Training and development practices in india since the past 30 years


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Training and development practices in india since the past 30 years

  1. 1. Training and Development Practices in Different Industries in India since the past 30 years<br />Presented By:<br />AanchalAggarwal<br />MBA HR-3<br />Roll No. 1<br />
  2. 2. Give an overview of the concept of training and development<br />Discuss the evolution of Training and development<br />Brief explanation of the various training and development practices in short<br />Examples pertaining to each sector in the Indian industry with regards to their training and development practices each with respect to 1980’s, 1990’s, 2000’s<br />Initiate a management game on team building called stock market simulation<br />AGENDA:<br />
  3. 3. To help create an understanding of how training and development evolved in India<br />Overall the workshop aims at helping the audience in understanding the concept and seeing the transformation with regards to training and development in different sectors in the Indian Industry.<br />To help strengthen team building by way of a management game. <br />Objective<br />
  4. 4. Till the sixties training activity in most of the Indian Organizations was totally absent or partly present in a rudimentary form<br />However in the seventies Indian Organizations started becoming aware of the need for development of managers for better management of industries<br />Therefore Executive development programs came up in few educational institutes such as:<br />Evolution of Training<br />
  5. 5. Administrative Staff College of India<br />IIM’s<br />TISCO started own training centers and hired outside faculty<br />Four decades ago the concept of Training within industry by ILO came up.<br />Training Workshop Initiative programs were basically on the job training to the workers<br />
  6. 6. This program was also not successful as it was enforced by the government and was not at the wish of the employees<br />The workers training was limited to on the job training for better productivity and production<br />
  7. 7. It is only after Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s stress on Human resource Development that training took a front seat in the economy<br />A separate HRD ministry was set up in 1985<br />No doubt the need for training was realized by different organizations however they concentrated mainly on management development rather than worker development<br />
  8. 8. Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills.<br />Traditional Training Methods Categories<br />
  9. 9. Presentation methods -methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information<br />This information may include:<br />Facts or information<br />Processes<br />Problem – solving methods<br />Presentation methods include:<br />Lectures<br />Audio-visual techniques<br />Presentation Methods<br />
  10. 10. Lecture involves the trainer communicating through spoken words what he/she wants the trainees to learn<br />It is often used because it is one of the least expensive, least time-consuming ways to present a large amount of information efficiently in an organized manner<br />Presentation Methods:<br />
  11. 11. Variations of the Lecture Method<br />Standard Lecture<br />Student Presentations<br />Team Teaching<br />Panels<br />Guest Speakers<br />
  12. 12. Audio-visual instruction includes:<br />slides<br />Video<br />It has been used for improving:<br />Communication skills<br />Interviewing skills<br />Customer-service skills<br />Illustrating how procedures should be followed<br />Presentation Methods:Audio-Visual Techniques<br />
  13. 13. Training methods that require the trainee to be actively involved in learning<br />These methods include:<br />Hands on Methods:<br />
  14. 14. On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior<br />OJT includes:<br />Apprenticeships<br />Self-directed learning programs<br />On-the-Job Training:<br />
  15. 15. Employees take responsibility for all aspects of learning:<br />when it is conducted<br />who will be involved<br />Trainees themselves design training content at their own pace without an instructor<br />Trainers are available to evaluate learning or answer questions for the trainee<br />On the Job- Self Directed Learning:<br />
  16. 16. A formal occupational training program which combines on-the-job training and related instruction and in which workers learn the practical and conceptual skills required for a skilled occupation, craft, or trade<br />Can be sponsored by companies or unions<br />Most programs involve skilled trades<br />OJT Programs: Apprenticeship<br />
  17. 17. Replicates a real-life situation<br />It is an attempt to create a realistic decision making environment for the trainee.<br />Used to teach:<br />Production and process skills<br />Management and interpersonal skills<br />Hands-on Methods: Simulations<br />
  18. 18. Description about how employees or an organization dealt with a difficult situation<br />Trainees are required to:<br />analyze and critique actions taken<br />indicate the appropriate actions<br />suggest what might have been done differently<br />Major assumption is that employees are most likely to recall and use knowledge and skills learned through a process of discovery<br />Hand-on Methods: Case Studies<br />
  19. 19. Require trainees to gather information, analyze it, and make decisions with the help of some game<br />Primarily used for management skill development<br />Games mimic the competitive nature of business<br />Hand-on Methods: Business Games<br />
  20. 20. Trainees act out characters assigned to them<br />Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees<br />Focus on interpersonal responses<br />Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees<br />The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity<br />Hands-on Methods: Role Plays<br />
  21. 21. Involves presenting trainees with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate<br />Provides trainees opportunity to practice the key behaviors<br />Based on the principles of learning through observation (social learning theory)<br />Effective for teaching interpersonal and computer skills<br />Hands-on Methods: Behavior Modeling<br />
  22. 22. Group building methods - training methods designed to improve team or group effectiveness<br />Training directed at improving trainees’ skills as well as team effectiveness<br />Group building methods involve trainees:<br />sharing ideas and experiences<br />building group identity<br />understanding interpersonal dynamics<br />learning their strengths and weaknesses and of their co-workers<br />Group Building Methods<br />
  23. 23. Group techniques focus on helping teams increase their skills for effective teamwork<br />Group building methods often involve experiential learning<br />Group building methods include:<br />Adventure Learning<br />Team Training<br />Action Learning<br />Group Building Methods <br />
  24. 24. Focuses on the development of teamwork and leadership skills using structured outdoor activities<br />Also known as wilderness training and outdoor training<br />Best suited for developing skills related to group effectiveness such as:<br />self-awareness<br />problem solving<br />conflict management<br />risk taking<br />Group Building Methods:Adventure Learning<br />
  25. 25. Involves coordinating the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal<br />Teams that are effectively trained develop procedures to identify and resolve errors, coordinate information gathering, and reinforce each other<br />Group Building Methods: Team Training<br />
  26. 26. Involves giving teams or work groups:<br />an actual problem,<br />having them work on solving it,<br />committing to an action plan, and<br />holding them accountable for carrying out the plan<br />Group Building Methods: Action Learning<br />
  27. 27. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow.<br />Management Development Programs:<br />
  28. 28. Training in the industry was done on ad hoc basis<br />There was no systematic approach for training<br />Long term and short term objectives were not defined<br />There was no survey of training needs<br />Training was basically considered as deviation from busy work life- as a relaxation program<br />In 1980’s-1990’s<br />
  29. 29. Training were conducted basically for statistical purposes.<br />Training was basically done with regards to specific technical skills<br />Management programs were not given due importance<br />
  30. 30. Hindustan Zinc Limited: Large public sector organization which was involved in Zinc and lead, Mining and Smelting.<br />Training and development was very important for them as:<br />In 1980’s- Mining Sector<br />
  31. 31. Percentage wise analysis of mix of training techniques at HZL:<br />Source: HRD in a changing Environment By YK Bhushan<br />
  32. 32. Source: HRD in a changing Environment By YK Bhushan<br />
  33. 33. ELECTRONICS SECTOR<br />
  34. 34. Training Facilities at Voltas Limited And Seimens India, Bombay 1980’s<br />Both are competitors in the field of manufacturing switch gears, switch boards, AC’S, Refrigerators etc.<br />The training in this kind of industry at that time was basically Apprenticeship training given under Apprenticeship Act 1961.<br />The various training programs given were:<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Apart from this various amenities such as<br />Free transportation from station to work<br />Subsidized breakfast and lunches<br />Subsidies<br />Free tea<br />Library and sports facilities<br />Medical facilities<br />Uniforms<br />The above were provided in order to motivate the trainee to be a part of the program<br />
  37. 37. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY<br />
  38. 38. Training facilities at Rashtriya Chemical and Fertilizers ltd. Bombay<br />Total employees 4000<br />1200 working in Managerial and supervisory category<br />Non management employees: 90 percent are engaged in skilled jobs<br />
  39. 39. Training Provided:<br />
  40. 40. Modular Approach to Cross functional Training:<br />
  41. 41. In mid 1980’s and early 1990’s there was a boom for adventure based training<br />excitement of a zip line and thrill of rappelling stimulated many possibilities for learning<br />Some Generalized conclusions:<br />
  42. 42. Problem Diagnosis Algorithm:<br />Source: HRD through In- house training by PL RAO<br />
  43. 43. In 1980’s training initiatives of Motorola were phenomenal<br />They set up a Motorola Education and Training center which later on became a university in 1989<br />Motorola's success was based on strong foundations of corporate wide learning practices<br />In recognition of these development practices American society for Training and Development named Motorola the top training company.<br />Motorola- Telecom Sector<br />
  44. 44. Companies have realized that fostering a sense of belonging among employees, right from the time of induction, pays in the long run<br />National Fertilizers have training programs even for wives on holidays where company practices and culture are discussed<br />By this it was found that absenteeism reduced considerably<br />Innovations in training<br />
  45. 45. There are trainers who use bhajans and kirtans to convey productivity concepts in a simple manner, in a folk song style. It is novel and an enjoyable method.<br />
  47. 47. 1995: TQM Workshops to inculcate positive work culture introduced.<br />1997: 5000 employees were put through three day workshop as part of visioning session.<br />2000: Parivartan launched with an objective of motivating and imparting knowledge of sales function.<br />2001: EVA introduced, 500 people were involved to help them make decisions pertaining to investments, trade offs etc.<br />Initiatives such as Entrepreneurs Boards, Red and blue teams, Mentoring and reverse mentoring were introduced<br />Training and development at Godrej in late1990’s<br />
  48. 48. In 2002: <br />need for a performance driven culture felt so program called Gallop introduced( Godrej Accelerated learning Leadership Orientation Programme)<br />GIL introduced Spark, training for managers to help them become effective coaches<br />End of 2002: E-gyan introduced to increase learning potential of employees.<br />January 2003: Special Hr programme for developing interpersonal and negotiation skills introduced<br />2003: English language training for floor workers introduced<br />
  49. 49. Coca Cola in the early 1990’s developed a program called “ Maintaining Competitive Advantage” which was a management development program<br />This was basically initiated so as to help in providing skilled managers to the company so as to have a competitive edge over other competitors<br />They aligned the program with their corporate strategy<br />Coca Cola: FMCG SECTOR <br />
  50. 50. The same strategy as followed by Coca Cola was also followed by AT&T<br />Management Development Program called “ Maintaining Competitive Advantage” was developed<br />AT& T: Telecom Sector<br />
  51. 51. Mahindra and Mahindra:<br />In 2000’s – Manufacturing sector<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. Pharmaceutical Sector<br />
  54. 54. Trainings may be broadly classified into:<br />Training at Ranbaxy: (in 2000’s)<br />
  55. 55. There may be training which is online or instructor led training.<br />Ranbaxy has a set training calendar containing details of who is to take training, when is it to be carried out and who would be doing it.<br />Earlier all this was done manually, now in the changing era with so much importance to training and development.<br />They have an online tracking system called learning management system in place.<br />
  56. 56. Vestibule training is conducted which is same for workers as well as supervisors.<br />However if we talk about imparting behavioral training then this is done through:<br />Lectures<br />Business Games<br />In basket exercises<br />Training aids used include power point presentations, videos, demonstration equipment, evaluation techniques etc.<br />After the training is over feedback forms are also filled suggesting whether the training was successful or not..<br />
  57. 57. Information Technology Sector<br />
  58. 58. Training and development at IBM:<br />
  59. 59. All managers at IBM use face to face instruction technology.<br />The program is an expert system that provides a customized portfolio for each manager.<br />The expert system guides managers through pre-work that has to be completed prior to attending learning labs.<br />Learning is reinforced through the use of knowledge management system.<br />
  60. 60. Accenture: gives in 80 percent more training hours than their competitors<br />12 million hours in educating people<br />Spends 800 USD in training and development<br />Have a global learning portal called My learning offers which has over 20000 online courses<br />Vast online library , the knowledge exchange.<br />Accenture: <br />
  61. 61. LODGING INDUSTRY<br />
  62. 62. In 2002: Marriot International, a widely recognized name in the lodging industry.<br />It was proposed then that Marriot in the next 5 years would be hiring million employees.<br />A training transformation team was struck to study the problem and find a solution.<br />A front desk quest was initiated<br />The trainee on an online system is presented with a series of training modules where simulation takes place.<br />The trainee assumes active roles in different situations hypothetically giving it’s response to each of the situations.<br />Then correct or incorrect decisions are evaluated.<br />
  63. 63. Global giants like Motorola and Ford Motor today are using concepts of virtual training. They have self paced computer based training through firm’s intranet.<br />
  64. 64. In today’s global market training is becoming imperative 24/7/365 affair, cutting across geographies and time restrictions<br />The changing areas of training and development today:<br />
  65. 65. Basically a computerized process for assessment of productivity and work climate profiles of all organizations<br />A 400 statement questionnaire given to supervisors and 3 hours for answering those questions are given<br />The Results are then compared with National Average in 11 different countries<br />Supervisors Skills Level:<br />
  66. 66. Competency based training.:<br />Preparation of modules for instruction<br />
  67. 67. Blake and Mouton Grid<br />
  68. 68. HRD through In- house training by PL RAO.<br />Enriching human capital through training and development by PL Rao<br />Effective training by P. Nick Blanchard & James W. Thacker.<br />HRD in a changing Environment By YK Bhushan<br />Employee training and development by Raymond A Noe<br />References:<br />