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UNIT 1.- THE CRISIS OF THE ANCIENT REGIME

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PPT SOBRE LA CRISIS DEL ANTIGUO RÉGIMEN EN INGLÉS PARA LA DIDÁCTICA EN HISTORIA DE 4º ESO.

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UNIT 1.- THE CRISIS OF THE ANCIENT REGIME

  1. 1. I.E.S ALHADRA (ALMERÍA). ALBERTO ARANDA SHAW
  2. 2. WHAT IS ANCIEN RÉGIME? ABSOLUTE MONARCHY AGRARIAN ECONOMY ESTAMENTAL • FIRST USED BY THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONARIES • AFTERWARDS IT WILL BE USED IN ALL COUNTRIES THAT HAD SUCH SYSTEM RUSSIAN EMPIREUNITED KINGDOM AUSTRIAN-HUNGARY EMPIRE FRANCE SPAIN
  3. 3. • MONARCHY OF DIVINE ORIGIN: “The king only can be judged by God” CONCENTRATION OF POWERS EXECUTIVE ENFORCES LAWS LEGISLATIVO PASSES LAWS JUDICIAL JUDGING THE LAWS • HE RULED WITH: MINISTERS, COURTS, ARMY, BUROCRACY AND DIPLOMACY CHOSEN AMONG THE MOST INFLUENTIAL FAMILIES • HE WAS ALSO ARMY HEAD, RAISED TAXES AND NAMING CHARGES
  4. 4.  LAND OWNERSHIP (NOBILITY AND CLERGY)  FEUDAL RIGHTS (“MAYORAZGO Y AMORTIZADO”)  LOW PRODUCTION (BAD TECHNIFICATION, “SECANO,BARBECHO, PLAGAS Y SUJETA A METEOROLOGÍA”.  STATIONARY POPULATION (SUBSITENCE CRISIS, HUNGER AND MISERY)  TRADITIONAL INDUSTRY AND HANDMADE (CRAFTS, GREMIOS, LOCALS)  FAILURE OF TRANSPORTS AND INFRAESTRUCTURES THREE-YEAR CROP ROTATION SYSTEM
  5. 5. TRIANGULAR TRADE ESLAVES SOURCE MATERIALS GOODS
  6. 6. ESTATE: SOCIAL GROUP THAT IT BELONGS BY BIRTH
  7. 7. ANCIEN RÉGIME SOCIETY ESTAMENT AL SOCIETY UNPRIVILEG ED MAJORITY PRIVILEGED MINORITY NOBILITY OUTCASTPEASANTSCRAFTSMANBOURGEOISECLERGY
  8. 8. • HIGH BIRTHRATE AND HIGH MORTALITY • WHY? • IF THE POPULATION INCREASES IT INCREASES THE PRODUCTION
  9. 9.  PRIVILEGED SOCIAL GROUP: BIRTH, ROYAL CONCESSION. POLITICAL AND ECONOMICAL POWER • LARGE CROPS • DONT PAY TAXES • GOT INCOMES • POLITICAL CHARGES • LEGAL SUPERIORITY DIVISION OF NOBILITY HIGHER NOBILITY LOWER NOBILITY MARQUIS,DUKE,EARL “OF THE PROVINCES” HIDALGOS,INFANZONES,ETC
  10. 10. DIVISION OF CLERGY HIGHER CLERGY LOWER CLERGY Pope, Archbishops Bishops, abbots Priest, monks, Charchman and parsons. DIVISIÓN OF CLERGY SECULAR CLERGY REGULAR CLERG  GRUPO SOCIAL PRIVILEGIADO: NO BIRTH, WIREPULLING, SECOND CHILD. GREAT POWER POLITICAL ECONOMICAL SOCIAL AFFAIRS OF STATE IDEOLOGICAL, MORAL AND EDUCATIVE CON LANDOWNERS, ALMS, DONATIONS He lives “in the century” He lives “in the rule”
  11. 11. HIGHER CLERGY LOWER CLERGY
  12. 12.  UNPRIVILEGED SOCIAL GROUP: THEY PAY TAXES. WITHOUT POLITICAL INFLU  THEY GET MARRIED WITH NOBILITY.  THEY WILL CAUSE THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE 19th CENTURY: STRUGGLE FO
  13. 13.  UNPRIVILEGED SOCIAL GROUP: THEY LIVED IN THE CITIES.  GUILD ORGANIZATION.  IN THE 19th CENTURY THEY WILL BECOME INDUSTRIAL WORKERS .
  14. 14.  UNPRIVILEGED GROUP: THEY LIVED IN THE COUNTRYSIDE IN POOR CONDIT  LINKS OF DEPENDENCE AND MANY CHARGE  IN THE 19th SOME OF THEM WILL BECOME INDUSTRIAL WORKERS.
  15. 15.  UNPRIVILEGED AND DESERTED SOCIAL GROUP: THEY LIVED IN THE CITIES  THEY SURVIVED WITH THE CHARITY AND CRIME
  16. 16. DIVINE POWER PEOPLE POWER SOCIAL INEQUALITY SOCIAL EQUALITY SEPERSTITIONS USE THE REASON THEY THOUGH IN PROGRESS THROUGH SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE. WITH THE IMPROVEMENT, THE SOCIETY WILL ACHIEVE HAPPINESS INTELECTUALL, PHILOSOPHICAL AND SCIENCETIPHICAL MOVEMENT THAT DEVELOPED DURING THE 18th CENTURY. IT CRITICISED THE ANCIEN REGIMEN, AND ITS SYSTEM OF P AND BELIEFS.
  17. 17. MONTESQUIEU “THE SPIRIT OF LAWS” ROUSSEAU “THE SOCIAL CONTRACT VOLTAIRE DIVISION OF THE POWERS POPULAR SOVEREIGNT FREEDOM OF THOUGHT
  18. 18. QUESNAY MERCANTILISM -- TO MID 18th CENTURY -- THE WEALTHY IS BASED ON THE ACCUMULATION OF GOLD AND SILVER -- STATE INTERVENTION PHYSIOCRACY -- FROM 19th CENTURY -- AGRICULTURE AS THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF WEALTH -- NO STATE INTERVENTION CAPITALISM -- FROM 19th CENTURY -- THE WEALTHY IS BASED ON THE MONEY -- NO STATE INTERVENTION ADAM SMITH
  19. 19. SUPPLY AND DEMAND LAW (PRODUCTION) SUPPLY AND DEMAND LAW (WAGE)
  20. 20. HOW DOES THIS NEW MOVEMENT GET TO THE P AND CHANGE THEIR MIND? ENCYCLOPEDIA RSEDAP BULL SESIONS SOCIAL CIRCLES
  21. 21. EXECUTIVE POWER LEGISLATIVE POWER KING GOVERNMENT Enforces the law PARLIAMENT CHAMBER CHAMBER OF LORDS OF COMMONS (nobles and bishop) (513 represent…) Passes laws and taxes VOTERS Around 200.000 bourgeoises NON-VOTERS: The rest of the people
  22. 22. THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION
  23. 23. SINCE MEDIEVAL TIMES IN ENGLAND, THE POWER OF THE MONARCH HAD BEEN LIMITED BY THE ENGLISH PARLIAMENT. IT HAD TWO HOUSES OF REPRESENTATIVES. ONE OF THEM WAS MADE UP OF THE NOBILITY AND THE CLERGY, AND WAS CALLED THE HOUSE OF LORDS. THE OTHER WAS MADE UP OF THE BOUGEOISIE AND WAS CALLED THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. WHENEVER THE MONARCHY WISHED TO APPROVE NEW TAXES OR DECLARE THE WAR AGAINST ANOTHER COUNTRY, BOTH HOUSES HAD TO MEET AND BE CONSULTED. HOWEVER IN 1642, KING CHARLES I TRIED TO RULE WITHOUT PARLIAMENT. RESISTANCE BY THOSE WHO OPPOSED THE INTENTIONS OF THE KING LED THE COUNTRY INTO CIVIL WAR. ON THE ONE SIDE THERE WERE THE SUPPORTERS OF PARLIAMENT AND ON THE OTHER, THE ABSOLUTE MONARCHY. IN 1649, KING CHARLES I WAS EXECUTED AND A REPUBLIC WAS PROCLAIMED. HOWEVER, THE LEADER OF THE REPUBLIC, OLIVER CROMWELL, BECAME A DICTATOR. WHEN HE DIED IN 1660, THE MONARCHY WAS RESTORED AND CHARLES II WAS CROWNED. CHARLES II HAD TO ACCEPT THE POWER OF THE PARLIAMENT. IN 1679 THE HABEAS CORPUS ACT WAS PASSED. THIS MEANT THAT EVERYONE WAS ENTITLED TO A FAIR TRIAL. IN 1685 CHARLES II DIED AND JAMES II BECAME KING, JAMES WAS A CATHOLIC AND APPOINTED SEVERAL CATHOLICS TO HIGH OFFICE. WHEN PARLIAMENT PROTESTED, JAMES II DISSOLVED IT. PARLIAMENT INVITED WILLIAM OF ORANGE TO OVERTHROW JAMES. WHEN WILLIAM LED HIS
  24. 24. ENLIGHTNED DESPOTISM IS A FORM OF GOVERNMENT THAT SOME EUROPEAN MONARCHY HAD IN THE 18th CENTURY. THEY CONTINUED THEIR ABSOLUTE RULA BUT INTRODUCE SOME OF THE ENLIGHTMENT`S PROPOSAL TO IMPROVE THE SOCIETY AND THE COUNTRY IN GENERAL “ALL FOR THE PEOPLE, BUT WITHOUT THE PEOPLE”
  25. 25. SEVEN YEARS WAR FRANCE VS UK MORE POLITICAL AND ECONOMICAL DEPENDENCY HIGUER TAX PAYMENT IN 1607 THE PURITANS OBTEINED A LICENSE FROM DE ENGLISH CROWN FOR IN TO AMERICA. THEY LANDED IN VIRGINIA, CALLED “NEW ENGLAND” BORDER IN 1776
  26. 26. NEW TAXES TOWNSHEND ACTSSTAMP ACTSUGAR ACT FIRST REACTIONS OF THE SETTLERS THEY PROTESTED AND ORGANIZED REVOLTS AND RIOTS AS A RESULT, THE GOVERNMENT REMOVED/TOOK OUT ALL TAXES, EXCEPT THE TEA.
  27. 27. SETTLERS OF INDIANS IN DISGUISE THREW TO THE SEA ALL THE TEA THAT MUST GO TO ENGLAND. THEY SHOWED HIS REFUSAL T THE REVOLUTION, WAR AND INDEPENDENCE OF THE USA BEGAN WITH BOSTON TEA PARTY.
  28. 28. LEXINGTON AND CONCORD SARATOGA- INTERVENTION OF FRANC YORKTOWN- GEORGE WASHINGTON TREATY OF PARIS(1783). END OF WAR
  29. 29. GEORGE WASHINGTON THOMAS JEFFERSON
  30. 30. POLITICAL SYSTEM FEDERAL REPUBLIC : UNITED FEDERATION PRESIDENT OF STATE: DEPART. OF DEFENSE, ECONOMY AND Y FOREIGN AF DECENTRALISED: THE OTHERS STATES WILL HAVE LARGE SELF-GOVERNME LEGISLATIVE POWER JUDICIAL POWER EXECUTIVE POWER VOTERS: RICH WHITE OWNERS NO VOTERS: LITTLE WHITE OWNERS, WOMENMUJERES, NO OWNERS, NIGGERS AND INDIA CONGRESS AND SENATE Voting laws and pass taxes c c THE PRESIDENT LARGE VOTERS c c c SUPREME COURT FEDERAL COURTS c c c
  31. 31. • 1700: CARLOS II “EL HECHIZADO” MUERE. FIN DE LOS AUS • DOS CANDIDATOS: FELIPE DE ANJOU Y CARLOS DE HABSB • CONFLICTO INTERNACIONAL Y GUERRA CIVIL • DURACIÓN DE LA GUERRA: 1701- 1715. • TRATADOS DE PAZ: UTRETCH Y RASTADT
  32. 32.  CARLOS II MUERE EN 1700: NOMBRA A FELIPE DE ANJOU COMO SUCESOR EN E  FELIPE DE ANJOU: FRANCÉS, DINASTÍA BORBÓN, CENTRALIST, NIETO DE LUIS X FRANCIA Y SOBRINO-NIETO DE CARLOS II DE ESPAÑAOF LUIS XIV OF  CARLOS DE HABSBURGO: AUSTRÍACO, DINASTIA HABSBURGO, FEDERALISTA, N JOSÉ I DE AUSTRIA Y BISNIETO DE FELIPE IV. CARLOS II CARLOS DE HABSBURGOFELIPE DE ANJOU
  33. 33.  FELIPE DE ANJOU: APOYADO POR FRANCIA  CARLOS DE HABSBURGO: APOYADO POR AUSTRIA, INGLATERRA, SABOYA, PAÍSES BAJOS, PORTUGAL Y PRUSIA.  MOTIVOS: NO CREAR UN IMPERIO HEGEMÓNICO FRANCIA-ESPAÑA  CASTILLA APOYARÁ A FELIPE DE ANJOU  ARAGÓN APOYARÁ A CARLOS DE HABS.  MOTIVOS: CENTRALISMO VS FEDERALISMO
  34. 34.  SE DESARROLLA EN LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA Y EUROPA, SOBRE TODO FRANCIA  SUPERIORIDAD DEMOGRÁFICA Y NAVAL DE “LA GRAN ALIANZA”  VICTORIAS INICIALES ALIADAS EN ESPAÑA Y EUROPA. INGLATERRA TOMA MENORCA Y GIBRALTAR.  VICTORIAS IMPORTANTES DE FELIPE V: ALMANSA, BRIHUEGA Y VILLAVICIOSA.
  35. 35.  1711: MUERE EL EMPERADOR JOSE I DE AUSTRIA: SUCESOR A CARLOS DE HA  SE ROMPE “LA GRAN ALIANZA”. MIEDO DE INGLATERRA DE LA UNIÓN ESPAÑA-A  EN ESPAÑA: CATALUÑA Y MALLORCA NO SE RINDEN.  CATALUÑA CAYÓ EN 1714 Y MALLORCA EN 1715.  TRATADOS DE PAZ: UTRETCH Y RASTADT.
  36. 36.  DOS OBJETIVOS:FINALIZAR LA GUERRA Y QUITARLE INFLUENCIA INTERNACION  FELIPE V: RENUNCIABA A LA CORONA FRANCESA. SÓLO ESPAÑA.  AUSTRIA: OBTIENE FLANDES, MILANESADO, NÁPOLES Y CERDEÑA.  INGLATERRA: OBTIENE MENORCA, GIBRALTAR Y VENTAJAS COMERCIALES EN A
  37. 37. CENTRALISMO BORBÓNICO Y MONARQUÍA ABSOLUTA DECRETOS DE NUEVA PLANTA REFORMAS ADMINISTRATIVAS, TERRITORIALES, ECONÓ JUDICIALES,ETC. LUIS I: MUERE AL AÑO. POLÍTICA EXTERIOR: PACTOS DE FAMILIA, REORGANIZACIÓN DEL EJÉRCITO Y NEUTRALIDAD.
  38. 38. UNIFICACIÓN Y CENTRALIZACIÓN- LOS DECRETOS DE NUEVA PLA  CASTIGO Y EXCUSA PARA UNIFICAR A LA CORONA DE ARAGÓN POR NO APO  VALENCIA Y ARAGÓN (1707), CATALUÑA (1715) Y BALEARES (1716).  SE SUPRIMIERON SUS FUEROS, CORTES, DIPUTACIONES, CONCEJOS MUNI JUSTICIA MAYOR Y SISTEMA FISCAL.  ADOPTARON LAS LEYES Y ASIMILARON LAS INSTITUCIONES CASTELLANAS.  PAÍS VASCO Y NAVARRA CONSERVARON SUS FUEROS POR APOYARLE EN LA GUERRA
  39. 39. REFORMAS GUBERNAMENTALES  SUPRESIÓN DE LAS CORTES. SÓLO LA DE CASTILLA SIN APENAS PODER.  SUPRESIÓN DE LOS CONSEJOS TERRITORIALES. SÓLO CASTILLA CON PO  CREACIÓN DE LAS SECRETARÍAS DE ESTADO: ESTADO, GUERRA Y MARIN ASUNTOS EXTRANJEROS Y JUSTICIA. UN SECRETARIO AL FRENTE DE CADA  UTILIZACIÓN DEL CASTELLANO. PROHIBICIÓN DE LAS DEMÁS LENGUAS. REFORMAS JUDICIALES  SE ESTABLECIÓ UN DERECHO COMÚN PARA TODO EL REINO.  SE MANTIENEN LAS REALES AUDIENCIAS
  40. 40. REFORMAS TERRITORIALES  ELIMINACIÓN DE LOS ANTIGUOS VIRREINATOS. SUSTITUCIÓN POR PROVI  AL FRENTE DE LAS PROVINCIAS: EL CAPITÁN GENERAL CON AMPLIOS PO  AL FRENTE DE LAS PRINCIPALES CIUDADES: EL CORREGIDOR.  CREACIÓN DEL INTENDENTE: RECAUDAR IMPUESTOS Y DINAMIZAR LA EC
  41. 41. OTRAS REFORMAS  MILITAR: EJÉRCITO PERMANENTE– EXTRANJEROS, LEVAS Y QUINTAS. CREACIÓN DE LA GUARDIA REAL.  HACIENDA: SISTEMA DE IMPUESTO ÚNICO, LIBERALIZACIÓN DEL COMERCIO REALES FÁBRICAS Y CONSTRUCCIÓN DE OBRAS PÚBLICAS.  IGLESIA: REGALISMO, CONCORDATO CON LA SANTA SEDE Y PATRONATO EXPULSIÓN DE LOS JESUITAS EN 1766
  42. 42. PRINCIPALES PROBLEMAS DE LA ILUSTRACIÓN ESPAÑOLA: -- ESCASA BURGUESÍA -- UNIVERSIDAD CONSERVADORA -- IGLESIA --NOBLEZA ILUSTRADOS ESPAÑOLES -- JOVELLANOS -- CAMPOMANES -- FLORIDABLANCA --ARANDA --FEIJOO PRINCIPALES OBJETIVOS EN ESPAÑA -- EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSAL, REESTRUCTURACIÓN, CREACIÓN DE ESCUELA --AGRICULTURA FISIOCRACIA Y LIBERALISMO ECONÓMICO.
  43. 43. DEFINICIÓN: INTENTO POR PARTE DE LAS MONARQUÍAS DEL SIGLO XVIII DE C ELEMENTOS DEL ANTIGUO RÉGIMEN CON OTROS DE LA ILUSTRACIÓN. “TODO PARA EL PUEBLO, PERO SIN EL PUEBLO”  PRINCIPAL REPRESENTANTE ESPAÑOL DEL DESPOTISMO  REY DE NÁPOLES: PRIMER CONTACTO CON LAS IDEAS ILUSTRADAS. -- MINISTROS ITALIANOS -- AUMENTO DEL PRECIO DEL PAN -- CAMBIOS ESTÉTICOS EN LA VESTIMENTA SOLUCIÓN: -- DESTITUCIÓN DE ESQUILACHE -- BAJADA DE PRECIOS DEL PAN
  44. 44. -- REGALISMO: AUTORIDAD DEL REY POR ENCIMA DE LA IG -- CONTROL DE LA INQUISICIÓN -- NOMBRAR ECLESIÁSTICOS Y FUNDAR MONASTERIOS -- EXPULSIÓN DE LOS JESUITAS EN 1766. -- SE MANTUVIERON LOS PRIVILEGIOS DE LA NOBLEZA. -- DECLARACIÓN HONROSA DE TODOS LOS TRABAJOS. -- OBLIGATORIEDAD DE LA EDUCACIÓN PRIMARIA. -- CREACIÓN DE ESCUELAS DE ARTES Y OFICIOS -- ACADEMIAS DE ARTES, LETRAS, CIENCIAS,ETC.
  45. 45. -- LIMITAR LOS PRIVILEGIOS DE LA MESTA -- REPOBLACIÓN DE SIERRA MORENA -- REPARTO DE TIERRAS COMUNALES -- OBRAS DE REGADÍO (CANALES Y PUERTOS) -- RECAUDACIÓN DE RENTAS -- LIBRE CIRCULACIÓN DE MERCANCIAS -- LIBERTAD COMERCIO COLONIAL (FIN DEL MONOPOLIO DE -- MEJORA DE LAS COMUNICACIONES (RED RADIAL DE CARR -- SUPRESIÓN DE ADUANAS. -- FIN DEL MONOPOLIO GREMIAL (SURGEN TALLERES PRIVA -- FÁBRICAS REALES Y TEXTILES -- CREACIÓN DEL BANCO DE SAN CARLOS

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