, encumbered you. There is no try.
  38. 38. The Message • Supporting accessibility now helps to serve future you. • Supporting accessibility now helps injured you, encumbered you. • Getting younger developers to buy in helps future you – if you teach them well. Always pass on what you have learned.
  39. 39. Checklist • Accessibility is not a checklist.
  40. 40. Stairamp Dean Bouchard on Flickrhttp://incl.ca/the-problems-with-ramps-blended-into-stairs/
  41. 41. Checklist • Accessibility is not a checklist. • Accessibility is an ongoing process.
  42. 42. Maintenance Nicolas Steenhouthttps://twitter.com/vavroom/status/571092086365261824 “Wheelchair ramp at pharmacy not only hasn’t been cleared of snow but has 2 potted trees to ensure nobody can pass.”
  43. 43. Some Techniques 3 of 5 sections.
  44. 44. User Stories • Components: • User, • Outcome, • Value. • Writing: • As user, I want outcome. • As user, I want outcome so that value. • In order to get value as user, I want outcome. How to Write User Stories for Web Accessibility
  45. 45. Selfish User Stories • As a user on a sun-lit patio, I want to be able to read the content and see the controls. Add beer and as a user I may have trouble focusing.
  46. 46. Selfish User Stories • As a user in bed with a sleeping spouse, I want to watch a training video in silence so that I can get caught up at work. As a user who doesn’t want to get punched for having slacked off at work.
  47. 47. Selfish User Stories • In order to click links as a user with no elbow room in coach class with a tiny trackpad, I want click areas to be large enough and adequately spaced. As a user in coach class who also paid too much for the drink he’s spilling on his keyboard.
  48. 48. Selfish User Stories • As a user distracted by the TV, I want clear headings and labels so that I don’t lose my place. As a user who really should be finishing his work in the office.
  49. 49. User Stories • Physical Impairment • As a keyboard-only user, I want to be able to use the entire application. This includes seeing what has focus and not getting lost in off-screen elements.
  50. 50. User Stories • Physical Impairment • As a keyboard-only user, I want to be able to use the entire application. • As a keyboard-only user, I want to navigate a product list with the tab key so that I can find the right option. Arrow keys are acceptable as well, making sure that it is clear to the user.
  51. 51. User Stories • Physical Impairment • As a keyboard-only user, I want to be able to use the entire application. • As a keyboard-only user, I want to navigate a product list with the tab key so that I can find the right option. • In order to click links as a limited-mobility user, I want click areas to be large enough and adequately spaced. Else I may click the wrong item and have to hit the back button, which can be time consuming.
  52. 52. User Stories • Visual Impairment • As a color blind user, I want to be able to see links in page content. Underlines are important, but users also like to know what they clicked already.
  53. 53. User Stories • Visual Impairment • As a color blind user, I want to be able to see links in page content. • As a low-vision user, I want to zoom the page so that I can read the content. Without the text overlapping itself or every other item on the page.
  54. 54. User Stories • Visual Impairment • As a color blind user, I want to be able to see links in page content. • As a low-vision user, I want to zoom the page so that I can read the content. • In order to use the site as a blind user, I want to use a screen reader to navigate. Good headings, clear structure, landmark roles to jump around the page.
  55. 55. User Stories • Hearing Impairment • As a low-hearing user, I want to be able to access transcripts. From a clear link, not through some acrobatics to find them.
  56. 56. User Stories • Hearing Impairment • As a low-hearing user, I want to be able to access transcripts. • As a low-hearing user, I want access to closed captions so that I can use training videos. Timed to match the video is important.
  57. 57. User Stories • Hearing Impairment • As a low-hearing user, I want to be able to access transcripts. • As a low-hearing user, I want access to closed captions so that I can use training videos. • In order to participate in a webinar as a deaf user, I want real-time captioning or transcripts. This can be tricky, since you’ll need to have a resource typing in real-time.
  58. 58. User Stories • Cognitive Impairment • As a user with a vestibular disorder, I want to be able to disable parallax scrolling. But you don’t just use it for no reason, right?
  59. 59. User Stories • Cognitive Impairment • As a user with a vestibular disorder, I want to be able to disable parallax scrolling. • As a user with dyscalculia, I want distinct number fields for each block of digits in a credit card number so that I can purchase a product. You can auto-detect card type. Do the same for expiration date.
  60. 60. User Stories • Cognitive Impairment • As a user with a vestibular disorder, I want to be able to disable parallax scrolling. • As a user with dyscalculia, I want distinct number fields for each block of digits in a credit card number so that I can purchase a product. • In order to not get confused on pages with long text passages as a user with dyslexia, I want control over text size, spacing, and/or alignment. At the very least, turn of justified text.
  61. 61. Personas Book Excerpt: A Web for Everyone, by Sarah Horton, Whitney Quesenbery
  62. 62. Personas Adrian • Works when he should be relaxing, relaxes when he should be working. • Lives between motorcycles. • Works late at night with the TV on. • Uses sub-titles in Netflix. • Keeps all screens as dark as possible. That photo is from official ID.
  63. 63. Basic Tests 4 of 5 sections.
  64. 64. Click on Field Labels • When you click label text next to a text box, does the cursor appear in the field? • When you click label text next to a radio / checkbox, does it get toggled? • When you click label text next to a select menu, does it get focus? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
  65. 65. Unplug Your Mouse • Turn off your trackpad, stick, trackball, etc. • Can you interact with all controls (links, menus, forms) with only the keyboard? • Can you tell which item has focus? • Does the tab order match your expectation? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
  66. 66. Turn off Images • Can you still make sense of the page? • Is content missing? • Can you still use the site? • Is your alt text useful? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
  67. 67. Turn on High Contrast Mode • Windows only. • Left ALT + left SHIFT + PRINT SCREEN • Background images and colors are replaced. • Text colors are replaced. • Does this make your site unusable? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/ http://blog.adrianroselli.com/2012/08/css-background-images-high-contrast-mode.html
  68. 68. Turn off CSS • Does important content or functionality disappear? • Do error messages or other items that rely on visual cues make sense? • Is content still in a reasonable order? • Do any styles (colors, text effects, etc.) remain? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
  69. 69. Test for Colorblindness/Contrast • Is there enough contrast? • Are hyperlinks, menus, etc. still visible? • Tools: • Chrome Color Contrast Analyzer • Lea Verou’s Contrast Ratio • WebAIM Color Contrast Checker • CheckMyColours.com http://www.inpixelitrust.fr/blog/en/tips-create-accessible-color-palette/ http://alistapart.com/blog/post/easy-color-contrast-testing
  70. 70. Protanopia
  71. 71. Deuteranopia
  72. 72. Tritanopia
  73. 73. Look for Captions & Transcripts • Do video/audio clips have text alternatives? • Are links to closed-captions or transcripts built into the player or separate text links? • Is there an audio description available? • Tools: • Media Access Australia YouTube captioning tutorial, Vimeo captioning tutorial, • Tiffany Brown’s WebVTT tutorial, • DIY Resources for Closed Captioning and Transcription from 3 Play Media. http://webaim.org/techniques/captions/
  74. 74. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zCqN_cCLnnk
  75. 75. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  76. 76. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  77. 77. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  78. 78. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  79. 79. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  80. 80. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  81. 81. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? • Is there alt text for image links? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  82. 82. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? • Is there alt text for image links? • Is the link text consistent? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  83. 83. Technical Bits 5 of 5 sections.
  84. 84. WAI-ARIA • Web Accessibility Initiative – Accessible Rich Internet Applications. • Adds accessibility information to HTML elements. • Can be used with prior versions of HTML. • WAI-ARIA 1.0 published March 20, 2014. http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/
  85. 85. Five Rules of ARIA Use 1. If you can use a native HTML5 element with semantics/behavior already built in, then do so, instead of repurposing another element. RT this! https://twitter.com/aardrian/status/454249142387081219
  86. 86. Five Rules of ARIA Use 2. Do not change native semantics. Unless you really have to (no <h1> with a role="button", for example). RT this! https://twitter.com/aardrian/status/454249201564532737
  87. 87. Five Rules of ARIA Use 3. All interactive ARIA controls must be usable with the keyboard — keyboard users must be able to perform equivalent actions. RT this! https://twitter.com/aardrian/status/454249253284483072
  88. 88. Five Rules of ARIA Use 4. Do not use role="presentation" or aria- hidden="true" on a focusable element. If you do so, some users will never be able to focus. RT this! https://twitter.com/aardrian/status/454249297408585729
  89. 89. Five Rules of ARIA Use 5. All interactive elements must have an accessible name. This may come from a visible (text on a button) or invisible (alt text on an image) property. http://rawgit.com/w3c/aria-in-html/master/index.html#fifth-rule-of-aria-use Accessible name: http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/terms#def_accessible_name
  90. 90. HTML/ARIA Don’t • <div onclick="DoThing();">Do a thing.</div> I see this all the time.
  91. 91. HTML/ARIA Don’t • <div onclick="DoThing();" tabindex="0">Do a thing.</div> I see this a bunch, too.
  92. 92. HTML/ARIA Don’t • <div onclick="DoThing();" tabindex="0" onkeypress="DoThing();">Do a thing.</div> Excluded bits like if(event.keyCode==32||event.keyCode==13)DoThing();
  93. 93. HTML/ARIA Don’t • <div onclick="DoThing();" tabindex="0" onkeypress="DoThing();" role="button">Do a thing.</div> ARIA roles to the rescue! Er…
  94. 94. HTML/ARIA Do • <button type="submit">Do a thing.</button> Or just start with the right element. http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/05/14/links-are-not-buttons-neither-are-divs-and-spans/
  95. 95. WAI-ARIA • Accessibility Lipstick on a Usability Pig • By Jared Smith: http://webaim.org/blog/accessibility-lipstick-on- a-usability-pig/ • What is WAI-ARIA, what does it do for me, and what not? • By Marco Zehe: http://www.marcozehe.de/2014/03/27/what-is- wai-aria-what-does-it-do-for-me-and-what-not/ ARIA ALL THE THINGS!
  96. 96. HTML5 Elements • Sectioning elements already have accessibility built in. Use them. • <header> • <nav> • <main> (one per page) • <aside> • <footer> • <form> (a search form) This stuff is baked in!
  97. 97. HTML5/ARIA Landmarks • They map to these ARIA landmark roles: • <header role="banner"> (once per page) • <nav role="navigation"> • <main role="main"> (one per page) • <aside role="complementary"> • <footer role="contentinfo"> (once per page) • <form role="search"> http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/wiki/Using_ARIA_landmarks_to_identify_regions_of_a_page
  98. 98. Generic Desktop Layout <header role="banner"> <nav role="navigation"> <aside role="complementary"> <form role="search"> <footer role="contentinfo"> <main role="main">
  99. 99. Generic “Mobile” Layout <header role="banner"> <nav role="navigation"> <aside role="complementary"> <form role="search"> <footer role="contentinfo"> <main role="main"> “Mobile” often means narrow screen in RWD, as well as this context.
  100. 100. HTML5 Headings • Use normal heading ranks to convey document structure. • Don’t skip; go in order. <h1> <h2> <h3> <h4> <h5> <h6> Fun fact: NCSA Mosaic 1.0 had provisions for an <h7>: http://blog.adrianroselli.com/2013/04/ncsa-moscaic-turns-20.html
  101. 101. HTML5 Headings • Document Outline Algorithm… • Is a myth, • Isn’t implemented in any browsers, • Should not be relied upon. • Don’t be fooled by articles claiming otherwise. • Spec has been updated. • No SEO benefit for one over other. http://blog.adrianroselli.com/2013/12/the-truth-about-truth-about-multiple-h1.html
  102. 102. The New <div>itis • <section>orrhea, <article> abuse. • These map to regions in page navigation order (role="region"). • Can overwhelm users of AT. • If it doesn’t get an <h#>, don’t use it. • If it shouldn’t be in the document outline, don’t use it. http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/sections.html#the-section-element http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/sections.html#the-article-element
  103. 103. Focus Styles http://blog.adrianroselli.com/2014/06/keep-focus-outline.html
  104. 104. Focus Styles • Necessary for keyboard use, • Use in conjunction with :hover, • Check libraries for :focus styles. It’s built in, just don’t mess with it.
  105. 105. Focus Styles https://twitter.com/aardrian/statuses/489837817129099266
  106. 106. Alternative Text • Use alt. • Longdesc links to more verbose alternative. http://www.w3.org/blog/2014/03/wcag-techniques-for-image-text-alternatives/ http://www.4syllables.com.au/2010/12/text-alternatives-decision-tree/ http://dev.w3.org/html5/alt-techniques/#tree
  107. 107. Alternative Text Decision Tree http://www.4syllables.com.au/2010/12/text-alternatives-decision-tree/ http://dev.w3.org/html5/alt-techniques/#tree 1. What role does image play? 2. Does it present new info? 3. What type of info? Informative Yes alt="" or <a href="foo"><img alt="">Link</a> alt="" or Use CSS alt="descriptive identification" or alt="short label" + caption PurelyDecorative Sensory No alt="label for link" alt=“short alternative" or alt="short label" + caption alt="short label + location of long alternative" or long text alternative on same or linked page Long/Complex Short/Simple
  108. 108. Resources Unless you had questions, which you didn’t else you would have asked by now.
  109. 109. Resources • Web Accessibility and Older People: Meeting the Needs of Ageing Web Users http://www.w3.org/WAI/older-users/Overview.php • Easy Checks - A First Review of Web Accessibility http://www.w3.org/WAI/eval/preliminary • How People with Disabilities Use the Web: Overview http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/people-use- web/Overview.html In addition to the gems I’ve sprinkled throughout.
  110. 110. Resources • 2.11 ARIA Role, State, and Property Quick Reference http://www.w3.org/TR/aria-in-html/#aria-role- state-and-property-quick-reference • 2.12 Definitions of States and Properties (all aria-* attributes) http://www.w3.org/TR/aria-in-html/#definitions-of- states-and-properties-all-aria--attributes In addition to the gems I’ve sprinkled throughout.
  111. 111. Resources • a11yTips http://dboudreau.tumblr.com/ • Designing For The Elderly: Ways Older People Use Digital Technology Differently http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/02/05/designing- digital-technology-for-the-elderly/ • How to Write User Stories for Web Accessibility http://www.interactiveaccessibility.com/blog/how-write- user-stories-accessibility-requirements • Book Excerpt: A Web for Everyone http://uxmag.com/articles/book-excerpt-a-web-for-everyone In addition to the gems I’ve sprinkled throughout.
  112. 112. Presented by Adrian Roselli for Google My thanks and apologies. Slides from this talk will be available at rosel.li/Googa11y Selfish Accessibility

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