Circulation powerpoint


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This is a powerpoint for year 10/11 science students as a prelude to practical investigations.

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Circulation powerpoint

  1. 1. CIRCULATION<br />
  2. 2. Circulatory systems are the transportation highways of the animal body.<br />There are Open and Closed Circulatory Systems<br />
  3. 3. Open circulatory system<br />The open circulatory system is common to molluscs and arthropods. Open circulatory systems (evolved in crustaceans, insects, molluscs and other invertebrates) pump blood into a haemocoel with the blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells. Blood is pumped by a heart into the body cavities, where tissues are surrounded by the blood. <br />
  4. 4. Closed circulatory system<br />Vertebrates, and a few invertebrates, have a closed circulatory system. Closed circulatory systems have the blood closed at all times within vessels of different size and wall thickness. In this type of system, blood is pumped by a heart through vessels, and does not normally fill body cavities.<br />
  5. 5. A heart is a means to circulate blood through the body of an animal. Among the lower species such as insects, arachnids, and others, the heart may simply be an expanded area in a blood vessel and may occur a number of times.<br />The earthworm, for example, has 10 such "hearts." These areas contract rhythmically to force the blood through the aorta, or blood vessel.<br />Not until the evolution of the higher vertebrates does the heart achieve its ultimate form, that of a chambered organ with differentiated purposes. <br />
  6. 6. Practical activities to come..<br />Earthworm dissection<br />(Click here to see video)<br />Crayfish dissection<br />(click to see video)<br />
  7. 7. Human heart vs. Crayfish heart<br />The human heart has 4 separate chambers<br />The crustacean heart is a single-chambered sac made up of layers of muscular leaflets.<br />
  8. 8. Crayfish heart and circulation<br />The heart is suspended in the pericardial cavityby several suspensory ligaments under the dorsal carapace of the thorax. <br />The cardiac ganglionin the heart generates the heartbeat rhythm.<br />There are several arteries, but no vein. <br />Haemolymph (blood) in the pericardial cavity flow into the ventricle through valvular openings called Ostia. <br />The haemolymph is then pumped out through the arteries. <br />There are also valvular muscles between the ventricle and the arteries, the cardio-arterial valves. <br />
  9. 9. The heart as a pump<br />In order for the heart to work as a pump, the intake valves (Ostia) must be closed and the outlet valves (cardio-arterial valves) opened during systole, and vice versa during diastole <br />The cardio-arterial valves and the Ostia in the crayfish heart seem to work like the air pump for an air bed is a good example for the use of the passive valves. In the air pump,  simple flaps work as the valves, and the pressure change in the pump makes them open and close. <br />
  10. 10. Human Heart and circulation<br />Mammals have a four-chambered heart consisting of two atria and two ventricles; the right and left sides are completely separate from each other so there is no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.<br />Oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins enters the heart through the left atrium, passes to the left ventricle, and leaves the heart through the aorta.<br />Deoxygenated blood from the vena cava enters the right atrium and is pumped through the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery, which conveys it to the lungs for oxygenation. <br />The tricuspid and bicuspid valves ensure that there is no backflow of blood. <br />The contractions of the heart are initiated and controlled by the sinoatrial node ; an average adult human heart contracts about 70 times per minute.<br />
  11. 11. Circulation<br />
  12. 12. Circulatory systems of an insect<br />Structure of an artery.<br />Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates ( and WH Freeman (, used with permission.<br />
  13. 13. Activity<br />Describe the following terms:<br />Molluscs<br />Haemocoel <br />Vertebrates<br />Invertebrates<br />Blood<br />Species<br />Arachnids<br />Evolution<br />Organ<br />Chordates<br />Amphioxus<br />Ventricle<br />Pericardial cavity<br />Cardiac ganglion<br />Ostia<br />Cardio-arterial<br />Valves <br /> <br />
  14. 14. References<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates ( and WH Freeman (, used with permission.<br /><br /><br /><br />Songs: Black Eyed Peas - Don't Funk With My Heart.mp3<br />Billy Ray Cyrus - Achy Breaky Heart.mp3<br />School House Rocks - Do The Circulation.mp3<br />Black Eyed Peas - Pump It.mp3<br />