Trade mark


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Trade mark

  1. 1. TRADE MARK By: Aamrapali, Nayanika, Nirja
  2. 2. What is a Trademark?  A recognizable sign, design or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others. The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher or on the product itself.
  3. 3. What can be Trademarked?  Words
  4. 4.  Letters
  5. 5.  Numerals
  6. 6.  Drawings and Shapes
  7. 7.  Colours
  8. 8.  Audible sounds  Universal Studios Intro Music   Windows 7 Start up audio 
  9. 9. Other Trademark Examples
  10. 10. Exceptions  An increasing number of countries also allow for the registration of less traditional forms of trademarks such as single colours, three-dimensional signs (shapes of products or packaging), audible signs (sounds) or olfactory signs (smells).  However, many countries have set limits on what can be registered as a trademark, generally only allowing for signs that are visually perceptible or can be represented graphically.
  11. 11.  Three-dimensional mark (shape of product)
  12. 12. Why Trademark?  Trademarks are used to claim exclusive properties of products or services. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher or on the product itself. The usage of trademarks by its owner can cause legal issues if this usage makes him guilty of false advertising or if the trademark is offensive. Trademarks can be owned, but also licenced. Licences can be bought from trademark owners and brokers such as United Labels.  The term trademark is also used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is readily identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities. When a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark, particularly in the United States.
  13. 13. Many suppliers of toys are licensees. Examples:  Bullyland obtained a licence to produce Smurf figurines.  The Lego Group purchased a licence from Lucasfilm in order to be allowed to launch Lego Star Wars.  TT Toys Toys is a manufacturer of licenced ride-on replica cars for children.
  14. 14.  The unauthorised usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy.  The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action. The United States, Canada and other countries also recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still common law trademarks offer the holder in general less legal protection than registered trademarks.
  15. 15.  A trademark may be designated by the following symbols:  ™ (the "trademark symbol", which is the letters "TM", for an unregistered trademark, a mark used to promote or brand goods)  ℠ (which is the letters "SM" in superscript, for an unregistered service mark, a mark used to promote or brand services)  ® (the letter "R" surrounded by a circle, for a registered trademark)  Certification marks: Marks used to distinguish goods or services that comply with a set of standards and have been certified by a certifying authority.