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Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018

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Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018

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Learn some fundamentals of accessibility and how it can benefit you (whether future you from aging or you after something else limits your abilities). We’ll review differing abilities, generate (minimal) user stories and personas, discuss best practices for design and development, prototype some ideas (on paper), and discuss where to get help. This isn’t intended to be a deep dive into technologies, but more of an overall primer for those who aren’t sure where to start with accessibility nor how it helps them.

Learn some fundamentals of accessibility and how it can benefit you (whether future you from aging or you after something else limits your abilities). We’ll review differing abilities, generate (minimal) user stories and personas, discuss best practices for design and development, prototype some ideas (on paper), and discuss where to get help. This isn’t intended to be a deep dive into technologies, but more of an overall primer for those who aren’t sure where to start with accessibility nor how it helps them.

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Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018

  1. 1. Prototyping Accessibility Presented by Adrian Roselli for WordCamp Europe 2018 Slides from this workshop will be available at rosel.li/wceu18
  2. 2. PLEASE BREAK INTO GROUPS OF FIVE (5) Stragglers may be assigned a group.
  3. 3. Introductions
  4. 4. • I’ve written some stuff, • Member of W3C, • Building for the web since 1993, • Learn more at AdrianRoselli.com, • Avoid on Twitter @aardrian. About Adrian Roselli
  5. 5. • This trip paid for by The Paciello Group. About Adrian Roselli
  6. 6. Group Exercise!
  7. 7. Group Exercise! • Decide on a user interface element. Examples: • Login form, • Disclosure widget, • Data grid, • Search, • etc. • Quickly describe or draw it on paper (no code). • 15 minutes.
  8. 8. Primer
  9. 9. What is a11y? • A numeronym for “accessibility”: • The first and last letter (accessibility), • The number of characters omitted (a11y). • Prominent on Twitter (character restrictions): • #a11y • Examples: • l10n → localization • i18n → internationalization
  10. 10. Disability is not just a health problem. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. — World Health Organization
  11. 11. Agenda • Exercise: UI Component • Primer • Disability Types • Who Else? • Exercise: Overlapping Needs • User Experience Models • Exercise: Proto-Persona • Technical Bits • Exercise: Prototype • Wrap-up
  12. 12. Disability Types
  13. 13. Disability Types • Physical • Epilepsy • Mobility • Fine motor skills • Hearing • Deaf • Hard of Hearing • Vision • Color blindness • Low vision • Blind • Cognitive • ADD/ADHD • Autism • Dyslexia/Dyscalculia • Learning and Language • Speech • Stuttering • Non-verbal • Cluttering • Apraxia of speech (AOS)
  14. 14. Disability Types • Blindness • Low Vision (including color blindness) • Deaf and Hard of Hearing • Speech • Physical • Intellectual & Cognitive
  15. 15. Blindness • Screen reader user • Keyboard-only user • Relies on: • Headings • Form Elements • Links • Landmarks
  16. 16. Low Vision • May use high contrast modes • May not be able to differentiate colors • May scale fonts • May use a screen magnifier • May use a screen reader • Relies on: • Scaling fonts • Good contrast
  17. 17. Deaf and Hard of Hearing • Cannot hear audio cues • Will struggle if captions are not synchronized • First language may be sign language • Relies on: • Good captions • Visual cues • Color cues • Haptic cues
  18. 18. Speech • May speak less clearly • May be non-verbal • Can be stymied by voice interfaces • Phone interaction may not be possible • May use assistive technology • Relies on: • Other interactions
  19. 19. Physical • Temporary to permanent • Slight to severe • Can change throughout a day • May use specialized hardware • May use a screen reader • May use dictation software • Relies on: • Generous hit areas • Simple interactions
  20. 20. Intellectual & Cognitive • May use a screen reader • May use dictation software • May benefit from any/all considerations already listed • Relies on: • Well-structured content • Plain language • Good context
  21. 21. Who Else?
  22. 22. Everyone Else!
  23. 23. Getting Older • Affects (nearly) everyone, • Carries risks and side effects, • Is not for the young.
  24. 24. Rising Damp on Flickr.
  25. 25. Darren Baldwin on Flickr.
  26. 26. Accidents • Broken limbs, • Eye injuries, • Hearing injuries, • Head trauma.
  27. 27. Rev Stan on Flickr.
  28. 28. Let Ideas Compete on Flickr.
  29. 29. Paul Townsend on Flickr.
  30. 30. But I’m Invincible! • Multi-tasking, • Sunlight, • Eating at your desk, • No headphones handy, • Content is not in your native language.
  31. 31. Mariëlle on Flickr.
  32. 32. Seb on Flickr.
  33. 33. Steve Rhodes on Flickr.
  34. 34. SuperFantastic on Flickr.
  35. 35. Lars Kristian Flem on Flickr.
  36. 36. Tech Support • Think of your family! • Think of your time spent helping them! • Think of the wasted holidays!
  37. 37. Robert Simmons on Flickr.
  38. 38. Group Exercise!
  39. 39. Group Exercise! • Each person in your group must pick a disability type: 1. Low vision 2. Blindness 3. Hearing and Speech 4. Physical 5. Cognitive • Within your group, discuss where each of your types overlap in: • Barriers, abilities, needs, etc. • 15 minutes.
  40. 40. User Experience Models
  41. 41. User Stories • Components: • User, • Outcome, • Value. • Writing: • As user, I want outcome. • As user, I want outcome so that value. • In order to get value as user, I want outcome.
  42. 42. Selfish User Stories • As a user on a sun-lit patio, I want to be able to read the content and see the controls. Add beer and as a user I may have trouble focusing.
  43. 43. Selfish User Stories • As a user in bed with a sleeping spouse, I want to watch a training video in silence so that I can get caught up at work. As a user who doesn’t want to get punched for having slacked off at work.
  44. 44. Selfish User Stories • In order to click links as a user with no elbow room in coach class with a tiny trackpad, I want click areas to be large enough and adequately spaced. As a user in coach class who also paid too much for the drink he’s spilling on his keyboard.
  45. 45. Selfish User Stories • As a user distracted by the TV, I want clear headings and labels so that I don’t lose my place. As a user who really should be finishing his work in the office.
  46. 46. Personas Book Excerpt: A Web for Everyone, by Sarah Horton, Whitney Quesenbery
  47. 47. Personas Adrian • Works when he should be relaxing, relaxes when he should be working. • Lives between motorcycles. • Works late at night with the TV on. • Uses sub-titles in Netflix. • Keeps all screens as dark as possible.
  48. 48. Group Exercise!
  49. 49. Group Exercise! • Develop a (proto-) persona. • Develop user stories for your persona. • As user, I want outcome. • As user, I want outcome so that value. • In order to get value as user, I want outcome. • Consider the UI element you created. • 15 minutes.
  50. 50. Technical Bits
  51. 51. Text Alternatives for Images • Can you still make sense of the page? • Is content missing? • Can you still use the site? • Is your alt text useful? • Do you account for CSS background images? • What about SVGs? • Or CSS-generated symbols / icons? http://www.4syllables.com.au/2010/12/text-alternatives-decision-tree/ http://dev.w3.org/html5/alt-techniques/#tree
  52. 52. Text Alternatives for Images
  53. 53. Text Alternatives for Images
  54. 54. Typography Matters • Leading / line height at least 1.5× font size (WCAG 2.1), • Space after paragraphs at least 2× font size (WCAG 2.1), • Letter spacing / tracking at least 0.12× font size (WCAG 2.1), • Word spacing at least 0.16× font size (WCAG 2.1), • Avoid justified text, • Avoid italics, • Use larger text (lean on browser default), • Use good contrast, • Use clear, concise writing.
  55. 55. Typography Matters
  56. 56. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”?
  57. 57. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons?
  58. 58. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows?
  59. 59. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info?
  60. 60. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links?
  61. 61. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)?
  62. 62. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? • Is there alt text for image links?
  63. 63. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? • Is there alt text for image links? • Is the link text consistent?
  64. 64. Hyperlinks! • You are not Google: • Users know Google’s layout, • Users probably don’t visit your site daily. • Relying on color alone will not suffice (WCAG 1.4.1 [A], 1.4.3 [AA]), • Necessary contrast values: • 4.5:1 between text and its background for copy, • 3:1 between text and its background for larger text, • 3:1 between surrounding text and a hyperlink, plus an additional visual cue (G183). http://adrianroselli.com/2014/03/i-dont-care-what-google-did-just-keep.html
  65. 65. Hyperlinks! http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  66. 66. Hit Areas • Make areas large enough to tap, • Leave space between hit areas to avoid mis-taps/clicks, • Fitts’ Law (time to target as function of size of target), • Apple: 44pt × 44pt, • Microsoft: 48px × 48px (spaced 2mm apart), • Android: 48dp × 48dp (spaced 8dp apart), • BBC: 7mm × 7mm (inside an exclusion zone of at least 7mm × 7mm) • WCAG 2.1 Success Criterion 2.5.5 Target Size (AAA).
  67. 67. Hit Areas
  68. 68. Hit Areas
  69. 69. Hit Areas
  70. 70. Hit Areas
  71. 71. Color Contrast • Is there enough contrast? • Are hyperlinks, menus, etc. still visible? • WCAG 2.0: • 4.5:1 for normal text • 3:1 for large text (14+pt & bold, or 18+pt) • WCAG 2.1: • 3:1 for UI components, graphical objects
  72. 72. Color Contrast • WCAG 2.1 has broadened it, • Typography, • Icons and glyphs, • Form elements, error messages, placeholders, • Hover, focus, selected states.
  73. 73. Label Your Fields • Provide instructions for the entire form, • Provide a programmatic indication of required fields, • Provide formatting advice, • Use ARIA to associate formatting advice, • Avoid placeholder text, • Associate error messages with fields.
  74. 74. Label Your Fields • Match the for attribute to the corresponding field’s id attribute. • Label text provides a larger hit area for mouse / touch, • Label text should appear above or the left of text inputs or menus (for LTR languages), • Label text should appear after checkboxes / radio buttons (for LTR languages). • Label grouped fields (<fieldset> / <legend>)
  75. 75. Label Your Fields
  76. 76. Structure Your Document • Sectioning elements already have accessibility built in. Use them. • <header> • <nav> • <main> (one per page) • <aside> • <footer> • <form> (a search form) This stuff is baked in!
  77. 77. Structure Your Document
  78. 78. Structure Your Document <header role="banner"> <nav role="navigation"> <aside role="complementary"> <form role="search"> <footer role="contentinfo"> <main role="main">
  79. 79. Structure Your Document “Mobile” often means narrow screen in RWD, as well as this context.
  80. 80. Structure Your Document <header role="banner"> <nav role="navigation"> <aside role="complementary"> <form role="search"> <footer role="contentinfo"> <main role="main"> “Mobile” often means narrow screen in RWD, as well as this context.
  81. 81. Structure Your Document • Use only one <h1> per page, • Don’t skip heading levels, • Use appropriate nesting, • There is no Document Outline Algorithm: • Don’t use <h1> within every new <section> nor <article>, • This will not affect your SEO. http://adrianroselli.com/2013/12/the-truth-about-truth-about-multiple-h1.html
  82. 82. Structure Your Document
  83. 83. Structure Your Document 1. Ordered lists 2. … 3. … Description lists As statement and their description Key Value • Unordered lists • … • …
  84. 84. Structure Your Document 1. Boil water 2. Add pasta 3. Drain water Pasta 1 pound Water 4 quarts Olive oil Not 4 quarts • Pasta • Water • Olive oil
  85. 85. Be Keyboard Friendly • tabindex="-1" • Use to set focus with script, • Does not put it in tab order of page. • tabindex="0" • Allows user to set focus (eg: via keyboard), • Puts in tab order of page (based on DOM). • tabindex="1" (or greater) • Do not do this, • Messes with natural tab order. http://adrianroselli.com/2014/11/dont-use-tabindex-greater-than-0.html
  86. 86. Be Keyboard Friendly https://www.digitalgov.gov/2014/11/17/user-experience-impossible-the-line-between-accessibility-and-usability/
  87. 87. Be Keyboard Friendly • Do you have scrolling content boxes? • Keyboard users cannot access it. • Do you have content that displays on hover? • Keyboard users probably cannot access it. • A technique: • <div role="region" aria-label="[if appropriate]" tabindex="0"> http://adrianroselli.com/2016/02/keyboard-and-overflow.html
  88. 88. Be Keyboard Friendly http://adrianroselli.com/2016/02/keyboard-and-overflow.html
  89. 89. Be Keyboard Friendly http://adrianroselli.com/2016/12/accessible-emoji-tweaked.html
  90. 90. Be Keyboard Friendly • Do not use a <div> nor <span> as a control. • Does the control take me to another URL? • Use an <a href>. • Note: does not fire on space-bar. • Does the control change something on the current page? • Use a <button type="button">. • Does the control submit form fields? • Use <input type="submit"> or <button type="submit">. http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
  91. 91. Be Keyboard Friendly http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
  92. 92. Be Keyboard Friendly • Define :focus styles, • Particularly if you removed link underlines, • Everywhere you have :hover, add :focus, • Look for :focus{outline:none;} in libraries: • If you find it, remove it. • Do not rely on browser defaults, • Easy to test with the tab key. http://adrianroselli.com/2014/06/keep-focus-outline.html
  93. 93. Be Keyboard Friendly
  94. 94. Be Keyboard Friendly https://www.virginamerica.com/
  95. 95. Display vs Source Order • CSS techniques allow visual order to break from DOM order: • Floats, • Absolute positioning, • Flexbox (see 5.4.1 of ED for a11y note), • Grid (read Rachel Andrew on subgrid). • WCAG 1.3.2 and 2.4.3 describe meaningful sequence and tab order matching visual flow, • Different behavior among different browsers, MQs. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/source-order-matters.html http://200ok.nl/a11y-flexbox/
  96. 96. Display vs Source Order http://codepen.io/aardrian/full/MavVeb/ Firefox Chrome
  97. 97. Use Captions, Subtitles, Transcripts • Everybody uses them: • Working in public, in bed, at home, • Surfing in public, in bed, at work. • Should include audio descriptions, • Should include speaker identification, • Review auto-captions (“craptions”): • NoMoreCraptions.com http://adrianroselli.com/2013/11/captions-in-everyday-use.html
  98. 98. Use Captions, Subtitles, Transcripts • Do video/audio clips have text alternatives? • Are links to closed-captions or transcripts built into the player or separate text links? • Is there an audio description available? • Tools: • Media Access Australia YouTube captioning tutorial, Vimeo captioning tutorial, • Tiffany Brown’s WebVTT tutorial, • DIY Resources for Closed Captioning and Transcription from 3 Play Media. http://webaim.org/techniques/captions/
  99. 99. Use Captions, Subtitles, Transcripts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V592VMJeXc8
  100. 100. WAI-ARIA • Web Accessibility Initiative – Accessible Rich Internet Applications. • Helps make complex components accessible. • You do not always need ARIA; good HTML often best. • No ARIA is better than bad ARIA. http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/ https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-practices-1.1/#no_aria_better_bad_aria
  101. 101. Five Rules of ARIA Use 1. If you can use a native HTML5 element with semantics/behavior already built in, then do so, instead of repurposing another element.
  102. 102. Five Rules of ARIA Use 2. Do not change native semantics. Unless you really have to (no <h1> with a role="button", for example).
  103. 103. Five Rules of ARIA Use 3. All interactive ARIA controls must be usable with the keyboard — keyboard users must be able to perform equivalent actions.
  104. 104. Five Rules of ARIA Use 4. Do not use role="presentation" or aria- hidden="true" on a focusable element. If you do so, some users will never be able to focus.
  105. 105. Five Rules of ARIA Use 5. All interactive elements must have an accessible name. This may come from a visible (text on a button) or invisible (alt text on an image) property.
  106. 106. Pattern Libraries • Document all this for your custom widgets, • Use this to build a larger pattern library, • For many custom widgets: WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices 1.1, • It is not perfect, but gets you started, • Be wary of application-specific patterns. • For truly custom widgets you have never seen before, consider simplifying to an existing pattern.
  107. 107. Tab order indicated via numbers above Accessibility requirements See 3.1 Accordion in the WAI ARIA Authoring Practices for requirements. Focus and keyboard tab order • Left/Up arrow moves to previous accordion header • Right/down arrow moves to next accordion header • Enter opens a panel when on the header • When opened focus stays on the element, tab moves to the first item in the header Roles and states • Accordion is a tablist • Each header is a tab • Use visibility hidden to hide content of tabs Behavior • Contents of accordion hidden from screen readers when closed • Contents remain open until closed by the user • Header and arrow is a single touch target
  108. 108. Group Exercise!
  109. 109. Group Exercise! • Take your user interface element and discuss how you might build/code it. • Represent the disability category you championed earlier. • Remember your personas, user story/stories. • Consider changing needs of users. • 15 minutes
  110. 110. Wrap-up
  111. 111. Stairamp Dean Bouchard on Flickrhttp://accessibility.net.nz/blog/the-problems-with-ramps-blended-into-stairs/
  112. 112. ≠ Checklist • Accessibility is not a checklist.
  113. 113. Maintenance Nicolas Steenhouthttps://twitter.com/vavroom/status/571092086365261824 “Wheelchair ramp at pharmacy not only hasn’t been cleared of snow but has 2 potted trees to ensure nobody can pass.”
  114. 114. = Process • Accessibility is not a checklist. • Accessibility is an ongoing process.
  115. 115. Prototyping Accessibility Presented by Adrian Roselli for WordCamp Europe 2018 Slides from this workshop will be available at rosel.li/wceu18

Editor's Notes

  • We will be doing group activities.
    This gets the chaos organization out of the way early.

    Have this slide showing as people come in.
  • - These guys funded my trip
  • 1980 definition:
    “In the context of health experience, a disability is any restriction or lack of ability (resulting from an impairment) to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.”
  • Everyone is different. No two people are alike.
    With that in mind, it only makes sense that not everyone's body is going work the way everyone else's. Because of this, some people might not be able to see, hear, speak, understand, or move the way other people do.
  • A blind user cannot see what is on their screen. This may seem obvious, but it's important to think about what this really means. Most users don't think twice about how they ingest or interact with the content on their screen, nor does it really matter what the underlying code looks like. This is not the case for someone who cannot see the screen.

    When looking at the screen is not an option, assistive technology (AT) such as a screen reader must be used to navigate the web. Screen readers rely on HTML to navigate. If the website or application is not properly coded, AT will not be able to pass along the correct information to the user. This includes such important elements such as:

    Most likely a keyboard only user
    Using a mouse is most likely difficult, if not impossible, for a user who cannot see what is on the screen. As a result, a user who is blind will most likely use a keyboard to navigate.

    A keyboard-only user requires all functions performed by a mouse to be actionable via keyboard. These users are also prone to keyboard and/or programmatic focus issues if their experience isn't managed properly.
  • Someone with low vision has an impairment that cannot be corrected. In many cases, the person may be "legally blind" but still have some visual perception. There are different kinds of low vision and each has its own considerations. These considerations are different from blindness, though there may be overlap in approaches.
  • Some people may not be able to hear at all, or may have some kind of hearing impairment. This means any cues or information that are communicated by sound alone may be missed. The following barriers can occur.
  • Someone with a speech disability may be able to speak less clearly than others, or perhaps be entirely non-verbal (and this could be due to physical/motor or cognitive challenges). Some factors to bear in mind are:

    Web-based services or functionality that require voice interactions will be difficult if not impossible

    Websites or applications that offer a phone number as the only way to communicate with a company

    A person who struggles with a speech impairment might use specialized AT, or none at all, depending on the root cause of their impairment. For example, someone who has lost their voice due to an injury or sickness might not require AT to navigate the web whereas someone who is non-verbal due to autism might require a screen reader or a more specialized application to communicate.
  • There are many possible forms of physical impairment, such as mobility or dexterity issues. When thinking about web accessibility, the most prominent physical impairments are motor control and the inability to use two hands at once, as these most affect interaction with a device.
  • Cognitive disabilities affect far more people than sensory disabilities. There's a large variety of reasons for cognitive barriers, and a corresponding wide range of effects they can have. Some causes and conditions are…
    Asperger's Syndrome
    Attention deficit disorder (AD/HD)
    Autism
    Dementia
    Down Syndrome
    Dyscalculia
    Dyslexia
    Learning disabilities
    Rett Syndrome
    Stroke
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
    Williams Syndrome
    In order to make sense of the many different cognitive barriers people could experience, and to help us address them, they can be categorized broadly as follows.
    Memory
    Problem solving
    Attention
    Reading, linguistic, verbal comprehension
    Math comprehension
    Visual comprehension
  • Beware of disability stereotypes
    It's very important that we do not generalize people when talking about then individual needs. No two people are alike. With that in mind, we must be certain that we avoid the following:
    Using oversimplified terminology such as:Vision, hearing, physical and cognitive impairmentsThese types of impairments are not one size fits all, for example "Vision" could mean someone who is low vision, someone who is light sensitive, or someone who is completely blindUsing Misleading terms like:Screen reader usersMany people require a screen reader, for many different reasonsIncorrect:e.g. "Accessibility users"Accessibility isn't something we use, but rather something we can't use without.
  • Our inclusive design principles
    Recognize exclusion
    Exclusion happens when we solve problems using our own biases. As Microsoft designers, we seek out those exclusions, and use them as opportunities to create new ideas and inclusive designs.
    Learn from diversity
    Human beings are the real experts in adapting to diversity. Inclusive design puts people in the center from the very start of the process, and those fresh, diverse perspectives are the key to true insight.
    Solve for one, extend to many
    Everyone has abilities, and limits to those abilities. Designing for people with permanent disabilities actually results in designs that benefit people universally. Constraints are a beautiful thing.
  • Trying to check into your airline in a foreign country
    Keyboards, system in different language
    Great way to extend a trip
  • The objective is to get people to champion their disability type and think about where its needs and challenges intersect with others.
    It should prime them for the personas and user stories section to maybe write more aggregated stories.
  • WCAG 2.1 AAA: 44px
    Excludes:
    Equivalent: The target is available through an equivalent link or control on the same page that is at least 44 by 44 CSS pixels;
    Inline: The target is in a sentence or block of text;
    User Agent Control: The size of the target is determined by the user agent and is not modified by the author;
    Essential: A particular presentation of the target is essential to the information being conveyed.
  • Apple
  • Microsoft
  • Android
  • BBC
  • Screen shot of a link with the blue Chrome focus ring on the blue background of the Chrome help page.
  • Pattern as taken from the WAI Authoring Practices Guide

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