Mathematical thinking ~ Kinder network

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Connect with Maths Early Years Learning in Mathematics is an online community to support the teaching and learning of mathetmatics Birth to 8 years old. This presentation by Louise Hodgson, a mathematics specialist addresses counting principles in early years learning.

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  • Builds on early years learning framework
  • What’s intentional here?
  • Critical in ece and connected and need to be taught concurrently
  • 3. Statement is abstractTrs need to make a conscious effort to use “less than” as much as more thanequivalence
  • googolplex to be "one, followed by writing zeroes until you get tired”Names of large numbers in wkipedia
  • Mathematical thinking ~ Kinder network

    1. 1. Early mathematical thinking Louise Hodgson 2013
    2. 2. How many cups would you need to make a triangle building with four levels?
    3. 3. Allow free exploration with the cups for two weeks before posing the problem
    4. 4. Instead of limiting instruction to counting skills or writing numerals throughout the early years, allow youngsters multiple ways to represent quantity.
    5. 5. Overview 1. Sources and observations 2. Early mathematical ideas and processes 3. The role of the early childhood educator 1. Learning opportunities for numeracy play spaces
    6. 6. 2. Sources and observations
    7. 7. Belonging, Being & Becoming Early Years Learning Framework Mathematics development Perspectives from early childhood educators beginning and experienced Recent research findings
    8. 8. Common misconceptions Young children are not ready for mathematics education. Mathematics is for some bright kids with mathematics genes. Simple numbers and shapes are enough. Language and literacy are more important than mathematics. Teachers should provide an enriched physical environment, step back, and let the children play.
    9. 9. Common misconceptions Mathematics should not be taught as stand-alone subject matter. Assessment in mathematics is irrelevant when it comes to young children. Children learn mathematics only by interacting with concrete objects. Computers are inappropriate for the teaching and learning of mathematics. http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/early_childhood_teachers _misconceptions_about_mathematics_education_for_young_children_in_the_united_states.html
    10. 10. Intentional teaching and the Early Years Learning Framework About ‗intentional teaching‘ •Intentional teaching is one of the 8 key pedagogical practices described in the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF). •The EYLF defines intentional teaching as ‗educators being deliberate purposeful and thoughtful in their decisions and actions‘. Intentional teaching is thoughtful, informed and deliberate.
    11. 11. Intentional teaching and the Early Years Learning Framework Intentional educators: •create a learning environment that is rich in materials and interactions •create opportunities for inquiry •model thinking and problem solving, and challenge children's existing ideas about how things work.
    12. 12. Intentional teaching and the Early Years Learning Framework Intentional educators: •know the content—concepts, vocabulary, skills and processes—and the teaching strategies that support important early learning in mathematics •carefully observe children so that they can thoughtfully plan for children‘s next-stage learning and emerging abilities •take advantage of spontaneous, unexpected teaching and learning opportunities.
    13. 13. Numeracy or Mathematics? ―Numeracy is the capacity, confidence and disposition to use mathematics I daily life‖ EYLF, 2009 p.38
    14. 14. ―Outcome 4: Children are confident and involved learners. Children develop dispositions for learning such as curiosity, cooperation, confidence, creativity, commitment, enthusiasm, persistence, imagination and reflexivity. Children develop a range of skills and processes such as problem solving, inquiry, experimentation, hypothesising, researching and investigating‖. (EYLF, 2009)
    15. 15. Disposition of children Encourage young children to see themselves as mathematicians by stimulating their interest and ability in problem solving and investigation through relevant, challenging, sustained and supported activities (AAMT and ECA 2006)
    16. 16. Low mathematical skills in the earliest years are associated with a slower growth rate – children without adequate experiences in mathematics start behind and lose ground every year thereafter. (Clements and Sarama, 2009, p. 263) Interventions must start in pre K and Kindergarten (Gersten et al 2005). Without such interventions, children in special need are often relegated to a path of failure (Baroody, 1999)
    17. 17. 2. Early mathematical ideas
    18. 18. Outcome 5: Children are effective communicators. Spatial sense, structure and pattern, number, measurement, data, argumentation, connections and exploring the world mathematically are the powerful mathematical ideas children need to become numerate. (EYLF, 2009 p38) Research…. Perry, Dockett & Harley (2007) - powerful ideas and professional development
    19. 19. Critical concepts underpinning number understanding. Counting Subitising More – less Part part whole
    20. 20. Children who understand number relationships develop multiple ways to represent them.
    21. 21. Interpreting quantity three Number word 3 Symbol
    22. 22. Principles of Counting • Each object to be counted must be touched or „included‟ exactly once as the numbers are said. • The numbers must be said once and always in the conventional order. • The objects can be touched in any order and the starting point and order in which the objects are counted doesn‟t affect how many there are. • The arrangement of the objects doesn‟t affect how many there are. • The last number said tells „how many‟ in the whole collection, it does not describe the last object touched.
    23. 23. Principles of Counting • Which of the principles of counting does Charlotte understand?
    24. 24. Principles of Counting • Each object to be counted must be touched or „included‟ exactly once as the numbers are said. • The numbers must be said once and always in the conventional order. • The objects can be touched in any order and the starting point and order in which the objects are counted doesn‟t affect how many there are. • The arrangement of the objects doesn‟t affect how many there are. • The last number said tells „how many‟ in the whole collection, it does not describe the last object touched.
    25. 25. Intentional opportunities for counting • Model counting experiences in meaningful contexts, for example, counting girls, boys as they arrive at school, counting out pencils at the art table. • Involving all children in acting out finger plays and rhymes and reading literature, which models the conventional counting order. • Seize upon teachable moments as they arise incidentally. “Do we have enough pairs of scissors for everyone at this table?”
    26. 26. Seize teachable moments as they occur
    27. 27. Ten frames
    28. 28. Pick up chips : • Take a card from the pile and pick up a corresponding number of counters. • Play until all the cards have been taken. • The winner is the person with the most chips at the end of the game.
    29. 29. Estimating Round about what would this number be ? 1 10
    30. 30. Guess my number : • The leader thinks of a secret number. The children may assist the teacher in drawing a line on the white board to indicate the range in which the secret number lies. The leader asks the group to try and guess the secret number. The group asks questions of the leader to try and ascertain the number. The leader may only answer yes or no to the questions. (A process of elimination)
    31. 31. Sandwich boards Ask students why they lined up the way they did. • Add string to numeral cards so they can be hung around the students necks. Provide each student with a numeral card. Students move around the room to music. Once the music stops, the children arrange themselves into a line in a correct forward or backward number sequence.
    32. 32. Understanding is encouraged through sharing our thinking. Talk is vital in building understanding. Listening to each other facilitates learning. It makes us think.
    33. 33. More-less relationships More-less relationships are not easy for young children. Which group has more? How many more?
    34. 34. More – less relationships • How many? • What is two more? • One less?
    35. 35. More-less relationships Four-year-olds may be able to judge which of two collections has more, but determining how many more (or less) is challenging, even when they count.
    36. 36. More-less relationships • Young children must arrive at the important insight that a quantity (the less) must be contained inside the other (the more) instead of viewing both quantities as mutually exclusive. The concept requires them to think of the difference between the two quantities as a third quantity, which is the notion of parts-whole.
    37. 37. Stages in comparison 1. There are more blue than red and there are less red than blue 2. There are seven more blue than red and seven less red 3. Ten is seven more than three and three is seven less than ten © Catholic Education Office Tasmania 2012
    38. 38. Whilst students need many counting experiences, teaching should also emphasise equally decomposing or partitioning collections into parts.
    39. 39. Subitising (suddenly recognising) • Seeing how many at a glance is called subitising. • Attaching the number names to amounts that can be seen.
    40. 40. Subitising (suddenly recognising) • Promotes the part part whole relationship. • Plays a critical role in the acquisition of the concept of cardinality. • Children need both subitising and counting to see that both methods give the same result.
    41. 41. 10 bead string • They enable children to subitise up to five and learn the number combinations which make ten.
    42. 42. Peek and say : • Have a different number of containers with different numbers of objects under each. Ask the children to find the container with 2,5,3… objects. • Take a number ticket and try to find the container hiding the matching number of objects.
    43. 43. Speedy dominoes: • Share the domino pieces. Play the game in the same way as regular dominoes, except in this game there is no turn taking. • As soon as players see the opportunity to place a domino in the game, they may do so. The winner is the first player to correctly place all the dominoes.
    44. 44. Part whole relationships Partitioning numbers into part-partwhole forms the basis for children coming to understand the meaning of addition and subtraction.
    45. 45. Parts – whole relationships • The parts – whole relationship refers to the notion that you can break up (partition) a quantity and move bits from one group to another without changing the overall quantity. (e.g. 5 can be thought of as 3 and 2 or 1 and 4 etc)
    46. 46. A ten frame is effective in teaching parts /whole relationships, as in this example of combinations that total six.
    47. 47. For a true understanding of number relationships, Teachers must encourage young children to work with quantity in a variety of situations using different math manipulatives over an extended period of time.
    48. 48. Mathematical concepts do not inherently lie in manipulatives. Children must construct the understanding.
    49. 49. 3. The role of the Early childhood educator
    50. 50. Role of the educator Planning and resourcing challenging learning environments. Supporting children‘s learning through planned play activity. Extending and supporting children‘s spontaneous play. Extending and developing children‘s language and communication through play.
    51. 51. Role of the educator Model mathematical language. Ask challenging questions. Build on children‘s interests and natural curiosity. Provide meaningful experiences. Scaffold opportunities for learning & model strategies. Monitor children‘s progress and plan for learning.
    52. 52. Assessment methods Collect data by observation and or/listening to children, taking notes as appropriate Use a variety of assessment methods Modify planning as a result of assessment
    53. 53. Effective teachers are inclusive of all learners
    54. 54. 4. Learning opportunities for numeracy - play spaces
    55. 55. Play spaces Outdoors (climbing, tunnels, tents, riding, construction, sand & water, gardening, dance and gymnastics) Puzzles (spatial puzzles, number games, sorting) ICT (computer games, creative graphics software, programmable toys, digital cameras, calculators, interactive whiteboard
    56. 56. Bobby Bear NCTM Illuminations
    57. 57. Calculator counting Calculator counting contributes to a better grasp of large numbers, thereby helping to develop students number sense. ―It is a machine to engage children in thinking about mathematics‖ (Swan and Sparrow 2005)
    58. 58. Cultivate an interest in number ―Is googolplex a number? Can you make the calculator count until it gets to googolplex? What other big numbers are there?‖ Harry aged 5
    59. 59. Play spaces Role play (home, shop, dressup, puppets) Construction (blocks, tracks, linking materials) Display area (peg line, pinboards, magnet board) Play trays (sand, water, multiple objects e.g. buttons, pasta, shells, leaves) Mini-worlds (story/drama, cloth or sand tray environments, small toy animals, people, vehicles
    60. 60. Play spaces Modelling & painting Graphics (drawing, writing, recording, shapes) Reading and listening areas (story-telling, picture books, rhymes, songs, CDs, music & percussion
    61. 61. Charlotte aged 3
    62. 62. • (2010) • SAGE Books UK • Distributed in Australia by • Footprint Books
    63. 63. References AAMT & ECA. (2006). Position paper on Early Childhood Mathematics. www.aamt.edu.au www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au DEEWR. (2009). Belonging, Being & Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. http://www.deewr.gov.au/earlychildhood/policy_agenda/quality/pages/earlyyearslearningf ramework.aspx Papic, M. & Mulligan, J. (2007). The Growth of Early Mathematical Patterning: An Intervention Study. In J. Perry, B, Dockett, S, Harley, E. (2007) Preschool Educators‟ Sustained Professional Development in Young Children‟s Mathematics Learning. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development Special Issue 2007, Vol. 8, 117–134. Available at: http://www.merga.net.au/documents/MTED_8_Perry.pdf Tucker, K. (2010) (2nd. Ed.). Mathematics through play in the early years. London: Sage. Hunting, R. et al. Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice. Report & video clips at: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/earlymaths/resources.html

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